Catalytic Asymmetric Synthesis of Diketopiperazines by Intramolecular Tsuji-Trost Allylation.
ABSTRACT: We report the intramolecular Tsuji-Trost reaction of Ugi adducts to give spiro-diketopiperazines in high yield and with high enantioselectivity. This approach allows the catalytic asymmetric construction of a broad range of these medicinally important heterocycles under mild conditions, in two steps from cheap, commercially available starting materials.
Project description:The diastereoselective synthesis of highly substituted ?-lactams by intramolecular Tsuji-Trost allylation is reported. Judicious selection of the ligand on palladium allows selective access to either the trans isomer (in generally good to excellent yield with very high diastereomeric excess) or cis isomer (with yields and diastereoselectivity ranging from modest to excellent depending on the substrate). The reaction proceeds under exceedingly mild conditions (rt, no additives) with a broad range of substrates, which are readily accessible by the Ugi reaction.
Project description:A novel four-step bidirectional strategy has been used to synthesize the IJK fragment of the marine polyether natural product CTX3C from a simple monocyclic precursor in a concise and efficient manner. The four-step bidirectional sequence involves ring-closing metathesis, alcohol oxidation, enol carbonate formation, and palladium-mediated Tsuji-Trost allylation.
Project description:A stereoselective intramolecular Tsuji-Trost cascade cyclization of (homo)allylic vicinal diacetates with a pendant ?-ketoamide or related carbon nucleophile to give ?-lactam-fused vinylcyclopropanes is reported. In addition to two new rings, the products contain three new C-C stereocenters (two of which are quaternary) with a 9:1 dr. Moreover, the reaction proceeds in >94% enantiospecificity with optically enriched starting materials, using an inexpensive carbohydrate as the source of chirality.
Project description:?3-Allyl palladium complexes are key intermediates in Tsuji-Trost allylic substitution reactions. It is well known that (?3-1-aryl-3-alkyl substituted allyl)Pd intermediates result in nucleophilic attack at the alkyl substituted terminus. In contrast, the chemistry of (?3-1,2,3-trisubstituted allyl)Pd intermediates is relatively unexplored. Herein we probe the regioselectivity with 1,2,3-trisubstituted allylic substrates in Tsuji-Trost allylic substitution reactions. DFT investigation of cationic (?3-1-Ph-2-B(pin)-3-alkyl-allyl)Pd(PPh3)2 intermediates predict that nucleophilic attack should occur preferentially on anti-allyls rather than the syn-isomers to generate benzylic substitution products under Curtin-Hammett conditions. Experimentally, systematic studies with 1,2,3-trisubstituted allylic substrates revealed that a Linear Free Energy Relationship (LFER) is observed when Charton steric parameters of the C-2 substituents are plotted against the log of the ratio of regioisomers. Bulkier C-2 substituents in 1,2,3-trisubstituted ?3-allyl palladium intermediates provide stronger preference for nucleophilic attack at anti-oriented benzylic termini. Additionally, the geometry of 1,4-elimination products supports the presence of anti-allyl palladium intermediates.
Project description:Macrocyclic triamine disulfonamides can be synthesized by double Tsuji-Trost N-allylation reaction of open-chain disulfonamides with 2-alkylidene-1,3-propanediyl bis(carbonates). The previously used Atkins-Richman macrocyclization method generally gives lower yields and requires more tedious purification of the product. Solvent, palladium source, ligand, and concentration have all been varied to optimize the yields of two key 12-membered ring bioactive compounds, CADA and VGD020. The new approach tolerates a wide range of functional groups and gives highest yields for symmetrical compounds in which the acidities of the two sulfonamide groups are matched, although the yields of unsymmetrical compounds are still generally good. The method has also been extended to the synthesis of 11-membered rings, pyridine-fused macrocycles, and products bearing an ester or aryl substituent on the exocyclic double bond.
Project description:We report here selective Tsuji-Trost type allylation of Ugi adducts using a strategy based on the enhanced nucleophilicity of amide dianions. Ugi adducts derived from aromatic aldehydes were easily allylated at their peptidyl position with allyl acetate in the presence of palladium catalysts. These substitutions were compared to more classical transition metal free allylations using allyl bromides.
Project description:Concise stereoselective syntheses of (+/-)-quinine and (+/-)-7-hydroxyquinine are achieved using a catalytic enone cycloallylation that combines the nucleophilic features of the Morita-Baylis-Hillman reaction and the electrophilic features of the Tsuji-Trost reaction. Cyclization of enone-allyl carbonate 11 delivers the product of cycloallylation 13 in 68% yield. Diastereoselective conjugate reduction of the enone 13 (>20:1 dr) followed by exchange of the N-protecting group provides the saturated N-Boc-protected methyl ketone 19, which upon aldol dehydration provides quinoline containing enone 15, possessing all carbon atoms of quinine. Exposure of ketone 15 to L-selectride enables diastereoselective carbonyl reduction (>20:1 dr) to furnish the allylic alcohol 16. Stereoselective hydroxyl-directed epoxidation using an oxovanadium catalyst modified by N-hydroxy-N-Me-pivalamide delivers epoxide 17 (17:1 dr). Cyclization of the resulting amine-epoxide 17 provides (+/-)-7-hydroxyquinine in 13 steps and 11% overall yield from aminoacetaldehyde diethyl acetal. Notably, highly stereoselective formation of five contiguous stereocenters is achieved through a series of 1,2-asymmetric induction events. Deoxygenation of the N-Cbz-protected allylic acetate 22 provides olefin 23, which previously has been converted to quinine. Thus, (+/-)-quinine is accessible in 16 steps and 4% overall yield from commercial aminoacetaldehyde diethyl acetal.
Project description:Successive nucleophilic and electrophilic allylation mediated by the bis-Boc-carbonate derived from 2-methylene-1,3-propane diol enables formation of enantiomerically enriched 2,4-disubstituted pyrrolidines. An initial enantioselective iridium-catalyzed transfer hydrogenative carbonyl C-allylation is followed by Tsuji-Trost N-allylation using 2-nitrobenzenesulfonamide. Subsequent Mitsunobu cyclization provides the N-protected 2,4-disubstituted pyrrolidines.
Project description:A practical three-step protocol for the assembly of triazolobenzodiazepine-fused diketopiperazines and hydantoins has been developed. The synthesis of these tetracyclic ring systems was initiated by an Ugi reaction, which brought together all necessary functionalities for further transformations. The Ugi adducts were then subjected to a base-induced ring closing and an intramolecular azide-alkyne cycloaddition reaction in succession to obtain highly fused benzodiazepine frameworks.
Project description:The well-known Ugi reaction of aldehydes with amines, carboxylic acids and isocyanides leads to the formation of acyclic ?-acylaminocarboxamides. Replacement of the carboxylic acid derivatives with ?-acyl substituted acrylic acids gives access to highly substituted 2,5-diketopiperazines in one single reaction-step without additives or complex reaction procedures. The obtained diketopiperazines show anti-proliferative effects on activated T cells and represent therefore potential candidates for targeting unwanted T cell-mediated immune responses.