Implementation and Operational Research: Integration of PMTCT and Antenatal Services Improves Combination Antiretroviral Therapy Uptake for HIV-Positive Pregnant Women in Southern Zambia: A Prototype for Option B+?
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Early initiation of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) for HIV-positive pregnant women can decrease vertical transmission to less than 5%. Programmatic barriers to early cART include decentralized care, disease-stage assessment delays, and loss to follow-up. INTERVENTION:Our intervention had 3 components: integrated HIV and antenatal services in 1 location with 1 provider, laboratory courier to expedite CD4 counts, and community-based follow-up of women-infant pairs to improve prevention of mother-to-child transmission attendance. Preintervention HIV-positive pregnant women were referred to HIV clinics for disease-stage assessment and cART initiation for advanced disease (CD4 count <350 cells/?L or WHO stage >2). METHODS:We used a quasi-experimental design with preintervention/postintervention evaluations at 6 government antenatal clinics (ANCs) in Southern Province, Zambia. Retrospective clinical data were collected from clinic registers during a 7-month baseline period. Postintervention data were collected from all antiretroviral therapy-naive, HIV-positive pregnant women and their infants presenting to ANC from December 2011 to June 2013. RESULTS:Data from 510 baseline women-infant pairs were analyzed and 624 pregnant women were enrolled during the intervention period. The proportion of HIV-positive pregnant women receiving CD4 counts increased from 50.6% to 77.2% [relative risk (RR) = 1.81; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.57 to 2.08; P < 0.01]. The proportion of cART-eligible pregnant women initiated on cART increased from 27.5% to 71.5% (RR = 2.25; 95% CI: 1.78 to 2.83; P < 0.01). The proportion of eligible HIV-exposed infants with documented 6-week HIV PCR test increased from 41.9% to 55.8% (RR = 1.33; 95% CI: 1.18 to 1.51; P < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS:Integration of HIV care into ANC and community-based support improved uptake of CD4 counts, proportion of cART-eligible women initiated on cART, and infants tested.
Project description:To describe temporal management and outcome trends among HIV-1-infected pregnant women and their infants enrolled in the NISDI Perinatal and LILAC cohorts.A prospective cohort of 1548 HIV-1-infected pregnant women and their 1481 singleton live-born infants was analyzed. Participants were enrolled at 24 Latin American and Caribbean sites and followed-up for at least 6 months postpartum. Variables were compared by 2-year enrollment periods from September 27, 2002, to June 30, 2009, using logistic and linear regression modeling.Antiretroviral (ARV) use during pregnancy remained high (99.0%). ARVs became increasingly used for treatment (P<0.001). Regimens containing 2 nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors plus a protease inhibitor became more common in later years (P<0.001). The proportion of women with viral loads below 1000 copies/mL at hospital discharge after delivery (HD) increased over time (P=0.0031). Median CD4 lymphocyte counts also rose at HD, from 441 cell/mm(3) to 515 cells/mm(3) (P<0.05). Elective cesarean deliveries increased from 30.5% to 42.0% (P=0.018). Most infants received ARV prophylaxis (99.7%). Few infants were breastfed (0.5%) or became infected with HIV-1 (1.2%).The results indicate that national HIV-1 treatment and transmission prevention policies are effective among patients with healthcare access in the region.
