Biosynthetic Pathway of Indole-3-Acetic Acid in Basidiomycetous Yeast Rhodosporidiobolus fluvialis.
ABSTRACT: IAA biosynthetic pathways in a basidiomycetous yeast, Rhodosporidiobolus fluvialis DMKU-CP293, were investigated. The yeast strain showed tryptophan (Trp)-dependent IAA biosynthesis when grown in tryptophan supplemented mineral salt medium. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was used to further identify the pathway intermediates of Trp-dependent IAA biosynthesis. The results indicated that the main intermediates produced by R. fluvialis DMKU-CP293 were tryptamine (TAM), indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), and tryptophol (TOL), whereas indole-3-pyruvic acid (IPA) was not found. However, supplementation of IPA to the culture medium resulted in IAA peak detection by high-performance liquid chromatography analysis of the culture supernatant. Key enzymes of three IAA biosynthetic routes, i.e., IPA, IAM and TAM were investigated to clarify the IAA biosynthetic pathways of R. fluvialis DMKU-CP293. Results indicated that the activities of tryptophan aminotransferase, tryptophan 2-monooxygenase, and tryptophan decarboxylase were observed in cell crude extract. Overall results suggested that IAA biosynthetic in this yeast strain mainly occurred via the IPA route. Nevertheless, IAM and TAM pathway might be involved in R. fluvialis DMKU-CP293.
Project description:Burkholderia pyrrocinia JK-SH007 is a plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB), that can promote the growth of poplar and other trees, and, production of the plant hormone indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) is one of the reasons for this effect. Therefore, the aims of this study were to evaluate the effect of the external environment on the synthesis of IAA by B. pyrrocinia JK-SH007 and to perform a functional analysis of its IAA synthesis pathway. In this study, IAA and its synthetic intermediates indole-3-acetamide (IAM), indole-3-pyruvic acid (IPyA), tryptamine (TAM), and indole-3-acetonitrile (IAN) were detected in B. pyrrocinia JK-SH007 fermentation broth by high-performance liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS), and these indolic compounds were also found in the cell-free extraction of B. pyrrocinia JK-SH007, but the genomic analysis of B. pyrrocinia JK-SH007 indicated that IAA biosynthesis was mainly through the IAM and TAM pathways. The effects of L-tryptophan (L-Trp), temperature and pH on the synthesis of IAA were investigated, and the results showed that L-Trp exerted a significant effect on IAA synthesis and that 37°C and pH 7 were the optimal conditions IAA production by B. pyrrocinia JK-SH007. In addition, the protein expression of tryptophan 2-monooxygenase and indoleacetamide hydrolase, which are the key enzymes of the indole acetamide-mediated IAA synthesis pathway, was analyzed, and their activity was verified by substrate feeding experiments. The results revealed the existence of an IAA synthesis pathway mediated by IAM and indicated that this pathway plays a role in B. pyrrocinia JK-SH007. This study lays the foundation for further exploration of the specific pathway and mechanism of IAA synthesis in B. pyrrocinia JK-SH007.
Project description:Enterobacter sp. DMKU-RP206 was isolated from rice leaves in Thailand and identified by the 16S rRNA gene and multilocus sequence (gyrB, rpoB, atpD, and infB genes) analysis. The bacterium was assessed on plant growth-promoting traits including indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) production. Phosphate solubilization, ammonia production, and antagonism to fungal plant pathogens, as well as siderophore production, were shown by this bacterium. However, only IAA production was focused on. The production of IAA by Enterobacter sp. DMKU-RP206 was optimized by statistical methods. A Box-Behnken design was used for the investigation of interactions among the basic influencing factors and for the optimization of IAA production. The results showed that l-tryptophan had a significant importance in terms of IAA production. Enterobacter sp. DMKU-RP206 produced a higher amount of IAA than previously reported for the genus Enterobacter. 0.85% of lactose as a carbon source, 1.3% of yeast extract as a nitrogen source, 1.1% of l-tryptophan as a precursor, 0.4% of NaCl, an initial pH of 5.8, an incubation temperature at 30 °C, and a shaking speed of 200 rpm were found to be the optimum conditions for IAA production. In addition, IAA production was performed to scale up IAA production, and the highest amount, 5561.7 mg l-1, was obtained. This study reported a 13.4-fold improvement in IAA production by Enterobacter sp. DMKU-RP206.
Project description:Phytohormone indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) is the most common naturally occurring and most thoroughly studied plant growth regulator. Microbial synthesis of IAA has long been known. Microbial IAA biosynthesis has been proposed as possibly occurring through multiple pathways, as has been proven in plants. However, the biosynthetic pathways of IAA and the ecological roles of IAA in yeast have not been widely studied. In this study, we investigated the variation in IAA production and its effect on the growth of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and its closest relative Saccharomyces paradoxus yeasts from diverse ecological sources. We found that almost all Saccharomyces yeasts produced IAA when cultured in medium supplemented with the primary precursor of IAA, L-tryptophan (L-Trp). However, when cultured in medium without L-Trp, IAA production was only detected in three strains. Furthermore, exogenous added IAA exerted stimulatory and inhibitory effects on yeast growth. Interestingly, a negative correlation was observed between the amount of IAA production in the yeast cultures and the IAA inhibition ratio of their growth.
