Tamalin, a PDZ domain-containing protein, links a protein complex formation of group 1 metabotropic glutamate receptors and the guanine nucleotide exchange factor cytohesins.
ABSTRACT: In this investigation, we report identification and characterization of a 95 kDa postsynaptic density protein (PSD-95)/discs-large/ZO-1 (PDZ) domain-containing protein termed tamalin, also recently named GRP1-associated scaffold protein (GRASP), that interacts with group 1 metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs). The yeast two-hybrid system and in vitro pull-down assays indicated that the PDZ domain-containing, amino-terminal half of tamalin directly binds to the class I PDZ-binding motif of group 1 mGluRs. The C-terminal half of tamalin also bound to cytohesins, the members of guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) specific for the ADP-ribosylation factor (ARF) family of small GTP-binding proteins. Tamalin mRNA is expressed predominantly in the telencephalic region and highly overlaps with the expression of group 1 mGluR mRNAs. Both tamalin and cytohesin-2 were enriched and codistributed with mGluR1a in postsynaptic membrane fractions. Importantly, recombinant and native mGluR1a/tamalin/cytohesin-2 complexes were coimmunoprecipitated from transfected COS-7 cells and rat brain tissue, respectively. Transfection of tamalin and mutant tamalin lacking a cytohesin-binding domain caused an increase and decrease in cell-surface expression of mGluR1a in COS-7 cells, respectively. Furthermore, adenovirus-mediated expression of tamalin and dominant-negative tamalin facilitated and reduced the neuritic distribution of endogenous mGluR5 in cultured hippocampal neurons, respectively. The results indicate that tamalin plays a key role in the association of group 1 mGluRs with the ARF-specific GEF proteins and contributes to intracellular trafficking and the macromolecular organization of group 1 mGluRs at synapses.
Project description:Membrane dynamic processes require Arf GTPase activation by guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) with a Sec7 domain. Cytohesin family Arf GEFs function in signaling and cell migration through Arf GTPase activation on the plasma membrane and endosomes. In this study, the structural organization of two cytohesins (Grp1 and ARNO) was investigated in solution by size exclusion-small angle X-ray scattering and negative stain-electron microscopy and on membranes by dynamic light scattering, hydrogen-deuterium exchange-mass spectrometry and guanosine diphosphate (GDP)/guanosine triphosphate (GTP) exchange assays. The results suggest that cytohesins form elongated dimers with a central coiled coil and membrane-binding pleckstrin-homology (PH) domains at opposite ends. The dimers display significant conformational heterogeneity, with a preference for compact to intermediate conformations. Phosphoinositide-dependent membrane recruitment is mediated by one PH domain at a time and alters the conformational dynamics to prime allosteric activation by Arf-GTP. A structural model for membrane targeting and allosteric activation of full-length cytohesin dimers is discussed.
Project description:Guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) are the initiators of signaling by every regulatory GTPase, which in turn act to regulate a wide array of essential cellular processes. To date, each family of GTPases is activated by distinct families of GEFs. Bidirectional membrane trafficking is regulated by ADP-ribosylation factor (ARF) GTPases and the development throughout eukaryotic evolution of increasingly complex systems of such traffic required the acquisition of a functionally diverse cohort of ARF GEFs to control it. We performed phylogenetic analyses of ARF GEFs in eukaryotes, defined by the presence of the Sec7 domain, and found three subfamilies (BIG, GBF1, and cytohesins) to have been present in the ancestor of all eukaryotes. The four other subfamilies (EFA6/PSD, IQSEC7/BRAG, FBX8, and TBS) are opisthokont, holozoan, metazoan, and alveolate/haptophyte specific, respectively, and each is derived from cytohesins. We also identified a cytohesin-derived subfamily, termed ankyrin repeat-containing cytohesin, that independently evolved in amoebozoans and members of the SAR and haptophyte clades. Building on evolutionary data for the ARF family GTPases and their GTPase--activating proteins allowed the generation of hypotheses about ARF GEF protein function(s) as well as a better understanding of the origins and evolution of cellular complexity in eukaryotes.
