ABSTRACT: Pathophysiological changes that occur during ischemia and subsequent reperfusion cause damage to tissues procured for transplantation and also affect long-term allograft function and survival. The proper preservation of organs before transplantation is a must to limit these injuries as much as possible. For decades, static cold storage has been the gold standard for organ preservation, with mechanical perfusion developing as a promising alternative only recently. The current literature points to the need of developing dedicated preservation protocols for every organ, which in combination with other interventions such as ischemic preconditioning and therapeutic additives offer the possibility of improving organ preservation and extending it to multiple times its current duration. This review strives to present an overview of the current body of knowledge with regard to the preservation of organs and tissues destined for transplantation.
Project description:The inability to preserve vascular organs beyond several hours contributes to the scarcity of organs for transplantation1,2. Standard hypothermic preservation at +4?°C (refs. 1,3) limits liver preservation to less than 12?h. Our group previously showed that supercooled ice-free storage at -6?°C can extend viable preservation of rat livers4,5 However, scaling supercooling preservation to human organs is intrinsically limited because of volume-dependent stochastic ice formation. Here, we describe an improved supercooling protocol that averts freezing of human livers by minimizing favorable sites of ice nucleation and homogeneous preconditioning with protective agents during machine perfusion. We show that human livers can be stored at -4?°C with supercooling followed by subnormothermic machine perfusion, effectively extending the ex vivo life of the organ by 27?h. We show that viability of livers before and after supercooling is unchanged, and that after supercooling livers can withstand the stress of simulated transplantation by ex vivo normothermic reperfusion with blood.
Project description:In the past, a diagnosis of organ failure would essentially be a death sentence for patients. With improved techniques for organ procurement and surgical procedures, transplantations to treat organ failure have become standard medical practice. However, while the demand for organs has skyrocketed, the donor pool has not kept pace leading to long recipient waiting lists. Organ preservation provides a means to increase the number of available transplantable organs. However, there are significant drawbacks associated with cold storage, the current gold standard. To address the short-comings due to diffusional limitations, engineers have developed cold perfusion systems. More recently, there has been a significant trend towards the development of near-normothermic systems to enhance the functional preservation of solid organs including livers, lungs, hearts, kidneys, and vascularized composite allotransplants. Here we review recent advances in the development of perfusion systems for the preservation of solid organs. We provide a brief history of organ transplantation, the limitations of existing systems, and describe research being done to develop commercially available perfusion systems to enhance organ preservation.
Project description:Organ transplantation is undergoing profound changes. Contraindications for donation have been revised in order to better meet the organ demand. The use of lower-quality organs and organs with greater preoperative damage, including those from donation after cardiac death (DCD), has become an established routine but increases the risk of graft malfunction. This risk is further aggravated by ischemia and reperfusion injury (IRI) in the process of transplantation. These circumstances demand a preservation technology that ameliorates IRI and allows for assessment of viability and function prior to transplantation. Oxygenated hypothermic and normothermic machine perfusion (MP) have emerged as valid novel modalities for advanced organ preservation and conditioning. Ex vivo prolonged lung preservation has resulted in successful transplantation of high-risk donor lungs. Normothermic MP of hearts and livers has displayed safe (heart) and superior (liver) preservation in randomized controlled trials (RCT). Normothermic kidney preservation for 24 h was recently established. Early clinical outcomes beyond the market entry trials indicate bioenergetics reconditioning, improved preservation of structures subject to IRI, and significant prolongation of the preservation time. The monitoring of perfusion parameters, the biochemical investigation of preservation fluids, and the assessment of tissue viability and bioenergetics function now offer a comprehensive assessment of organ quality and function ex situ. Gene and protein expression profiling, investigation of passenger leukocytes, and advanced imaging may further enhance the understanding of the condition of an organ during MP. In addition, MP offers a platform for organ reconditioning and regeneration and hence catalyzes the clinical realization of tissue engineering. Organ modification may include immunological modification and the generation of chimeric organs. While these ideas are not conceptually new, MP now offers a platform for clinical realization. Defatting of steatotic livers, modulation of inflammation during preservation in lungs, vasodilatation of livers, and hepatitis C elimination have been successfully demonstrated in experimental and clinical trials. Targeted treatment of lesions and surgical treatment or graft modification have been attempted. In this review, we address the current state of MP and advanced organ monitoring and speculate about logical future steps and how this evolution of a novel technology can result in a medial revolution.