Project description:Bacterial indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), an effector molecule in microbial physiology, plays an important role in plant growth-promotion. Here, we comprehensively analyzed about 7282 prokaryotic genomes representing diverse bacterial phyla, combined with root-associated metagenomic data to unravel the distribution of tryptophan-dependent IAA synthesis pathways and to quantify the IAA synthesis-related genes in the plant root environments. We found that 82.2% of the analyzed bacterial genomes were potentially capable of synthesizing IAA from tryptophan (Trp) or intermediates. Interestingly, several phylogenetically diverse bacteria showed a preferential tendency to utilize different pathways and tryptamine and indole-3-pyruvate pathways are most prevalent in bacteria. About 45.3% of the studied genomes displayed multiple coexisting pathways, constituting complex IAA synthesis systems. Furthermore, root-associated metagenomic analyses revealed that rhizobacteria mainly synthesize IAA via indole-3-acetamide (IAM) and tryptamine (TMP) pathways and might possess stronger IAA synthesis abilities than bacteria colonizing other environments. The obtained results refurbished our understanding of bacterial IAA synthesis pathways and provided a faster and less labor-intensive alternative to physiological screening based on genome collections. The better understanding of IAA synthesis among bacterial communities could maximize the utilization of bacterial IAA to augment the crop growth and physiological function.
Project description:Indole propionic acid (IPA), produced by the gut microbiota, is active against Mycobacterium tuberculosis in vitro and in vivo However, its mechanism of action is unknown. IPA is the deamination product of tryptophan (Trp) and thus a close structural analog of this essential aromatic amino acid. De novo Trp biosynthesis in M. tuberculosis is regulated through feedback inhibition: Trp acts as an allosteric inhibitor of anthranilate synthase TrpE, which catalyzes the first committed step in the Trp biosynthesis pathway. Hence, we hypothesized that IPA may mimic Trp as an allosteric inhibitor of TrpE and exert its antimicrobial effect by blocking synthesis of Trp at the TrpE catalytic step. To test our hypothesis, we carried out metabolic, chemical rescue, genetic, and biochemical analyses. Treatment of mycobacteria with IPA inhibited growth and reduced the intracellular level of Trp, an effect abrogated upon supplementation of Trp in the medium. Missense mutations at the allosteric Trp binding site of TrpE eliminated Trp inhibition and caused IPA resistance. In conclusion, we have shown that IPA blocks Trp biosynthesis in M. tuberculosis via inhibition of TrpE by mimicking the physiological allosteric inhibitor of this enzyme.IMPORTANCE New drugs against tuberculosis are urgently needed. The tryptophan (Trp) analog indole propionic acid (IPA) is the first antitubercular metabolite produced by human gut bacteria. Here, we show that this antibiotic blocks Trp synthesis, an in vivo essential biosynthetic pathway in M. tuberculosis Intriguingly, IPA acts by decoupling a bacterial feedback regulatory mechanism: it mimics Trp as allosteric inhibitor of anthranilate synthase, thereby switching off Trp synthesis regardless of intracellular Trp levels. The identification of IPA's target paves the way for the discovery of more potent TrpE ligands employing rational, target-based lead optimization.
Project description:Arthrobacter pascens ZZ21 is a plant-beneficial, fluoranthene-degrading bacterial strain found in the rhizosphere. The production of the phytohormone indole-3-aectic acid (IAA) by ZZ21 is thought to contribute to its ability to promote plant growth and remediate fluoranthene-contaminated soil. Using genome-wide analysis combined with metabolomic and high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS) analyses, we characterized the potential IAA biosynthesis pathways in A. pascens ZZ21. IAA production increased 4.5-fold in the presence of 200 mg·L-1 tryptophan in the culture medium. The transcript levels of prr and aldH, genes which were predicted to encode aldehyde dehydrogenases, were significantly upregulated in response to exogenous tryptophan. Additionally, metabolomic analysis identified the intermediates indole-3-acetamide (IAM), indole-3-pyruvic acid (IPyA), and the enzymatic reduction product of the latter, indole-3-lactic acid (ILA), among the metabolites of ZZ21, and subsequently also IAM, ILA, and indole-3-ethanol (TOL), which is the enzymatic reduction product of indole-3-acetaldehyde, by HPLC-MS. These results suggest that the tryptophan-dependent IAM and IPyA pathways function in ZZ21.
