5-Dodecanolide interferes with biofilm formation and reduces the virulence of Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) through up regulation of agr system.
ABSTRACT: Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a predominant human pathogen with high morbidity that is listed in the WHO high priority pathogen list. Being a primary cause of persistent human infections, biofilm forming ability of S. aureus plays a pivotal role in the development of antibiotic resistance. Hence, targeting biofilm is an alternative strategy to fight bacterial infections. The present study for the first time demonstrates the non-antibacterial biofilm inhibitory efficacy of 5-Dodecanolide (DD) against ATCC strain and clinical isolates of S. aureus. In addition, DD is able to inhibit adherence of MRSA on human plasma coated Titanium surface. Further, treatment with DD significantly reduced the eDNA synthesis, autoaggregation, staphyloxanthin biosynthesis and ring biofilm formation. Reduction in staphyloxanthin in turn increased the susceptibility of MRSA to healthy human blood and H2O2 exposure. Quantitative PCR analysis revealed the induced expression of agrA and agrC upon DD treatment. This resulted down regulation of genes involved in biofilm formation such as fnbA and fnbB and up regulation of RNAIII, hld, psm? and genes involved in biofilm matrix degradation such as aur and nuc. Inefficacy of DD on the biofilm formation of agr mutant further validated the agr mediated antibiofilm potential of DD. Notably, DD was efficient in reducing the in vivo colonization of MRSA in Caenorhabditis elegans. Results of gene expression studies and physiological assays unveiled the agr mediated antibiofilm efficacy of DD.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Intercellular adhesion and biofilm production by Staphylococcus aureus makes these bacteria resistant to antimicrobial therapy. Here, Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains were characterized and the prevalence of genes encoding adhesion factors and biofilm formation was determined. RESULTS:All 248 MRSA isolates identified by cefoxitin disc diffusion were positive for the mecA gene. SCCmec-IV was the most frequently detected genotype (92.7%) and SCCmec-IVa was also very prevalent (84.3%). The quantitative microtiter plate assay showed that all the isolates were able to produce biofilm with levels ranging from high (21%) to moderate (46.4%) to low (32.7%). All the strains possessed the icaD/icaA genes and produced biofilm (P < 0.05). None of the isolates possessed the bap gene. Furthermore, 94.8% of the isolates were positive for eno, 80.2% for clfA and for clfB, 78.2% for fnbA, 76.2% for ebps, 62.2% for fib, 39.9% for cna and 29.0% for fnbB. Also, nearly 69.8% of the isolates were positive for the gene sarA. All four agr groups were present: agr group 1 was predominant with 39.5%; agr group 3. agr group 2 and 3 strains carried more toxin-producing genes, and frequently produced more toxin. Sixty-six (26.6%) of the strains were multidrug resistant. All were vancomycin sensitive. Agr group I is more resistant to ciprofloxacin and gentamicin while agr group III is more resistant to erythromycin. Maximum sensitivity was to gentamicin and SXT, and they could be considered drugs of choice for controlling MRSA mediated infections in this region. CONCLUSIONS:Biofilm development in MRSA might be an ica dependent and one needs to investigate the involvement of other global regulators, agr and sarA, and their contribution to the biofilm phenotype, as the high rate of biofilm production among the studied strains of S. aureus.