Project description:Metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) function as neuronal G-protein-coupled receptors and this requires efficient membrane targeting through associations with cytoplasmic proteins. However, the molecular mechanism regulating mGluR cell-surface trafficking remains unknown. We report here that mGluR trafficking is controlled by the autoregulatory assembly of a scaffold protein Tamalin. In the absence of mGluR, Tamalin self-assembles into autoinhibited conformations, through its PDZ domain and C-terminal intrinsic ligand motif. X-ray crystallographic analyses visualized integral parts of the oligomeric self-assemblies of Tamalin, which require not only the novel hydrophobic dimerization interface but also canonical and noncanonical PDZ/ligand autoinhibitory interactions. The mGluR cytoplasmic region can competitively bind to Tamalin at a higher concentration, disrupting weak inhibitory interactions. The atomic view of mGluR association suggests that this rearrangement is dominated by electrostatic attraction and repulsion. We also observed in mammalian cells that the association liberates the intrinsic ligand toward a motor protein receptor, thereby facilitating mGluR cell-surface trafficking. Our study suggests a novel regulatory mechanism of the PDZ domain, by which Tamalin switches between the trafficking-inhibited and -active forms depending on mGluR association.
Project description:Guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) of the exchange factor for Arf6 (EFA6), brefeldin A-resistant Arf guanine nucleotide exchange factor (BRAG), and cytohesin subfamilies activate small GTPases of the Arf family in endocytic events. These ArfGEFs carry a pleckstrin homology (PH) domain in tandem with their catalytic Sec7 domain, which is autoinhibitory and supports a positive feedback loop in cytohesins but not in BRAGs, and has an as-yet unknown role in EFA6 regulation. In this study, we analyzed how EFA6A is regulated by its PH and C terminus (Ct) domains by reconstituting its GDP/GTP exchange activity on membranes. We found that EFA6 has a previously unappreciated high efficiency toward Arf1 on membranes and that, similar to BRAGs, its PH domain is not autoinhibitory and strongly potentiates nucleotide exchange on anionic liposomes. However, in striking contrast to both cytohesins and BRAGs, EFA6 is regulated by a negative feedback loop, which is mediated by an allosteric interaction of Arf6-GTP with the PH-Ct domain of EFA6 and monitors the activation of Arf1 and Arf6 differentially. These observations reveal that EFA6, BRAG, and cytohesins have unanticipated commonalities associated with divergent regulatory regimes. An important implication is that EFA6 and cytohesins may combine in a mixed negative-positive feedback loop. By allowing EFA6 to sustain a pool of dormant Arf6-GTP, such a circuit would fulfill the absolute requirement of cytohesins for activation by Arf-GTP before amplification of their GEF activity by their positive feedback loop.
Project description:ARFs are small GTPases that regulate vesicular trafficking, cell shape, and movement. ARFs are subject to extensive regulation by a large number of accessory proteins. The many different accessory proteins are likely specialized to regulate ARF signaling during particular processes. ARNO/cytohesin 2 is an ARF-activating protein that promotes cell migration and cell shape changes. We report here that protein-protein interactions mediated by the coiled-coil domain of ARNO are required for ARNO induced motility. ARNO lacking the coiled-coil domain does not promote migration and does not induce ARF-dependent Rac activation. We find that the coiled-coil domain promotes the assembly of a multiprotein complex containing both ARNO and the Rac-activating protein Dock180. Knockdown of either GRASP/Tamalin or IPCEF, two proteins known to bind to the coiled-coil of ARNO, prevents the association of ARNO and Dock180 and prevents ARNO-induced Rac activation. These data suggest that scaffold proteins can regulate ARF dependent processes by biasing ARF signaling toward particular outputs.
