Detection and molecular characterization of urinary tract HIV-1 populations.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Identification of all possible HIV reservoirs is an important aspect in HIV eradication efforts. The urinary tract has however not been well studied as a potential HIV reservoir. In this pilot study we molecularly characterized HIV-1 viruses in urine and plasma samples to investigate HIV-1 replication, compartmentalization and persistence in the urinary tract. METHODS:Prospectively collected urine and blood samples collected over 12-36 months from 20 HIV-1 infected individuals were analysed including sampling points from prior to and after ART initiation. HIV-1 pol gene RNA and DNA from urine supernatant and urine pellets respectively were analysed and compared to plasma RNA viruses from the same individual. RESULTS:HIV-1 nucleic acid was detected in urine samples from at least one time point in 8/20 (40%) treatment-naïve subjects compared to 1/13 (7.7%) individuals on antiretroviral treatment (ART) during periods of plasma viral suppression and 1/7 (14.3%) individuals with virological failure. HIV-1 RNA was undetectable in urine samples after ART initiation but HIV-1 DNA was detectable in one patient more than 6 months after treatment initiation. There was co-clustering of urine-derived pol sequences but some urine-derived sequences were interspersed among the plasma-derived sequences. CONCLUSIONS:Suppressive ART reduces HIV-1 replication in the urinary tract but HIV-1 DNA may persist in these cells despite treatment. A larger number of sequences would be required to confirm HIV compartmentalization in the urinary tract.
Project description:HIV-1 persists indefinitely in multiple cellular reservoirs despite antiretroviral therapy. We previously demonstrated HIV-1 compartmentalization in kidney and urine. Here, we further characterized viruses in urine and when available, compared them to those present in semen from HIV-1 positive participants with detectable plasma viremia to further understand the viral dynamics in the upper and lower genitourinary tract.Blood and urine samples were obtained from 19 HIV-1 positive participants. Simultaneous semen samples were obtained from 16 of the 19 participants. HIV-1 envelope (env) gene sequences were obtained by single-genome amplification (SGA) and neighbor-joining trees were constructed using the Kimura 2-parameter model.HIV-1 env gene sequences were amplified from blood in 19/19 (100%) participants, urine in 18/19 (95%) participants, and semen in 12/16 (75%). In individuals from which both urine and semen samples were obtained, differences in viral shedding between the 2 sources were observed, where HIV-1 env sequences could only be amplified from either urine or semen. Longitudinal phylogenetic analysis of urine-derived env sequences from 1 participant demonstrated that urine clusters distinct from blood are maintained over time (20 weeks), consistent with viral compartmentalization and local replication. Comparison of urine and semen derived sequences demonstrated either virus compartmentalization or equilibration.Our results demonstrate that when present, viral compartmentalization in urine persists over time. Comparison of timing of viral shedding in urine and semen samples from our cohort suggest different viral kinetics between the upper and lower genitourinary tract and sequence analysis suggests that HIV-1 populations in urine and semen can either be imported from blood or produced locally.
Project description:HIV-1 persists indefinitely in memory CD4 T cells and other long-lived cellular reservoirs despite antiretroviral therapy. Our group had previously demonstrated that HIV-1 can establish a productive infection in renal epithelial cells and that the kidney represents a separate compartment for HIV-1 replication. Here, to better understand the viruses in this unique site, we genetically characterized and compared the viruses in blood and urine specimens from 24 HIV-1 infected patients with detectable viremia.Blood and urine samples were obtained from 35 HIV-1 positive patients. Single-genome amplification was performed on HIV-1 env RNA and DNA isolated from urine supernatants and urine-derived cell pellets, respectively, as well as from plasma and peripheral blood mononuclear cell from the same individuals. Neighbor-joining trees were constructed under the Kimura 2-parameter model.We amplified and sequenced the full-length HIV-1 envelope (env) gene from 12 of the 24 individuals, indicating that 50% of the viremic HIV-1-positive patients had viral RNA in their urine. Phylogenetic analysis of the env sequences from four individuals with more than 15 urine-derived env sequences showed that the majority of the sequences from urine formed distinct cluster(s) independent of those peripheral blood mononuclear cell and plasma-derived sequences, consistent with viral compartmentalization in the urine.Our results suggest the presence of a distinct HIV compartment in the genitourinary tract.