Project description:Despite the existing antibiotics, antimicrobial resistance is a major challenge. Consequently, the development of new drugs remains in great demand. Quinones is part of a broad group of molecules that present antibacterial activity besides other biological properties. The main purpose of this study was to evaluate the antibiofilm activities of synthetic N,O-acetals derived from 2-amino-1,4-naphthoquinone [7a: 2-(methoxymethyl)-amino-1,4-naphthoquinone; 7b: 2-(ethoxymethyl)-amino-1,4-naphthoquinone; and 7c: 2-(propynyloxymethyl)-amino-1,4-naphthoquinone] against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). The derivatives 7b and 7c, specially 7b, caused strong impact on biofilm accumulation. This inhibition was linked to decreased expression of the genes fnbA, spa, hla and psm?3. More importantly, this downregulation was paralleled by the modulation of global virulence regulators. The substitution of 2-ethoxymethyl (7b) in comparison with 2-propynyloxymethyl (7c) enhanced sarA-agr inhibition, decreased fnbA transcripts (positively regulated by sarA) and strongly impaired biofilm accumulation. Indeed, 7b triggered intensive autolysis and was able to eliminate vancomycin-persistent cells. Consequently, 7b is a promising molecule displaying not only antimicrobial effects, but also antibiofilm and antipersistence activities. Therefore, 7b is a good candidate for further studies involving the development of novel and more rational antimicrobials able to act in chronic and recalcitrant infections, associated with biofilm formation.
Project description:Carvacrol is an essential oil traditionally used in culinary processes as spice due to its aromatic nature and also known for various biological activities. In the present study, the antivirulence efficacy of carvacrol against methicillin-resistant <i>Staphylococcus aureus</i> (MRSA) is explored. MRSA is an opportunistic pathogen capable of causing various superficial and systemic infections in humans. Biofilm formation and virulence factors of MRSA are responsible for its pathogenesis and resistance. Hence, the aim of this study was to explore the antibiofilm and antivirulence efficacy of carvacrol against MRSA. Carvacrol at 75 ?g/mL inhibited MRSA biofilm by 93%, and it also decreased the biofilm formation on polystyrene and glass surfaces. Further, microscopic analyses revealed the reduction in microcolony formation and collapsed structure of biofilm upon carvacrol treatment. The growth curve analysis and the Alamar blue assay showed the nonfatal effect of carvacrol on MRSA. Further, carvacrol significantly reduced the production of MRSA biofilm-associated slime and extracellular polysaccharide. In addition, carvacrol strongly inhibited the antioxidant pigment staphyloxanthin and its intermediates' synthesis in MRSA. Inhibition of biofilm and staphyloxanthin by carvacrol enhanced the susceptibility of MRSA to oxidants and healthy human blood. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) analysis unveiled the downregulation of <i>sarA</i>-mediated biofilm gene expression and staphyloxanthin-associated <i>crtM</i> gene expression. The <i>sarA</i>-dependent antibiofilm potential of carvacrol was validated using <i>S. aureus</i> Newman wild-type and isogenic ?<i>sarA</i> strains. <i>In silico</i> molecular docking analysis showed the high binding efficacy of carvacrol with staphylococcal accessory regulator A (SarA) and 4,4'-diapophytoene synthase (CrtM) when compared to positive controls. Furthermore, the <i>in vivo</i> efficacy of carvacrol against MRSA infection was demonstrated using the model organism <i>Galleria mellonella</i>. The results revealed the nontoxic nature of carvacrol to the larvae and the rescuing potential of carvacrol against MRSA infection. Finally, the current study reveals the potential of carvacrol in inhibiting the biofilm formation and staphyloxanthin synthesis of MRSA by targeting the global regulator SarA and a novel antivirulence target CrtM.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) with accessory gene regulator (agr) dysfunction occurs in health care settings. This study evaluated the prevalence and the molecular and drug resistance characteristics of S. aureus with dysfunctional agr in a pediatric population in Beijing, China. RESULTS:A total of 269 nonduplicate S. aureus clinical isolates were isolated from Beijing Children's Hospital, including 211 methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) from September 2010-2017 and 58 methicillin-sensitive S. aureus (MSSA) from February 2016-2017. Only 8 MRSA and 2 MSSA isolates were identified as agr dysfunction, and the overall prevalence rate was 3.7%. For MRSA isolates, ST59-SCCmec IV and ST239-SCCmec III were the most common clones, and the prevalence rate of agr dysfunction in ST239-SCCmec III isolates (17.39%) was significantly higher than in ST59-SCCmec IV (1.69%) and other genotype strains (P?