Project description:We investigated the mechanisms by which activation of group I metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) and CB1 cannabinoid receptors (CB1Rs) leads to inhibition of synaptic currents at the calyx of Held synapse in the medial nucleus of the trapezoid body (MNTB) of the rat auditory brainstem. In approximately 50% of the MNTB neurons tested, activation of group I mGluRs by the specific agonist (s)-3,5-dihydroxyphenylglycine (DHPG) reversibly inhibited AMPA receptor- and NMDA receptor-mediated EPSCs to a similar extent and reduced paired-pulse depression, suggestive of an inhibition of glutamate release. Presynaptic voltage-clamp experiments revealed a reversible reduction of Ca2+ currents by DHPG, with no significant modification of the presynaptic action potential waveform. Likewise, in approximately 50% of the tested cells, the CB1 receptor agonist (R)-(+)-[2,3-dihydro-5-methyl-3-(4-morpholinylmethyl)pyrrolo[1,2,3-de]-1,4-benzoxazin-6-yl]-1-naphthalenylmethanone (WIN) reversibly inhibited EPSCs, presynaptic Ca2+ currents, and exocytosis. For a given cell, the amount of inhibition by DHPG correlated with that by WIN. Moreover, the inhibitory action of DHPG was blocked by the CB1R antagonist N-(piperidin-1-yl)-5-(4-iodophenyl)-1-(2,4-dichlorophenyl)-4-methyl-1H-pyrazole-3-carboxamide (AM251) and occluded by WIN, indicating that DHPG and WIN operate via a common pathway. The inhibition of EPSCs by DHPG, but not by WIN, was abolished after dialyzing 40 mm BAPTA into the postsynaptic cell, suggesting that DHPG activated postsynaptic mGluRs. Light and electron microscopy immunolabeling indicated a presynaptic expression of CB1Rs and postsynaptic localization of mGluR1a. Our data suggest that activation of postsynaptic mGluRs triggers the Ca2+-dependent release of endocannabinoids that activate CB1 receptors on the calyx terminal, which leads to a reduction of presynaptic Ca2+ current and glutamate release.
Project description:Calcium plays a crucial role as a ubiquitous second messenger and has a key influence in many forms of synaptic plasticity in neurons. The spatiotemporal properties of dendritic Ca2+ signals in hippocampal interneurons are relatively unexplored. Here we use two-photon calcium imaging and whole-cell recordings to study properties of dendritic Ca2+ signals mediated by different glutamate receptors and their regulation by synaptic activity in oriens/alveus (O/A) interneurons of rat hippocampus. We demonstrate that O/A interneurons express Ca2+-permeable AMPA receptors (CP-AMPARs) providing fast Ca2+ signals. O/A cells can also coexpress CP-AMPARs, Ca2+-impermeable AMPARs (CI-AMPARs), and group I/II metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) (including mGluR1a), in the same cell. CI-AMPARs are often associated with mGluRs, resulting in longer-lasting Ca2+ signals than CP-AMPAR-mediated responses. Finally, CP-AMPAR- and mGluR-mediated Ca2+ signals demonstrate distinct voltage dependence and are differentially regulated by presynaptic and postsynaptic activity: weak synaptic stimulation produces Ca2+ signals mediated by CP-AMPARs, whereas stronger stimulation, or weak stimulation coupled with postsynaptic depolarization, recruits Ca2+ signals mediated by mGluRs. Our results suggest that differential activation of specific glutamate receptor-mediated Ca2+ signals within spatially restricted dendritic microdomains may serve distinct signaling functions and endow oriens/alveus interneurons with multiple forms of Ca2+-mediated synaptic plasticity. Specific activation of mGluR-mediated Ca2+ signals by coincident presynaptic and postsynaptic activity fulfills the conditions for Hebbian pairing and likely underlies their important role in long-term potentiation induction at O/A interneuron synapses.
