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Histone chaperones and the Rrm3p helicase regulate flocculation in S. cerevisiae.


ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Biofilm formation or flocculation is a major phenotype in wild type budding yeasts but rarely seen in laboratory yeast strains. Here, we analysed flocculation phenotypes and the expression of FLO genes in laboratory strains with various genetic backgrounds. RESULTS:We show that mutations in histone chaperones, the helicase RRM3 and the Histone Deacetylase HDA1 de-repress the FLO genes and partially reconstitute flocculation. We demonstrate that the loss of repression correlates to elevated expression of several FLO genes, to increased acetylation of histones at the promoter of FLO1 and to variegated expression of FLO11. We show that these effects are related to the activity of CAF-1 at the replication forks. We also demonstrate that nitrogen starvation or inhibition of histone deacetylases do not produce flocculation in W303 and BY4742 strains but do so in strains compromised for chromatin maintenance. Finally, we correlate the de-repression of FLO genes to the loss of silencing at the subtelomeric and mating type gene loci. CONCLUSIONS:We conclude that the deregulation of chromatin maintenance and transmission is sufficient to reconstitute flocculation in laboratory yeast strains. Consequently, we propose that a gain in epigenetic silencing is a major contributing factor for the loss of flocculation phenotypes in these strains. We suggest that flocculation in yeasts provides an excellent model for addressing the challenging issue of how epigenetic mechanisms contribute to evolution.

PROVIDER: S-EPMC6757361 | BioStudies |

REPOSITORIES: biostudies

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