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Data on the prevalence of renal and urine abnormalities among HIV-infected children in Sub-Saharan Africa are limited. We set out to determine the prevalence of proteinuria; low estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), urinary tract infection and associated factors among HIV-infected antiretroviral therapy (ART) naive children, aged 2-12 years, attending the paediatric HIV clinic at a tertiary hospital in Harare. METHODS: Consecutive ART naive children attending the clinic between June and October 2009 were recruited. Detailed medical history was obtained and a complete physical examination was performed. Children were screened for urinary tract infection and for significant persistent proteinuria. Serum creatinine was used to estimate GFR using the modified Counahan-Barratt formula. The Student's t-test was used to analyse continuous variables and the chi-square or Fisher's exact test was used to analyse categorical data. Logistic regression was performed to assess the relationship between study factors and urine abnormalities, persistent proteinuria and the eGFR. RESULTS: Two hundred and twenty children were enrolled into the study. The median age was 90 months (Q1=65.5; Q3=116.5). The prevalence of urinary tract infection was 9.5%. Escherichia coli was the predominant organism. There was uniform resistance to cotrimoxazole. Persistent proteinuria (urine protein to creatinine ratio greater than 0.2, a week apart) was found in 5% of the children. Seventy-five children (34.6%) had mild to moderate renal impairment shown by a low eGFR (30 to <90 ml/min/1.73 m2). Persistent proteinuria was more likely to be found in children who were wasted, weight-for-height (WHZ) z-score <-2 (p=0.0005). Children with WHO clinical stage 4 were more likely to have a low eGFR than children with less advanced stages (OR 2.68; CI 1.24-5.80). Urine abnormalities were more likely to be observed in children with WHO clinical stages 3 and 4 (OR 2.20; CI 1.06-4.60). CONCLUSION: There is significant renal impairment among HIV-infected, ART naive children aged 2-12 years attending the outpatient paediatric HIV clinic at Harare Central Hospital. The abnormalities are more likely to occur in children with advanced HIV/AIDS. Screening for renal impairment and urinary tract infections in HIV-infected children before initiation of ART and regularly thereafter would be helpful in their management. KEYWORDS: HIV, renal disease, persistent proteinuria, glomerular filtration rate, urinary tract infection.
Project description:If strategies currently in development succeed in eradicating HIV reservoirs in peripheral blood and lymphoid tissues, residual sources of virus may remain in anatomic compartments. Paired blood and semen samples were collected from 12 individuals enrolled in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled therapeutic vaccine clinical trial in people with HIV (PWH) who began antiretroviral therapy (ART) during acute or early infection (ClinicalTrials registration no. NCT01859325). After the week 56 visit (postintervention), all participants interrupted ART. At the first available time points after viral rebound, we sequenced HIV-1 <i>env</i> (C2-V3), <i>gag</i> (p24), and <i>pol</i> (reverse transcriptase) regions amplified from cell-free HIV RNA in blood and seminal plasma using the MiSeq Illumina platform. Comprehensive sequence and phylogenetic analyses were performed to evaluate viral population structure, compartmentalization, and viral diversity in blood and seminal plasma. Compared to that in blood, HIV RNA rebound in semen occurred significantly later (median of 66 versus 42?days post-ART interruption, <i>P</i> < 0.01) and reached lower levels (median 164 versus 16,090 copies/ml, <i>P</i> < 0.01). Three of five participants with available sequencing data presented compartmentalized viral rebound between blood and semen in one HIV coding region. Despite early ART initiation, HIV RNA molecular diversity was higher in semen than in blood in all three coding regions for most participants. Higher HIV RNA molecular diversity in the genital tract (compared to that in blood plasma) and evidence of compartmentalization illustrate the distinct evolutionary dynamics between these two compartments after ART interruption. Future research should evaluate whether the genital compartment might contribute to viral rebound in some PWH interrupting ART.<b>IMPORTANCE</b> To cure HIV, we likely need to target the reservoirs in all anatomic compartments. Here, we used sophisticated statistical and phylogenetic methods to analyze blood and semen samples collected from 12 persons with HIV who began antiretroviral therapy (ART) during very early HIV infection and who interrupted their ART as part of a clinical trial. First, we found that HIV RNA rebound in semen occurred significantly later and reached lower levels than in blood. Second, we found that the virus in semen was genetically different in some participants compared to that in blood. Finally, we found increased HIV RNA molecular diversity in semen compared to that in blood in almost all study participants. These data suggest that the HIV RNA populations emerging from the genital compartment after ART interruption might not be the same as those emerging from blood plasma. Future research should evaluate whether the genital compartment might contribute to viral rebound in some people with HIV (PWH) interrupting ART.