Project description:To determine magnitude and reasons of loss to program and poor antiretroviral prophylaxis coverage in prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) programs in sub-Saharan Africa.Systematic review and meta-analysis.We searched PubMed and Embase databases for PMTCT studies in sub-Saharan Africa published between January 2002 and March 2012. Outcomes were the percentage of pregnant women tested for HIV, initiating antiretroviral prophylaxis, having a CD4 cell count measured, and initiating antiretroviral combination therapy (cART) if eligible. In children outcomes were early infant diagnosis for HIV, and cART initiation. We combined data using random-effects meta-analysis and identified predictors of uptake of interventions.Forty-four studies from 15 countries including 75,172 HIV-infected pregnant women were analyzed. HIV-testing uptake at antenatal care services was 94% [95% confidence intervals (CIs) 92-95%] for opt-out and 58% (95% CI 40-75%) for opt-in testing. Coverage with any antiretroviral prophylaxis was 70% (95% CI 64-76%) and 62% (95% CI 50-73%) of pregnant women eligible for cART received treatment. Sixty-four percent (95% CI 48-81%) of HIV exposed infants had early diagnosis performed and 55% (95% CI 36-74%) were tested between 12 and 18 months. Uptake of PMTCT interventions was improved if cART was provided at the antenatal clinic and if the male partner was involved.In sub-Saharan Africa, uptake of PMTCT interventions and early infant diagnosis is unsatisfactory. An integrated family-centered approach seems to improve retention.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Neonates born to women infected with HIV are at increased risk for invasive group B streptococcus (GBS) disease. We aimed to compare safety and immunogenicity of trivalent glycoconjugate GBS vaccine in pregnant women with and without HIV in Malawi and South Africa.<h4>Methods</h4>In our non-randomised phase 2, open-label, multicentre study, we recruited pregnant women attending two antenatal clinics, one in Blantyre, Malawi, and one in Soweto, Johannesburg, South Africa. Participants were divided into three groups on the basis of their HIV infection status (no infection, infection and high CD4 cell count [>350 cells per μL], and infection and low CD4 cell count [>50 to ≤350 cells per μL]) and received a 5 μg dose of glycoconjugate GBS vaccine (serotypes Ia, Ib, and III, with CRM197 [Novartis Vaccines, Siena, Italy]) intramuscularly at 24-35 weeks' gestation. GBS serotype-specific antibody concentrations were measured before vaccination (day 1), day 15, day 31, and at delivery, and in infants at birth and day 42 of life. The primary outcomes were safety in mothers and infants and the amount of placental transfer of GBS serotype-specific antibodies from mothers to their infants. All immunogenicity and safety analyses were done on the full analysis set, including participants who, or whose mother, correctly received the vaccine and who provided at least one valid assessable serum sample. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01412801.<h4>Findings</h4>270 women and 266 infants were enrolled between Sept 26, 2011, and Dec 4, 2012 (90 women and 87 infants without HIV, 89 and 88 with HIV and high CD4 cell counts, and 91 and 91 with HIV and low CD4 cell counts, respectively). Seven women were lost to follow-up, six withdrew consent, one died, and two relocated. Eight infants died or were stillborn and two were lost to follow-up. Across serotypes, fold change in antibody concentrations were higher for the HIV-uninfected group than the HIV-infected groups. Transfer ratios were similar across all three groups (0·49-0·72; transfer ratio is infant geometric mean antibody concentration in blood collected within 72 h of birth divided by maternal geometric mean antibody concentration in blood collected at delivery); however, at birth, maternally derived serotype-specific antibody concentrations were lower for infants born to women infected with HIV (0·52-1·62 μg/mL) than for those born to women not infected with HIV (2·67-3·91 μg/mL). 151 (57%) of 265 women reported at least one solicited adverse reaction: 39 (45%) of 87 women with HIV and low CD4 cell counts, 52 (59%) of 88 women with HIV and high CD4 cell counts, and 60 (67%) of 90 women in the HIV-uninfected group. 49 (18%) of 269 women had at least one adverse event deemed possibly related to the vaccine (six [7%] in the HIV and low CD4 cell count group, 12 [13%] in the HIV and high CD4 cell count group, and 21 [23%] in the HIV-uninfected group), as did three (1%) of 266 neonates (zero, two [1%], and one [1%]); none of these events was regarded as serious.<h4>Interpretation</h4>The vaccine was less immunogenic in women infected with HIV than it was in those not infected, irrespective of CD4 cell count, resulting in lower levels of serotype-specific maternal antibody transferred to infants, which could reduce vaccine protection against invasive GBS disease. A validated assay and correlate of protection is needed to understand the potential protective value of this vaccine.<h4>Funding</h4>Novartis Vaccines and Diagnostics division (now part of the GlaxoSmithKline group of companies), Wellcome Trust UK, Medical Research Council: Respiratory and Meningeal Pathogens Research Unit.
