Association Of GSTM1, GSTT1 And GSTP1 Polymorphisms With Breast Cancer Among Jordanian Women.
ABSTRACT: Purpose:Genetic predisposition to disease has become one of the most investigated risk factors in recent years, and breast cancer (BC) is no exception. In this study, we investigated specific genetic variants of three candidate genes belonging to the glutathione-S-transferase superfamily that have been implicated in increased risk of cancers. Materials and methods:This case-control study comprised 241 Jordanian women who were diagnosed with BC in addition to 219 matched controls. Gel electrophoresis of PCR products was used to visualize and genotype both the GSTM1 and GSTT1 genes, while PCR-RFLP was employed to genotype the rs1695 of the GSTP1 gene. Results:Our findings did not reveal any correlation between the investigated polymorphisms of GST genes and BC risk among Jordanian women. Otherwise, the combination of GSTM1 entire gene deletion and (GG) genotype of GSTP1 polymorphism (rs1695) was significantly associated with BC with p-value <0.05 (i.e. p-value was not significant after correcting for multiple comparison). Conclusion:We suggest that the interaction between GSTM1 polymorphism and rs1695 of GSTP1 may influence BC development and progression among Jordanian women. More epidemiological studies are needed to provide a baseline for the underlying role of GSTs polymorphisms in tumorigenesis.
Project description:Age-related cataract (ARC) is one of the most common eye diseases in the elderly worldwide, especially in China. The genetic polymorphisms of many glutathione S-transferases coding genes are likely to be closely related to the development of ARC, especially the GSTT1, the GSTM1 and the GSTP1. This investigation is aimed to determine the possible associations of GSTT1, GSTM1 and GSTP1 polymorphisms with the susceptibility of ARC in Chinese Han Population.A case-control study including ARC cases (n = 312) and controls (n = 256) in Chinese Han Population was performed. GSTT1 and GSTM1 polymorphisms were detected by duplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and two SNPs (rs1695, A/G and rs1138272, C/T) in GSTP1 gene were genotyped by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) method, all the results were verified by sequencing method.The GSTT1 null genotype carriers had a much higher risk of ARC compared with non-null genotype (χ(2) = 14.091, P<0.001), and the allele G carriers also had a increased risk over the allele A carriers in the SNP (rs1695, A/G) in GSTP1 gene (χ(2) = 7.696, P = 0.006), while the GSTM1 polymorphism and the SNP (rs1138272, C/T) in GSTP1 gene seem had no association with the susceptibility of ARC in Chinese Han Population.These preliminary results indicated carriage of null GSTT1 and GSTP1 Val/Val genotypes may contribute to genetic susceptibility to ARC in Chinese Han Population, and these genetic polymorphisms might be used as molecular markers for detecting ARC susceptibility.
Project description:Here we assessed associations between null mutations in glutathione-S-transferase (GST)T1 and GSTM1 genes, and the rs1695 polymorphism in GSTP1 (Ile(105)Val), and risk of breast cancer-specific (n=45) and all-cause (n=99) mortality in a multiethnic, prospective cohort of 533 women diagnosed with stage I-IIIA breast cancer in 1995-1999, enrolled in the Health, Eating, Activity, and Lifestyle (HEAL) Study.We measured the presence of the null mutation in GSTT1 and GSTM1, and the rs1695 polymorphism in GSTP1 by polymerase chain reaction. We assessed associations between breast-cancer specific and all-cause mortality using Cox proportional hazards models.Participants with ER-negative tumors were more likely to be GSTT1 null (χ(2)=4.52; P=0.03), and African American women were more likely to be GSTM1 null (χ(2)=34.36; P<0.0001). Neither GSTM1 nor GSTT1 null mutations were associated with breast cancer-specific or all-cause mortality. In a model adjusted for body mass index, race/ethnicity, tumor stage and treatment received at diagnosis, the variant Val allele of rs1695 was associated with increased risk of all-cause (HR=1.81, 95% CI 1.16-2.82, P=0.008), but not breast cancer-specific mortality. The GSTT1 null mutation was associated with significantly higher levels of C-reactive protein.GSTM1 and GSTT1 null genotypes had no effect on outcome; however the variant allele of rs1695 appears to confer increased risk for all-cause mortality in breast-cancer survivors. Given the limited sample size of most studies examining associations between GST polymorphisms with breast cancer survival, and the lack of women undergoing more contemporary treatment protocols (treated prior to 1999), it may be helpful to re-examine this issue among larger samples of women diagnosed after the late 1990s, who all received some form of chemotherapy or radiotherapy.