Project description:The genital tract of individuals infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) is an anatomic compartment that supports local HIV-1 and cytomegalovirus (CMV) replication. This study investigated the association of seminal CMV replication with changes in HIV-1 clonal expansion, evolution and phylogenetic compartmentalization between blood and semen. Fourteen paired blood and semen samples were analyzed from four untreated subjects. Clonal sequences (n?=?607) were generated from extracted HIV-1 RNA (env C2-V3 region), and HIV-1 and CMV levels were measured in the seminal plasma by real-time PCR. Sequence alignments were evaluated for: (i) viral compartmentalization between semen and blood samples using Slatkin-Maddison and F(ST) methods, (ii) different nucleotide substitution rates in semen and blood, and (iii) association between proportions of clonal HIV-1 sequences in each compartment and seminal CMV levels. Half of the semen samples had detectable CMV DNA, with at least one CMV positive sample for each patient. Seminal CMV DNA levels correlated positively with seminal HIV-1 RNA levels (Spearman P?=?0.05). A trend towards an association between compartmentalization of HIV-1 sequences sampled from blood and semen and presence of seminal CMV was observed (Cochran Q test P?=?0.12). Evolutionary rates between semen and blood HIV-1 populations did not differ significantly, and there was no significant association between seminal CMV DNA levels and the frequency of non-unique clonal HIV-1 sequences in the semen. In conclusion, the effects of CMV replication on HIV-1 viral and immunologic dynamics within the male genital tract are not significant enough to perturb evolution or disrupt compartmentalization in the genital tract.
Project description:Understanding the dynamics and spread of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) within the body, including within the female genital tract with its central role in heterosexual and peripartum transmission, has important implications for treatment and vaccine development. To study HIV-1 populations within tissues, we compared viruses from across the cervix to those in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) during effective and failing antiretroviral therapy (ART) and in patients not receiving ART. Single-genome sequences of the C2-V5 region of HIV-1 env were derived from PBMC and three cervical biopsies per subject. Maximum-likelihood phylogenies were evaluated for differences in genetic diversity and compartmentalization within and between cervical biopsies and PBMC. All subjects had one or more clades with genetically identical HIV-1 env sequences derived from single-genome sequencing. These sequences were from noncontiguous cervical biopsies or from the cervix and circulating PBMC in seven of eight subjects. Compartmentalization of virus between genital tract and blood was observed by statistical methods and tree topologies in six of eight subjects, and potential genital lineages were observed in two of eight subjects. The detection of monotypic sequences across the cervix and blood, especially during effective ART, suggests that cells with provirus undergo clonal expansion. Compartmentalization of viruses within the cervix appears in part due to viruses homing to and/or expanding within the cervix and is rarely due to unique viruses evolving within the genital tract. Further studies are warranted to investigate mechanisms producing monotypic viruses across tissues and, importantly, to determine whether the proliferation of cells with provirus sustain HIV-1 persistence in spite of effective ART.
Project description:HIV-1 infects gut associated lymphoid tissues (GALT) very early after transmission by multiple routes. The infected GALT consequently serves as the major reservoir for HIV-1 infection and could constantly shed HIV-1 and CD4+ T cells into the intestinal lumen. To examine this hypothesis, we monitored HIV-1 RNA/DNA and CD4 mRNA in fecal samples of chronically infected subjects with and without antiretroviral therapy (ART). We compared this to levels of HIV-1 RNA/DNA in urine and blood from the same subjects. Our results show that HIV-1 DNA, RNA and CD4 mRNA were detected in 8%, 19% and 31% respectively, of feces samples from infected subjects with detectable plasma viral load, and were not detected in any of subjects on ART with undetectable plasma viral load. In urine samples, HIV-1 DNA was detected in 24% of infected subjects with detectable plasma viral load and 23% of subjects on ART with undetectable plasma viral load. Phylogenetic analysis of the envelope sequences of HIV-1 revealed distinct virus populations in concurrently collected serum, feces and urine samples from one subject. In addition, our study demonstrated for the first time the presence of CD4 mRNA in fecal specimens of HIV-1 infected subjects, which could be used to assess GALT pathogenesis in HIV-1 infection.