Project description:Combination antiretroviral therapy (ART) is now the global standard for HIV-infected pregnant and breastfeeding women at all CD4? cell counts. We compared the efficacy and safety of an efavirenz versus lopinavir/ritonavir regimen for HIV-infected pregnant women initiating ART in rural Uganda.Randomized clinical trial.We performed a planned secondary analysis comparing viral load suppression (HIV-1 RNA ?400 copies/ml), safety, and HIV transmission to infants in a trial designed to test the hypothesis that lopinavir/ritonavir versus efavirenz-based ART would reduce placental malaria (PROMOTE, ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT00993031). HIV-infected, ART-naive pregnant women at 12-28 weeks gestation and any CD4? cell count were randomized. ART was provided and participants were counseled to breastfeed for 1 year postpartum.The median age of the 389 study participants was 29 years; median CD4? cell count was 370 cells/?l. At delivery, virologic suppression was 97.6% in the efavirenz arm and 86.0% in the lopinavir/ritonavir arm (P?<?0.001). At 48 weeks postpartum, 91.0% of women on efavirenz and 88.4% on lopinavir/ritonavir had viral suppression (P?=?0.49). Grade 1 or 2 gastrointestinal adverse events were higher among women on lopinavir/ritonavir versus efavirenz. Only two infants acquired HIV (both in the lopinavir/ritonavir arm), and HIV-free infant survival was similar between study arms: 92.9% (lopinavir/ritonavir) versus 97.2% (efavirenz) (P?=?0.10).Virologic suppression at delivery was higher with an efavirenz versus lopinavir/ritonavir-based regimen. However, women in both arms achieved high levels of virologic suppression through 1 year postpartum and the risk of transmission to infants was low.
Project description:Reference values for hematological and biochemical assays in pregnant women and in newborn infants are based primarily on Caucasian populations. Normative data are limited for populations in sub-Saharan Africa, especially comparing women with and without HIV infection, and comparing infants with and without HIV infection or HIV exposure.We determined HIV status and selected hematological and biochemical measurements in women at 20-24 weeks and at 36 weeks gestation, and in infants at birth and 4-6 weeks of age. All were recruited within a randomized clinical trial of antibiotics to prevent chorioamnionitis-associated mother-to-child transmission of HIV (HPTN024). We report nearly complete laboratory data on 2,292 HIV-infected and 367 HIV-uninfected pregnant African women who were representative of the public clinics from which the women were recruited. Nearly all the HIV-infected mothers received nevirapine prophylaxis at the time of labor, as did their infants after birth (always within 72 hours of birth, but typically within just a few hours at the four study sites in Malawi (2 sites), Tanzania, and Zambia.HIV-infected pregnant women had lower red blood cell counts, hemoglobin, hematocrit, and white blood cell counts than HIV-uninfected women. Platelet and monocyte counts were higher among HIV-infected women at both time points. At the 4-6-week visit, HIV-infected infants had lower hemoglobin, hematocrit and white blood cell counts than uninfected infants. Platelet counts were lower in HIV-infected infants than HIV-uninfected infants, both at birth and at 4-6 weeks of age. At 4-6 weeks, HIV-infected infants had higher alanine aminotransferase measures than uninfected infants.Normative data in pregnant African women and their newborn infants are needed to guide the large-scale HIV care and treatment programs being scaled up throughout the continent. These laboratory measures will help interpret clinical data and assist in patient monitoring in a sub-Saharan Africa context.