Project description:Donor organ scarcity remains a significant clinical challenge in transplantation. Older organs, increasingly utilized to meet the growing demand for donor organs, have been linked to inferior transplant outcomes. Susceptibility to organ injury, reduced repair capacity, and increased immunogenicity are interrelated and impacted by physiological and pathological aging processes. Insights into the underlying mechanisms are needed to develop age-specific interventional strategies with regards to organ preservation, immunosuppression, and allocation. In this overview, we summarize current knowledge of injury and repair mechanisms and the effects of aging relevant to transplantation.
Project description:One of the main issues in kidney transplantation is the optimal functional preservation of the organ until its transplantation into the appropriate recipient. Despite intensive efforts, the functional preservation period remains limited to hours. During this time, as a result of cellular injury, various proteins, peptides, and other molecules are released by the organ into the preservation medium. In this study, we used proteomic techniques to analyze the protein profiles of preservation solutions in which organs had been preserved prior to their transplantation. Samples were obtained from the preservation solutions of 25 deceased donor kidneys scheduled for transplantation. The protein profiles of the solutions were analyzed using 2D gel electrophoresis/MALDI-TOF and LC-MS/MS. We identified and quantified 206 proteins and peptides belonging to 139 different groups. Of these, 111 proteins groups were belonging to kidney tissues. This study used proteomic techniques to analyze the protein profiles of organ preservation solutions. These findings will contribute to the development of improved preservation solutions to effectively protect organs for transplantation.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Simultaneous pancreas kidney transplantation (SPK), pancreas transplantation alone (PTA) or pancreas transplantation after kidney (PAK) are the only curative treatment options for patients with type 1 (juvenile) diabetes mellitus with or without impaired renal function. Unfortunately, transplant waiting lists for this indication are increasing because the current organ acceptability criteria are restrictive; morbidity and mortality significantly increase with time on the waitlist. Currently, only pancreas organs from donors younger than 50 years of age and with a body mass index (BMI) less than 30 are allocated for transplantation in the Eurotransplant (ET) area. To address this issue we designed a study to increase the available donor pool for these patients. METHODS/DESIGN:This study is a prospective, multicenter (20 German centers), single blinded, non-randomized, two armed trial comparing outcome after SPK, PTA or PAK between organs with the currently allowed donor criteria versus selected organs from donors with extended criteria. Extended donor criteria are defined as organs procured from donors with a BMI of 30 to 34 or a donor age between 50 and 60 years. Immunosuppression is generally standardized using induction therapy with Myfortic, tacrolimus and low dose steroids. In principle, all patients on the waitlist for primary SPK, PTA or PAK are eligible for the clinical trial when they consent to possibly receiving an extended donor criteria organ. Patients receiving an organ meeting the current standard criteria for pancreas allocation (control arm) are compared to those receiving extended criteria organ (study arm); patients are blinded for a follow-up period of one year. The combined primary endpoint is survival of the pancreas allograft and pancreas allograft function after three months, as an early relevant outcome parameter for pancreas transplantation. DISCUSSION:The EXPAND Study has been initiated to investigate the hypothesis that locally allocated extended criteria organs can be transplanted with similar results compared to the currently allowed standard ET organ allocation. If our study shows a favorable comparison to standard organ allocation criteria, the morbidity and mortality for patients waiting for transplantation could be reduced in the future. TRIAL REGISTRATION:Trial registered at: NCT01384006.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:To analyse a potential association between surgical quality and time of day. DESIGN:A retrospective analysis of complete sets of quality forms filled out by the procuring and accepting surgeon on organs from deceased donors. SETTING:Procurement procedures in the Netherlands are organised per region. All procedures are performed by an independent, dedicated procurement team that is associated with an academic medical centre in the region. PARTICIPANTS:In 18 months' time, 771 organs were accepted and procured in The Netherlands. Of these, 17 organs were declined before transport and therefore excluded. For the remaining 754 organs, 591 (78%) sets of forms were completed (procurement and transplantation). Baseline characteristics were comparable in both daytime and evening/night-time with the exception of height (p=0.003). PRIMARY OUTCOME MEASURE:All complete sets of quality forms were retrospectively analysed for the primary outcome, procurement-related surgical injury. Organs were categorised based on the starting time of the procurement in either daytime (8:00-17:00) or evening/night-time (17:00-8:00). RESULTS:Out of 591 procured organs, 129 organs (22%) were procured during daytime and 462 organs (78%) during evening/night-time. The incidence of surgical injury was significantly lower during daytime; 22 organs (17%) compared with 126 organs (27%) procured during evening/night-time (p=0.016). This association persists when adjusted for confounders. CONCLUSIONS:This study shows an increased incidence of procurement-related surgical injury in evening/night-time procedures as compared with daytime. Time of day might (in)directly influence surgical performance and should be considered a potential risk factor for injury in organ procurement procedures.