Project description:The plant pathogen Agrobacterium tumefaciens infects plants and introduces the transferred-DNA (T-DNA) region of the Ti-plasmid into nuclear DNA of host plants to induce the formation of tumors (crown galls). The T-DNA region carries iaaM and iaaH genes for synthesis of the plant hormone auxin, indole-3-acetic acid (IAA). It has been demonstrated that the iaaM gene encodes a tryptophan 2-monooxygenase which catalyzes the conversion of tryptophan to indole-3-acetamide (IAM), and the iaaH gene encodes an amidase for subsequent conversion of IAM to IAA. In this article, we demonstrate that A. tumefaciens enhances the production of both IAA and phenylacetic acid (PAA), another auxin which does not show polar transport characteristics, in the formation of crown galls. Using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectroscopy, we found that the endogenous levels of phenylacetamide (PAM) and PAA metabolites, as well as IAM and IAA metabolites, are remarkably increased in crown galls formed on the stem of tomato plants, implying that two distinct auxins are simultaneously synthesized via the IaaM-IaaH pathway. Moreover, we found that the induction of the iaaM gene dramatically elevated the levels of PAM, PAA and its metabolites, along with IAM, IAA and its metabolites, in Arabidopsis and barley. From these results, we conclude that A. tumefaciens enhances biosynthesis of two distinct auxins in the formation of crown galls.
Project description:Endophytic fungi are known to produce indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), which can stimulate plant growth. Twenty-seven isolates of endophytic fungi were isolated from Coffea arabica in northern Thailand. Only one isolate (CMU-A109) produced IAA in vitro. This isolate was identified as Colletotrichum fructicola based on morphological characteristics and molecular phylogenetic analysis of a combined five loci (internal transcribed spacer of ribosomal DNA, actin, ?-tubulin 2, chitin synthase and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase genes). Identification of a fungal IAA production obtained from indole 3-acetamide (IAM) and tryptophan 2-monooxygenase activity is suggestive of IAM routed IAA biosynthesis. The highest IAA yield (1205.58±151.89 ?g/mL) was obtained after 26 days of cultivation in liquid medium supplemented with 8 mg/mL L-tryptophan at 30°C. Moreover, the crude fungal IAA could stimulate coleoptile elongation of maize, rice and rye. This is the first report of IAA production by C. fructicola and its ability to produce IAA was highest when compared with previous reports on IAA produced by fungi.
Project description:The beneficial bacterium Pseudomonas chlororaphis O6 produces indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), a plant growth regulator. However, the pathway involved in IAA production in this bacterium has not been reported. In this paper we describe the involvement of the indole-3-acetamide (IAM) pathway in IAA production in P. chlororaphis O6 and the effects of CuO and ZnO nanoparticles (NPs). Sublethal levels of CuO and ZnO NPs differentially affected the levels of IAA secreted in medium containing tryptophan as the precursor. After 15 h of growth, CuO NP-exposed cells had metabolized more tryptophan than the control and ZnO NP-challenged cells. The CuO NP-treated cells produced higher IAA levels than control cultures lacking NPs. In contrast, ZnO NPs inhibited IAA production. Mixing of CuO and ZnO NPs resulted in an intermediate level of IAA production relative to the levels in the separate CuO and ZnO NP treatments. The effect of CuO NPs on IAA levels could be duplicated by ions at the concentrations released from the NPs. However, ion release did not account for the inhibition caused by the ZnO NPs. The mechanism underlying changes in IAA levels cannot be accounted for by effects on transcript accumulation from genes encoding a tryptophan permease or the IAM hydrolase in 15-h cultures. These findings raise the issue of whether sublethal doses of NPs would modify the beneficial effects of association between plants and bacteria.
Project description:Caenorhabditis elegans uses aggregation pheromones to communicate its nutritional status and recruit fellow members of its species to food sources. These aggregation pheromones include the IC-ascarosides, ascarosides modified with an indole-3-carbonyl (IC) group on the 4'-position of the ascarylose sugar. Nothing is known about the biosynthesis of the IC modification beyond the fact that it is derived from tryptophan. Here, we show that C. elegans produces endogenously several indole-containing metabolites, including indole-3-pyruvic acid (IPA), indole-3-acetic acid (IAA; auxin), and indole-3-carboxylic acid, and that these metabolites are intermediates in the biosynthetic pathway from tryptophan to the IC group. Stable isotope-labeled IPA and IAA are incorporated into the IC-ascarosides. Importantly, we show that flux through the biosynthetic pathway is affected by the activity of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC). Knockdown of the PDC by RNA interference leads to an accumulation of upstream metabolites and a reduction in downstream metabolites in the pathway. Our results show that production of aggregation pheromones is linked to PDC activity and that aggregation behavior may reflect a favorable metabolic state in the worm. Lastly, we show that treatment of C. elegans with indole-containing metabolites in the pathway induces the biosynthesis of the IC-ascarosides. Because the natural environment of C. elegans is rotting plant material, indole-containing metabolites in this environment could potentially stimulate pheromone biosynthesis and aggregation behavior in the worm. Thus, there may be important links between tryptophan metabolism in C. elegans and in plants and bacteria that enable interkingdom signaling.