Graphitic Carbon Nitride with Dopant Induced Charge Localization for Enhanced Photoreduction of CO2 to CH4.
ABSTRACT: The photoreduction of CO2 to hydrocarbon products has attracted much attention because it provides an avenue to directly synthesize value-added carbon-based fuels and feedstocks using solar energy. Among various photocatalysts, graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4) has emerged as an attractive metal-free visible-light photocatalyst due to its advantages of earth-abundance, nontoxicity, and stability. Unfortunately, its photocatalytic efficiency is seriously limited by charge carriers' ready recombination and their low reaction dynamics. Modifying the local electronic structure of g-C3N4 is predicted to be an efficient way to improve the charge transfer and reaction efficiency. Here, boron (B) is doped into the large cavity between adjacent tri-s-triazine units via coordination with two-coordinated N atoms. Theoretical calculations prove that the new electron excitation from N (2p x , 2p y ) to B (2p x , 2p y ) with the same orbital direction in B-doped g-C3N4 is much easier than N (2p x , 2p y ) to C 2p z in pure g-C3N4, and improves the charge transfer and localization, and thus the reaction dynamics. Moreover, B atoms doping changes the adsorption of CO (intermediate), and can act as active sites for CH4 production. As a result, the optimal sample of 1%B/g-C3N4 exhibits better selectivity for CH4 with ≈32 times higher yield than that of pure g-C3N4.
Project description:A Ni- and Co- sulfide co-doped g-C3N4 photocatalyst (g-C3N4/NixCo1-xS2) was prepared by hydrothermal method and this photocatalyst, namely, g-C3N4/NixCo1-xS2 shown excellent photocatalytic properties due to the special structure of Ni-Co-S with boundary different exposure to active site of transition metal-metal (Ni-Co) active planes. With the introduction of Co atoms, the H2 production amount reached the maximum about 400.81 μmol under continuous visible light irradiation for 4 hours based on the efficiently charge separation and greatly improved electron transfer resulted from the presence of sufficient active exposure at the boundary. The serial studies shown that the existence of Ni-Co-S structure over g-C3N4 active surface is the key factor of activity affections by means of several characterizations such as SEM, XRD, XPS diffuse reflectance etc. and the results of which were in good agreement with each other. A possible reaction mechanism over eosin Y-sensitized g-C3N4/NixCo1-xS2 photocatalyst under visible light irradiation was proposed.
Project description:Due to the unique two-dimensional structure and features of graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4), such as high thermal stability and superior catalytic property, it is considered to be a promising flame retardant nano-additive for polymers. Here, we reported a facile strategy to prepare cobalt/phosphorus co-doped graphitic carbon nitride (Co/P-C3N4) by a simple and scalable thermal decomposition method. The structure of Co/P-C3N4 was confirmed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The carbon atoms in g-C3N4 were most likely substituted by phosphorous atoms. The thermal stability of polylactide (PLA) composites was increased continuously with increasing the content of Co/P-C3N4. In contrast to the g-C3N4, the Polylactide (PLA) composites containing Co/P-C3N4 exhibited better flame retardant efficiency and smoke suppression. With the addition of 10 wt % Co/P-C3N4, the peak heat release rate (PHRR), carbon dioxide (CO2) production (PCO2P) and carbon oxide (CO) production (PCOP) values of PLA composites decreased by 22.4%, 16.2%, and 38.5%, respectively, compared to those of pure PLA, although the tensile strength of PLA composites had a slightly decrease. The char residues of Co/P-C3N4 composites had a more compact and continuous structure with few cracks. These improvements are ascribed to the physical barrier effect, as well as catalytic effects of Co/P-C3N4, which inhibit the rapid release of combustible gaseous products and suppression of toxic gases, i.e., CO.