Project description:The small GTPase ARL4C participates in the regulation of cell migration, cytoskeletal rearrangements, and vesicular trafficking in epithelial cells. The ARL4C signaling cascade starts by the recruitment of the ARF-GEF cytohesins to the plasma membrane, which, in turn, bind and activate the small GTPase ARF6. However, the role of ARL4C-cytohesin-ARF6 signaling during hippocampal development remains elusive. Here, we report that the E3 ubiquitin ligase Cullin 5/RBX2 (CRL5) controls the stability of ARL4C and its signaling effectors to regulate hippocampal morphogenesis. Both RBX2 knockout and Cullin 5 knockdown cause hippocampal pyramidal neuron mislocalization and development of multiple apical dendrites. We used quantitative mass spectrometry to show that ARL4C, Cytohesin-1/3, and ARF6 accumulate in the RBX2 mutant telencephalon. Furthermore, we show that depletion of ARL4C rescues the phenotypes caused by Cullin 5 knockdown, whereas depletion of CYTH1 or ARF6 exacerbates overmigration. Finally, we show that ARL4C, CYTH1, and ARF6 are necessary for the dendritic outgrowth of pyramidal neurons to the superficial strata of the hippocampus. Overall, we identified CRL5 as a key regulator of hippocampal development and uncovered ARL4C, CYTH1, and ARF6 as CRL5-regulated signaling effectors that control pyramidal neuron migration and dendritogenesis.
Project description:Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) is a potent signaling factor that acts on epithelial cells, causing them to dissociate and scatter. This migration is coordinated by a number of small GTPases, such as ARF6 and Rac1. Active ARF6 is required for HGF-stimulated migration and intracellular levels of ARF6-GTP and Rac1-GTP increase following HGF treatment. During migration, cross talk between ARF6 and Rac1 occurs through formation of a multi-protein complex containing the ARF-GEF cytohesin-2, the scaffolding protein GRASP/Tamalin, and the Rac1-GEF Dock180. Previously, the role of ARF6 in this process was unclear. We have now found that ARF6 and ARF1 regulate trafficking of GRASP and Dock180 to the plasma membrane following HGF treatment. Trafficking of GRASP and Dock180 is impaired by blocking ARF6-mediated recycling pathways and is required for HGF-stimulated Rac1 activation. Finally, HGF treatment stimulates association of GRASP and Dock180. Inhibition of ARF6 trafficking pathways traps GRASP and Dock180 as a complex in the cell.
Project description:Cytohesins are Arf guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) that regulate membrane trafficking and actin cytoskeletal dynamics. We report here that GRP-1, the sole Caenorhabditis elegans cytohesin, controls the asymmetric divisions of certain neuroblasts that divide to produce a larger neuronal precursor or neuron and a smaller cell fated to die. In the Q neuroblast lineage, loss of GRP-1 led to the production of daughter cells that are more similar in size and to the transformation of the normally apoptotic daughter into its sister, resulting in the production of extra neurons. Genetic interactions suggest that GRP-1 functions with the previously described Arf GAP CNT-2 and two other Arf GEFs, EFA-6 and BRIS-1, to regulate the activity of Arf GTPases. In agreement with this model, we show that GRP-1's GEF activity, mediated by its SEC7 domain, is necessary for the posterior Q cell (Q.p) neuroblast division and that both GRP-1 and CNT-2 function in the Q.posterior Q daughter cell (Q.p) to promote its asymmetry. Although functional GFP-tagged GRP-1 proteins localized to the nucleus, the extra cell defects were rescued by targeting the Arf GEF activity of GRP-1 to the plasma membrane, suggesting that GRP-1 acts at the plasma membrane. The detection of endogenous GRP-1 protein at cytokinesis remnants, or midbodies, is consistent with GRP-1 functioning at the plasma membrane and perhaps at the cytokinetic furrow to promote the asymmetry of the divisions that require its function.