=?0.006). Among the agr dysfunctional isolates, only one MRSA ST59 isolate and one MSSA ST22 isolate harbored pvl. No significant difference was detected between agr dysfunction and agr functional isolates regarding the biofilm formation ability (P?=?0.4972); however, 9/10 agr dysfunctional isolates could effectuate strong biofilm formation and multidrug resistance. Among MRSA, the non-susceptibility rates to ciprofloxacin, gentamicin, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole were significantly higher in agr dysfunctional isolates than in isolates with functional agr (P?<?0.05). Two isolates belonging to ST239 had no mutations in agr locus, but a synonymous mutation was found in agrA in another ST239 isolate. The inactivating mutations were detected in other seven agr dysfunctional isolates. The variants were characterized by non-synonymous changes (n?=?5) and frameshift mutations (insertions, n?=?2), which mainly occurred in agrC and agrA. CONCLUSIONS:The results showed that agr dysfunctional S. aureus was not common in Chinese children, and ST59-SCCmec IV was associated with lower prevalence of agr dysfunction as compared to ST239-SCCmec III isolates. The agr dysfunctional isolates were healthcare-associated, multidrug resistant and form strong biofilm, which suggested that agr dysfunction might offer potential advantages for S. aureus to survive in a medical environment.
Project description:Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a deleterious human pathogen responsible for severe morbidity and mortality worldwide. The pathogen has attained high priority in the World Health Organization (WHO) - Multidrug-resistant (MDR) pathogens list. Emerging MDR strains of S. aureus are clinically challenging due to failure in conventional antibiotic therapy. Biofilm formation is one of the underlying mechanisms behind the antibiotic resistance. Hence, attenuating biofilm formation has become an alternative strategy to control persistent infections. The current study is probably the first that focuses on the antibiofilm and antivirulence potential of myrtenol against MRSA and its clinical isolates. Myrtenol exhibited a concentration-dependent biofilm inhibition without causing any harmful effect on cell growth and viability. Further, microscopic analysis validated the biofilm inhibitory efficacy of myrtenol against MRSA. In addition, myrtenol inhibited the synthesis of major virulence factors including slime, lipase, ?-hemolysin, staphyloxanthin and autolysin. Inhibition of staphyloxanthin in turn sensitized the MRSA cells to healthy human blood and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Notably, myrtenol treated cells were deficient in extracellular DNA (eDNA) mediated autoaggregation as eDNA releasing autolysis was impaired by myrtenol. Biofilm disruptive activity on preformed biofilms was observed at concentrations higher than minimum biofilm inhibitory concentration (MBIC) of myrtenol. Also, the non-cytotoxic effect of myrtenol on human peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) was evidenced by trypan blue and Alamar blue assays. Transcriptional analysis unveiled the down-regulation of global regulator sarA and sarA mediated virulence genes upon myrtenol treatment, which is well correlated with results of phenotypic assays. Thus, the results of the present study revealed the sarA mediated antibiofilm and antivirulence potential of myrtenol against MRSA.
Project description:Goat milk has been frequently implicated in staphylococcal food poisoning. The potential risk of raw goat milk contaminated by Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) in Shaanxi province of China is still not well documented. This study investigated the prevalence, antibiotic resistance, as well as virulence-related genes of S. aureus from raw goat milk samples in Shaanxi, China. A total of 68 S. aureus isolates were cultured from 289 raw goat milk. Most of the isolates were resistant to penicillin and oxacillin, although 41.18%, 33.82%, and 29.41% of the isolates expressed resistance to piperacillin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, and ciprofloxacin, respectively. Our data demonstrated that 91.18% of the isolates produced biofilm, of which 54.41% isolates belonged to high-biofilm producers. In addition, genotypic analysis of biofilm related genes (fnbA, clfB, fnbB, cna) revealed that 91.18% of the isolates harbored at least one of the genes, in which the most prevalent genes were fnbA (66. 17%), clfB (48.53%), and fnbB (26.47%). 94.8% of the isolates contained at least one toxin-related gene, of which seb (76.47%), tsst (36.76%), and sea (23.53%) genes were the more frequently detected. Further analysis revealed a positive association between fnbA, clfB, fnbB, seb, tsst, and sea genes and certain antibiotic resistance. The results indicated that raw goat milk samples contaminated by S. aureus can be a potential risk to public health.