Project description:Since the graphitic carbon nitride (g-C4N3), which can be seen as C-doped graphitic-C3N4 (g-C3N4), was reported to display ferromagnetic ground state and intrinsic half-metallicity (Du et al., PRL,108,197207,2012), it has attracted numerous research interest to tune the electronic structure and magnetic properties of g-C3N4 due to their potential applications in spintronic devices. In this paper, we reported the experimentally achieving of high temperature ferromagnetism in metal-free ultrathin g-C3N4 nanosheets by introducing of B atoms. Further, first-principles calculation results revealed that the current flow in such a system was fully spin-polarized and the magnetic moment was mainly attributed to the p orbital of N atoms in B doped g-C3N4 monolayer, giving the theoretic evidence of the ferromagnetism and half-metallicity. Our finding provided a new perspective for B doped g-C3N4 spintronic devices in future.
Project description:Phosphorus doped MoS2 nanosheets (P-doped MoS2) have been reported as excellent oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) catalysts with four-electron selectivity in alkaline solution. By performing density functional theory (DFT) calculations, we revealed the detailed reaction mechanism and the key reaction sites on surface of P-doped MoS2 for ORR catalysis. The double P-doped MoS2 (2P-MoS2) is calculated to be more stable than the single P-doped MoS2 (P-MoS2), and the configuration with two P atoms in neighboring sites exhibits the highest stability. The surface of P-doped MoS2 is found highly active for dissociation of O2. Comparative calculations reveal that P-MoS2 is unsuitable as ORR catalyst due to the high dissociation barrier of H2O (1.19 and 2.06?eV for the first and second adsorbed H2O), while the 2P-MoS2 shows good ORR catalytic activity with much lower dissociation barrier of H2O (0.62?eV). Furthermore, we elucidated that the ORR catalytic activity in 2P-MoS2 originates from the activated S2 atom, which provides an extra adsorption site for the first H2O and the following OH group benefited from the enhanced hydrogen bond interaction. Our results illustrate the mechanisms of doped MoS2 based catalysts and provide rational way for designing ORR catalysts with high activity.
Project description:CoO/g-C3N4 hybrid catalyst is facilely prepared for application to photocatalytic H2 evolution from water splitting by the vacuum rotation-evaporation and in situ thermal method. The physical and chemical properties of CoO/g-C3N4 are determined by a series of characterization methods. The g-C3N4 with 0.6 wt% Co loading exhibits superior photocatalytic hydrogen evolution activity with an H2 evolution amount of 23.25 mmol g-1 after 5 h. The obtained 0.6 wt% CoO/g-C3N4 can split water to generate 0.39 mmol g-1 H2 without sacrificial agent and noble metal, while the pure g-C3N4 is inactive under the same reaction conditions. The remarkable enhancement of photocatalytic H2 evolution activity of CoO/g-C3N4 composites is mainly ascribed to the effective separation of electron-hole pairs and charge transfer. The work creates new opportunities for the design of low-cost g-C3N4-based photocatalysts with high photocatalytic H2 evolution activity from overall water splitting.
Project description:The enhanced photocatalytic performance of doped graphene (GR)/semiconductor nanocomposites have recently been widely observed, but an understanding of the underlying mechanisms behind it is still out of reach. As a model system to study the dopant effects, we investigate the electronic structures and optical properties of doped GR/Ag3PO4 nanocomposites using the first-principles calculations, demonstrating that the band gap, near-gap electronic structure and interface charge transfer of the doped GR/Ag3PO4(100) composite can be tuned by the dopants. Interestingly, the doping atom and C atoms bonded to dopant become active sites for photocatalysis because they are positively or negatively charged due to the charge redistribution caused by interaction. The dopants can enhance the visible light absorption and photoinduced electron transfer. We propose that the N atom may be one of the most appropriate dopants for the GR/Ag3PO4 photocatalyst. This work can rationalize the available experimental results about N-doped GR-semiconductor composites, and enriches our understanding on the dopant effects in the doped GR-based composites for developing high-performance photocatalysts.