Project description:BACKGROUND:People who are asymptomatic and feel healthy, including pregnant women, may be less motivated to initiate ART or achieve high adherence. We assessed whether ART initiation, and viral suppression 6, 12 and 24-months after ART initiation, were lower in HIV-infected members of serodiscordant couples who initiated during pregnancy or with higher CD4 counts. METHODS:We used data from the Partners Demonstration Project, an open-label study of the delivery of integrated PrEP and ART (at any CD4 count) for HIV prevention among high-risk HIV serodiscordant couples in Kenya and Uganda. Differences in viral suppression (HIV RNA <400 copies/ml) among people initiating ART at different CD4 count levels (?350, 351-500, and >500 cells/mm3) and during pregnancy were estimated using Poisson regression. RESULTS:Of 865 HIV-infected participants retained after becoming eligible for ART during study follow-up, 95% initiated ART. Viral suppression 24-months after ART initiation was high overall (97%), and comparable among those initiating ART at CD4 counts >500, 351-500 and ?350 cells/mm3 (96% vs 97% vs 97%; relative risk [RR] 0.98; 95% CI: 0.93-1.03 for CD4 >500 vs <350 and RR 0.99; 95% CI: (0.93-1.06) for CD4 351-500 vs ?350). Viral suppression was as likely among women initiating ART primarily to prevent perinatal transmission as ART initiation for other reasons (p=0.9 at 6 months and p=0.5 at 12 months). CONCLUSIONS:Nearly all HIV-infected partners initiating ART were virally suppressed by 24 months, irrespective of CD4 count or pregnancy status. These findings suggest that people initiating ART at high CD4 counts or due to pregnancy can adhere to ART as well as those starting treatment with symptomatic HIV disease or low CD4 counts.
Project description:The benefits of combination anti-retroviral therapy (cART) in HIV-positive pregnant women (improved maternal health and prevention of mother to child transmission [pMTCT]) currently outweigh the adverse effects due to cART. As the variety of cART increases, however, the question arises as to which type of cART is safest for pregnant women and women of childbearing age. We studied the effect of timing and exposure to different classes of cART on adverse birth outcomes in a large HIV cohort in the Netherlands.We included singleton HEU infants registered in the ATHENA cohort from 1997 to 2015. Multivariate logistic regression analysis for single and multiple pregnancies was used to evaluate predictors of small for gestational age (SGA, birth weight <10th percentile for gestational age), low birth weight and preterm delivery.A total of 1392 children born to 1022 mothers were included. Of these, 331 (23.8%) children were SGA. Women starting cART before conception had an increased risk of having a SGA infant compared to women starting cART after conception (OR 1.35, 95% CI 1.03-1.77, p = 0.03). The risk for SGA was highest in women who started a protease inhibitor-(PI) based regimen prior to pregnancy, compared with women who initiated PI-based cART during pregnancy. While the association of preterm delivery and preconception cART was significant in univariate analysis, on multivariate analysis only a non-significant trend was observed (OR 1.39, 95% CI 0.94-1.92, p = 0.06) in women who had started cART before compared to after conception. In multivariate analysis, the risk of low birth weight (OR 1.34, 95% CI 0.94-1.92, p = 0.11) was not significantly increased in women who had started cART prior to conception compared to after conception.In our cohort of pregnant HIV-positive women, the use of cART prior to conception, most notably a PI-based regimen, was associated with intrauterine growth restriction resulting in SGA. Data showed a non-significant trend in the risk of PTD associated with preconception use of cART compared to its use after conception. More studies are needed with regard to the mechanisms taking place in the placenta during fetal growth in pregnant HIV-positive women using cART. It will only be with this knowledge that we can begin to understand the potential impact of HIV and cART on the fetus, in order to be able to determine the optimal individualised drug regimen for HIV-infected women of childbearing age.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Early initiation of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), at higher CD4 cell counts, prevents disease progression and reduces sexual transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). We describe the temporal trends in CD4 cell counts at the start of cART in adults from low-income, lower-middle-income, upper-middle-income, and high-income countries (LICs, LMICs, UMICs, and HICs, respectively).