Project description:: Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) is one of the most clinically important zoonotic pathogens, but an understanding of the prevalence, biofilm formulation ability, virulence, and antimicrobial resistance genes of S. aureus from veterinary hospitals is lacking. By characterizing S. aureus in different origins of veterinary hospitals in Guangzhou, China, in 2019, we identified with the presence of S. aureus in pets (17.1%), veterinarians (31.7%), airborne dust (19.1%), environmental surfaces (4.3%), and medical device surfaces (10.8%). Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and Staphylococcus protein A (spa) typing analyses demonstrated methicillin-sensitive S. aureus (MSSA) ST398-t571, MSSA ST188-t189, and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) ST59-t437 were the most prevalent lineage. S. aureus with similar pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) types distributed widely in different kinds of samples. The crystal violet straining assays revealed 100% (3/3) of MRSA ST59 and 81.8% (9/11) of MSSA ST188 showed strong biofilm formulation ability, whereas other STs (ST1, ST5, ST7, ST15, ST88, ST398, ST3154 and ST5353) showed weak biofilm production ability. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) confirmed the most prevalent leucocidin, staphylococcal enterotoxins, ica operon, and adhesion genes were lukD-lukE (49.0%), sec-sel (15.7%), icaA-icaB-icaC-icaR (100.0%), and fnbB-cidA-fib-ebps-eno (100.0%), respectively. Our study showed that the isolates with strong biofilm production ability had a higher prevalence in clfA, clfB, fnbA and sdrC genes compared to the isolates with weak biofilm production ability. Furthermore, 2 ST1-MRSA isolates with tst gene and 1 ST88-MSSA isolate with lukS/F-PV gene were detected. In conclusion, the clonal dissemination of S. aureus of different origins in veterinary hospitals may have occurred; the biofilm production capacity of S. aureus is strongly correlated with ST types; some adhesion genes such as clfA, clfB, fnbA, and sdrC may pose an influence on biofilm production ability and the emergence of lukS/F-PV and tst genes in S. aureus from veterinary hospitals should raise our vigilance.
Project description:<i>Staphylococcus aureus</i> (<i>S. aureus</i>) infections are notoriously complicated by the ability of the organism to grow in biofilms and are difficult to eradicate with antimicrobial therapy. The purpose of the current study was to clarify the influence of sub-inhibitory concentrations (sub-MICs) of daptomycin and tigecycline antibiotics on biofilm adhesion factors and exoproteins expressions by <i>S. aureus</i> clinical isolates. Six clinical isolates representing positive biofilm <i>S. aureus</i> clones (3 methicillin-sensitive <i>S. aureus</i> (MSSA) and 3 methicillin-resistant <i>S. aureus</i> (MRSA)) were grown with sub-MICs (0.5 MIC) of two antibiotics (daptomycin and tigecycline) for 12 h of incubation. RNA extracted from culture pellets was used via relative quantitative real-time-PCR (qRT-PCR) to determine expression of specific adhesion (<i>fnbA</i>, <i>fnbB</i>, <i>clfA</i>, <i>clfB</i>, <i>fib</i>, <i>ebps</i>, <i>cna</i>, <i>eno</i>) and biofilm (<i>icaADBC</i>) genes. To examine the effect of sub-MIC of these antibiotics on the expression of extracellular proteins, samples from the culture supernatants of six isolates were collected after 12 h of treatment with or without tigecycline in order to profile protein production via 2D gel sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2D gel-SDS-PAGE). Sub-MIC treatment of all clinical MRSA and MSSA strains with daptomycin or tigecycline dramatically induced or suppressed <i>fnbA</i>, <i>fnbB</i>, <i>clfA</i>, <i>clfB</i>, <i>fib</i>, <i>ebps</i>, <i>cna</i>, <i>eno</i>, and <i>icaADBC</i> gene expression. Furthermore, sub-MIC use of tigecycline significantly reduced the total number of separated protein spots across all the isolates, as well as decreasing production of certain individual proteins. Collectively, this study showed very different responses in terms of both gene expression and protein secretion across the various isolates. In addition, our results suggest that sub-MIC usage of daptomycin and tigecycline could signal virulence induction by <i>S. aureus</i> via the regulation of biofilm adhesion factor genes and exoproteins. If translating findings to the clinical treatment of <i>S. aureus</i>, the therapeutic regimen should be adapted depending on antibiotic, the virulence factor and strain type.