Project description:In this work, the lacunary Keggin-type phosphotungstates of [PW9O34]9- (PW9) clusters were loaded onto the g-C3N4 nanosheets (NSs) to synthesize the phosphotungstate clusters-decorated 2D heterojunction photocatalysts by using the electrostatic-force driven self-assembly process. The surface charge polarity of g-C3N4 NSs was changed from a negative to a positive charge through the acidizing treatment. The positively-charged g-C3N4 NSs allowed the negatively-charged PW9 clusters to be adsorbed and deposited onto the g-C3N4 NSs, forming the PW9/g-C3N4 heterojunction NSs. The as-synthesized samples were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, and UV-VIS absorption spectra, respectively. The photocatalytic activity tests indicated that, upon simulated sunlight irradiation, the photocatalytic H2-generation rate of PW9/g-C3N4 heterojunction NSs (~23.8 ?mol h-1) was ~3.3 times higher than that of the pure g-C3N4 NSs (~7.3 ?mol h-1). The enhanced photocatalytic activity of PW9 cluster-decorated g-C3N4 NSs could be attributed to the enhanced separation process of the photoinduced charge-carriers, due to the Z-scheme-mediate charge transfer behavior across their hetero-interface.
Project description:Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrates with high activity and stability are desirable for SERS sensing. Here, we report a new single atomic layer graphitic-C3N4 (S-g-C3N4) and Ag nanoparticles (NPs) hybrid as high-performance SERS substrates. The SERS mechanism of the highly stable S-g-C3N4/Ag substrates was systematically investigated by a combination of experiments and theoretical calculations. From the results of XPS and Raman spectroscopies, it was found that there was a strong interaction between S-g-C3N4 and Ag NPs, which facilitates the uniform distribution of Ag NPs over the edges and surfaces of S-g-C3N4 nanosheets, and induces a charge transfer from S-g-C3N4 to the oxidizing agent through the silver surface, ultimately protecting Ag NPs from oxidation. Based on the theoretical calculations, we found that the net surface charge of the Ag atoms on the S-g-C3N4/Ag substrates was positive and the Ag NPs presented high dispersibility, suggesting that the Ag atoms on the S-g-C3N4/Ag substrates were not likely to be oxidized, thereby ensuring the high stability of the S-g-C3N4/Ag substrate. An understanding of the stability mechanism in this system can be helpful for developing other effective SERS substrates with long-term stability.
Project description:The upgrading of CO2/CO feedstocks to higher-value chemicals via energy-efficient electrochemical processes enables carbon utilization and renewable energy storage. Substantial progress has been made to improve performance at the cathodic side; whereas less progress has been made on improving anodic electro-oxidation reactions to generate value. Here we report the efficient electroproduction of value-added multi-carbon dimethyl carbonate (DMC) from CO and methanol via oxidative carbonylation. We find that, compared to pure palladium controls, boron-doped palladium (Pd-B) tunes the binding strength of intermediates along this reaction pathway and favors DMC formation. We implement this doping strategy and report the selective electrosynthesis of DMC experimentally. We achieve a DMC Faradaic efficiency of 83 ± 5%, fully a 3x increase in performance compared to the corresponding pure Pd electrocatalyst.
Project description:The key to solving environmental and energy issues through photocatalytic technology requires highly efficient, stable and eco-friendly photocatalysts. Graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4) is one of the most promising candidates except for its limited photoactivity. In this work, a facile and scalable one-step method is developed to fabricate an efficient heterostructural g-C3N4 photocatalyst in situ coupled with MoS2. The strong coupling effect between the MoS2 nanosheets and g-C3N4 scaffold, numerous mesopores and enlarged specific surface area helped form an effective heterojunction. As such, the photocatalytic activity of the g-C3N4/MoS2 is more than three times higher than that of the pure g-C3N4 in the degradation of RhB under visible light irradiation. Improvement of g-C3N4/MoS2 photocatalytic performance is mainly ascribed to the effective suppression of the recombination of charge carriers.