Project description:A reservoir of HIV-infected cells that persists despite suppressive antiretroviral therapy (ART) is the source of viral rebound upon ART cessation and the major barrier to a cure. Understanding reservoir seeding dynamics will help identify the best timing for HIV cure strategies. Here we characterize reservoir seeding using longitudinal samples from before and after ART initiation in individuals who sequentially became infected with genetically distinct HIV variants (superinfected). We previously identified cases of superinfection in a cohort of Kenyan women, and the dates of both initial infection and superinfection were determined. Six women, superinfected 0.2-5.2 years after initial infection, were subsequently treated with ART 5.4-18.0 years after initial infection. We performed next-generation sequencing of HIV gag and env RNA from plasma collected during acute infection as well as every ~2 years thereafter until ART initiation, and of HIV DNA from PBMCs collected 0.9-4.8 years after viral suppression on ART. We assessed phylogenetic relationships between HIV DNA reservoir sequences and longitudinal plasma RNA sequences prior to ART, to determine proportions of initial and superinfecting variants in the reservoir. The proportions of initial and superinfection lineage variants present in the HIV DNA reservoir were most similar to the proportions present in HIV RNA immediately prior to ART initiation. Phylogenetic analysis confirmed that the majority of HIV DNA reservoir sequences had the smallest pairwise distance to RNA sequences from timepoints closest to ART initiation. Our data suggest that while reservoir cells are created throughout pre-ART infection, the majority of HIV-infected cells that persist during ART entered the reservoir near the time of ART initiation. We estimate the half-life of pre-ART DNA reservoir sequences to be ~25 months, which is shorter than estimated reservoir decay rates during suppressive ART, implying continual decay and reseeding of the reservoir up to the point of ART initiation.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:Resistant viruses may emerge in the female genital tract during antiretroviral therapy (ART). Our objective was to identify predictors of drug-resistant HIV-1 RNA in genital secretions after initiation of nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor-based therapy. DESIGN:We conducted a prospective cohort study with periodic evaluation of plasma and genital swab samples for HIV-1 RNA levels and antiretroviral resistance mutations. METHODS:First-line ART was initiated in 102 women. Plasma and genital HIV-1 RNA levels were measured at months 0, 3, 6, and 12. Genotypic resistance testing was performed for samples from all participants with RNA >1000 copies per milliliter at month 6 or 12. Cox regression analysis was used to identify factors associated with incident genital tract resistance. RESULTS:Detectable genital tract resistance developed in 5 women, all with detectable plasma resistance (estimated incidence, 5.5/100 person-years of observation). Treatment interruption >48 hours, adherence by pill count, adherence by visual analog scale, and baseline plasma viral load were associated with incident genital tract resistance. In multivariate analysis, only treatment interruption was associated with risk of detectable genital tract resistance (adjusted hazard ratio: 14.2; 95% confidence interval: 1.3 to 158.4). CONCLUSIONS:Treatment interruption >48 hours during nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor-based therapy led to a significantly increased risk of detecting genotypically resistant HIV-1 RNA in female genital tract secretions. Patient- and program-level interventions to prevent treatment interruptions could reduce the risk of shedding-resistant HIV-1 during ART.
Project description:Worldwide, 90% of HIV-1 infections are transmitted heterosexually. Because the genital mucosa are the sites of initial contact with HIV-1 for most exposed individuals, study of the virus from the genital tract is critical for the development of vaccines and therapeutics. Previous analyses of HIV-1 in various tissues have documented compartmentalization of viral genomes. Whether compartmentalization was associated with viral phenotypic differences or immune status, however, was not well understood. We compared HIV-1 gp120 env sequences from the genital tract and plasma of 12 women. Eight women displayed compartmentalized HIV-1 RNA genomes, with viral sequences from each site that were clearly discrete, yet phylogenetically related. The remaining four exhibited env sequences that were intermingled between the two sites. Women with compartmentalized HIV-1 genomes had higher CD4+ cell counts than those displaying intermingled strains (P = 0.02). Intrapatient HIV-1 recombinants comprising sequences that were characteristic of both sites were identified. We next compared viral phenotypes in each compartment. HIV-1 coreceptor usage was often compartmentalized (P 0.01). The number of N-linked glycosylation sites, associated with neutralization resistance, also differed between compartments (P < 0.01). Furthermore, disparities between the density of gp120 glycosylations in each compartment correlated with higher CD4+ counts (P = 0.03). These data demonstrate that the genital tract and plasma can harbor populations of replicating HIV-1 with different phenotypes. The association of higher CD4+ cell counts with compartmentalization of viral genomes and density of gp120 glycosylations suggests that the immune response influences the development of viral genotypes in each compartment. These findings are relevant to the prevention and control of HIV-1 infection.