Project description:Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a serious human pathogen which has been listed as a high-priority multi-drug resistance pathogen by the World Health Organization (WHO). Persistent MRSA infections are often associated with biofilm formation and resistance to conventional antimicrobial therapy. Inhibiting the surface adherence and the virulence of the bacterium is the current alternative approach without affecting growth to reduce the possibility of resistance development. Although numerous antibiofilm agents have been identified, their mode of action remains unclear. Combining two drugs with different modes of action will improve the efficiency of the treatment strategy against MRSA. The present study was aimed to decipher the molecular mechanism underlying the antibiofilm activity of thymol against MRSA and assess the ability of thymol to improve the antibacterial activity of rifampicin. Thymol significantly inhibited 88% of MRSA biofilm formation at 100 ?g/ml and reduced the surface adherence of MRSA on glass, stainless steel, and titanium surface coated with human plasma as evidenced by microscopic analyses. qPCR analysis of global virulence regulatory genes and biofilm assay with S. aureus wild type, ?sarA, and ?agr strains revealed the sarA-mediated antibiofilm activity of thymol and inhibition of sarA-controlled virulence factors. Congo red assay and erythrocyte lysis assay further confirmed the reduction in polysaccharide intracellular adhesin and hemolysin. Importantly, thymol enhanced the antibacterial and the biofilm eradication efficiency of rifampicin against MRSA and also reduced the formation of persisters. Thus, the present study reveals the sarA-dependent antibiofilm efficacy of MRSA and suggests thymol as the promising combinatorial candidate in potentiating the antibacterial activity of rifampicin against persistent MRSA infections.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Nonsynonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in fibronectin binding protein A (fnbA) of Staphylococcus aureus are associated with cardiac device infections. However, the role of fnbA SNPs in S. aureus arthroplasty infection is unknown.<h4>Methods</h4>Bloodstream S. aureus isolates from a derivation cohort of patients at a single U.S. medical center with S. aureus bacteremia (SAB) and prosthetic hip or knee arthroplasties that were infected (PJI, n = 27) or uninfected (PJU, n = 43) underwent sequencing of fnbA and fnbB. A validation cohort of S. aureus bloodstream PJI (n = 12) and PJU (n = 58) isolates from Germany also underwent fnbA and fnbB sequencing.<h4>Results</h4>Overall, none of the individual fnbA or fnbB SNPs were significantly associated with the PJI or PJU clinical groups within the derivation cohort. Similarly, none of the individual fnbA or fnbB SNPs were associated with PJI or PJU when the analysis was restricted to patients with either early SAB (i.e., bacteremia occurring <1 year after placement or manipulation of prostheses) or late SAB (i.e., bacteremia >1 year after placement or manipulation of prostheses).<h4>Conclusions</h4>In contrast to cardiac device infections, there is no association between nonsynonymous SNPs in fnbA or fnbB of bloodstream S. aureus isolates and arthroplasty infection. These results suggest that initial steps leading to S. aureus infection of cardiovascular and orthopedic prostheses may arise by distinct processes.