Project description:Purpose of the Review:Machine perfusion (MP) is a novel technology recently introduced in liver transplantation, redefining the current practice of organ preservation and pushing the limits of high-risk liver utilisation. This review highlights the key benefits of machine perfusion over conventional static cold storage (SCS), demonstrated in human liver research and clinical transplants. Recent Findings:The first clinical trials have demonstrated both safety and feasibility of MP. The most recent transplant series and result from a randomised trial suggest the technology is superior to SCS. The key benefits include extended period of organ preservation, decreased incidence of early allograft dysfunction and reduction of biliary complications. Normothermic liver perfusion allows viability testing to guide transplantability of the highest-risk organs. This technology also provides opportunities for therapeutic interventions to improve liver function and quality in organs that are currently declined for clinical use. Summary:Machine perfusion is likely to transform the liver preservation pathway and to improve utilisation of high-risk grafts.
Project description:Current organ shortages have led centers to extend the acceptance criteria for organs, increasing the risk for adverse outcomes. Current preservation protocols have not been adapted so as to efficiently protect these organs. Herein, we target oxidative stress, the key mechanism of ischemia reperfusion injury. Vectisol® is a novel antioxidant strategy based on the encapsulation of resveratrol into a cyclodextrin, increasing its bioavailability. We tested this compound as an additive to the most popular static preservation solutions and machine perfusion (LifePort) in a preclinical pig model of kidney autotransplantation. In regard to static preservation, supplementation improved glomerular filtration and proximal tubular function early recovery. Extended follow-up confirmed the higher level of protection, slowing chronic loss of function (creatininemia and proteinuria) and the onset of histological lesions. Regarding machine perfusion, the use of Vectisol® decreased oxidative stress and apoptosis at the onset of reperfusion (30 min post declamping). Improved quality was confirmed with decreased early levels of circulating SOD (Superoxide Dismutase) and ASAT (asparagine amino transferase). Supplementation slowed the onset of chronic loss of function, as well as interstitial fibrosis and tubular atrophy. The simple addition of Vectisol® to the preservation solution significantly improved the performance of organ preservation, with long-term effects on the outcome. This strategy is thus a key player for future multi-drug therapy aimed at ischemia reperfusion in transplantation.
Project description:Various methods have been devised to dissolve hydrogen gas in organ preservation solutions, including use of a hydrogen gas cylinder, electrolysis, or a hydrogen-generating agent. However, these methods require considerable time and effort for preparation. We investigated a practical technique for rapidly dissolving hydrogen gas in organ preservation solutions by using a canister containing hydrogen-absorbing alloy. The efficacy of hydrogen-containing organ preservation solution created by this method was tested in a miniature pig model of kidney transplantation from donors with circulatory arrest. The time required for dissolution of hydrogen gas was only 2-3 minutes. When hydrogen gas was infused into a bag containing cold ETK organ preservation solution at a pressure of 0.06 MPa and the bag was subsequently opened to the air, the dissolved hydrogen concentration remained at 1.0 mg/L or more for 4 hours. After warm ischemic injury was induced by circulatory arrest for 30 minutes, donor kidneys were harvested and perfused for 5 minutes with hydrogen-containing cold ETK solution or hydrogen-free cold ETK solution. The perfusion rate was faster from the initial stage with hydrogen-containing cold ETK solution than with hydrogen-free ETK solution. After storage of the kidney in hydrogen-free preservation solution for 1 hour before transplantation, no urine production was observed and blood flow was not detected in the transplanted kidney at sacrifice on postoperative day 6. In contrast, after storage in hydrogen-containing preservation solution for either 1 or 4 hours, urine was detected in the bladder and blood flow was confirmed in the transplanted kidney. This method of dissolving hydrogen gas in organ preservation solution is a practical technique for potentially converting damaged organs to transplantable organs that can be used safely in any clinical setting where organs are removed from donors.