<h4>Methods</h4>We included HIV-infected individuals aged ?16 years who started cART between 2002 and 2015 in a clinic participating in the International epidemiology Databases to Evaluate AIDS (IeDEA) or the Collaboration of Observational HIV Epidemiological Research in Europe (COHERE). Missing CD4 cell counts at the start of cART were estimated through multiple imputation. Weighted mixed-effect models were used to smooth trends in median CD4 cell counts.<h4>Results</h4>A total of 951855 adults from 16 LICs, 11 LMICs, 9 UMICs, and 19 HICs were included. Overall, the modeled median CD4 cell count at the start of cART increased from 2002 to 2015, from 78/µL (95% confidence interval, 58-104/µL) to 287/µL (250-328/µL) in LICs, from 99/µL (71-140/µL) to 234/µL (192-285/µL) in LMICs, from 71/µL (49-104/µL) to 311/µL (255-379/µL) in UMICs, and from 161/µL (143-181/µL) to 327/µL (286-372/µL) in HICs. In LICs, LMICs, and UMICs, the increase was more pronounced in women; in HICs, the opposite was observed.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Median CD4 cell counts at the start of cART increased in all income groups, but generally remained below 350/?L in 2015. Substantial additional efforts and resources are required to achieve earlier diagnosis, linkage to care, and initiation of cART.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Effects of antiretroviral therapy (ART) on birth outcomes remain controversial.<h4>Objective</h4>To assess the impact of antenatal exposure to ART on the occurrence of preterm birth (PTB) and low birth weight (LBW).<h4>Methods</h4>A cross-sectional study conducted at the Essos Hospital Center in Yaounde from 2008 to 2011 among HIV vertically exposed infants with two distinct maternal antiretroviral experiences: monotherapy group (Zidovudine, ZDV) and the combination ART group (cART). Mothers already receiving cART before pregnancy were ineligible. In both groups, events of PTB (<37 weeks) and LBW (<2,500g) were analyzed using univariate and multivariate logistic regression; with p<0.05 considered statistically significant.<h4>Results</h4>Of the 760 infants, 481 were born from cART-exposed mothers against 279 from maternal-ZDV. Median maternal CD4 count was 378 [interquartile range (IQR): 253-535] cells/mm3. Median duration of ART at onset of delivery was 13 [IQR: 10-17] weeks. In the cART-group, 64.9% (312/481) of mothers were exposed to Zidovudine/Lamuvidine/Nevirapine and only 2% (9/481) were on protease inhibitor-based regimens. Events of PTB were not significantly higher in the cART-group compared to the ZDV-group (10.2% vs. 6.4% respectively, p = 0.08), while onsets of LBW were significantly found in the cART-group compared to ZDV-group (11.6% vs. 7.2% respectively, p = 0.05). Other factors (parity, maternal age at delivery or CD4 cell count) were not associated with PTB.<h4>Conclusion</h4>cART, initiated during pregnancy, would be an independent factor of LBW. In the era of option B+ (lifelong ART to all HIV-pregnant women), further studies would guide towards measures limiting onsets of LBW.
Project description:In observational studies, adequate selenium status has been associated with better pregnancy outcomes and slowed HIV disease progression.We investigated the effects of daily selenium supplements on CD4 cell counts, viral load, pregnancy outcomes, and maternal and infant mortality among 913 HIV-infected pregnant women.In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, eligible women between 12 and 27 wk of gestation were given daily selenium (200 mug as selenomethionine) or placebo as supplements from recruitment until 6 mo after delivery. All women received prenatal iron, folic acid, and multivitamin supplements irrespective of experimental assignment.The selenium regimen had no significant effect on maternal CD4 cell counts or viral load. Selenium was marginally associated with a reduced risk of low birth weight [relative risk (RR) = 0.71; 95% CI: 0.49, 1.05; P = 0.09] and increased risk of fetal death (RR = 1.58; 95% CI = 0.95, 2.63; P = 0.08), but had no effect on risk of prematurity or small-for-gestational age birth. The regimen had no significant effect on maternal mortality (RR = 1.02; 95% CI = 0.51, 2.04; P = 0.96). There was no significant effect on neonatal or overall child mortality, but selenium reduced the risk of child mortality after 6 wk (RR = 0.43; 95% CI = 0.19, 0.99; P = 0.048).Among HIV-infected women from Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, selenium supplements given during and after pregnancy did not improve HIV disease progression or pregnancy outcomes, but may improve child survival. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00197561.