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Fourteen previous meta-analyses have been published to analyze the polymorphisms of individual GSTM1 present/null, GSTT1 present/null, and GSTP1 IIe105Val on breast cancer (BC) risk. However, their meta-analyses did not explore the combined effects of the three genetic polymorphisms on BC risk. In addition, they did not evaluate the credibility of statistically significant associations. Furthermore, a multitude of new articles have been published on these themes, and therefore a meta-analysis and re-analysis of systematic previous meta-analyses were performed to further explore these issues. OBJECTIVES:To determine the association between the individual and combined effects of GSTM1, GSTT1, and GSTP1 polymorphisms on breast cancer risk. METHODS:Crude odds ratios (ORs) and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were applied to estimate the association between individual and combined effects of GSTM1, GSTT1, and GSTP1 polymorphisms on BC risk. To evaluate the credibility of statistically significant associations in the current and previous meta-analyses, we applied the the false-positive report probabilities (FPRP) test and the Venice criteria. RESULTS:101 publications were selected to evaluate the individual and combined effects of GSTM1, GSTT1 and GSTP1 polymorphisms on BC risk. Overall, statistically significant elevated BC risk was found in any individual and combined effects of GSTM1 present/null, GSTT1 present/null, and GSTP1 IIe105Val polymorphisms. However, when we restricted studies only involving with high-quality, matching, HWE, and genotyping examination performed blindly or with quality control, significantly increased BC risk was only found in overall population for GSTM1 null genotype, among all populations, Caucasians, and postmenopausal women for the combined effects of GSTM1 and GSTT1 polymorphisms, and in overall analysis for the combined effects of GSTM1, GSTT1, and GSTP1 IIe105Val polymorphisms. Further, less-credible positive results were identified when we evaluated the credibility of positive results of the current and previous meta-analyses. CONCLUSIONS:This meta-analysis indicates that the individual and combined effects of GSTM1, GSTT1 and GSTP1 polymorphisms may be not associated with increased BC risk.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Progression of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) could be due to oxidative stress especially through reactive oxygen species (ROS). Detoxification of ROS is largely performed by Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs), therefore polymorphisms of GSTM1, GSTT1 and GSTP1 genes which decrease enzymes activity could affect SLE susceptibility. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of GSTM1 (deletion), GSTT1 (deletion) and GSTP1 (Ile105Val) polymorphisms on SLE susceptibility. METHODS: Genomic DNA was extracted from blood samples of 163 SLE patients and 180 age, sex and ethnically matched controls. GSTs genotypes were determined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-multiplex procedure or polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analysis. RESULTS: GSTT1 null genotype frequency was higher in SLE patients than controls. NO association observed between GSTM1 null genotype or GSTP1 Ile105Val polymorphism with SLE. Nevertheless combination of GSTT1 null/ GSTM1 null genotypes showed 2.8-fold increase in risk of SLE. Moreover the combination of GSTT1 null/ GSTM1 null/GSTP1 Ile/Val and Val/Val genotypes increased the SLE risk about 8 fold. CONCLUSION: Present data suggest that GSTT1 null/ GSTM1 null/GSTP1 Ile/Val and Val/Val genotypes might largely contribute to the pathogenesis of SLE.
Project description:BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The GSTM1, GSTT1 and GSTP1 polymorphisms might be involved in inactivation of procarcinogens that contribute to the genesis and progression of cancers. However, studies investigating the association between GSTM1, GSTT1 or GSTP1 polymorphisms and prostate cancer (PCa) risk report conflicting results, therefore, we conducted a meta-analysis to re-examine the controversy. METHODS: Published literature from PubMed, Embase, Google Scholar and China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) were searched (updated to June 2, 2012). According to our inclusion criteria, studies that observed the association between GSTM1, GSTT1 or GSTP1 polymorphisms and PCa risk were included. The principal outcome measure was the odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) for the risk of PCa associated with GSTM1, GSTT1 and GSTP1 polymorphisms. RESULTS: Fifty-seven studies involving 11313 cases and 12934 controls were recruited. The overall OR, which was 1.2854 (95% CI?=?1.1405-1.4487), revealed a significant risk of PCa and GSTM1 null genotype, and the similar results were observed when stratified by ethnicity and control source. Further, the more important is that the present study first reported the high risks of PCa for people who with dual null genotype of GSTM1 and GSTT1 (OR?=?1.4353, 95% CI?=?1.0345-1.9913), or who with GSTT1 null genotype and GSTP1 A131G polymorphism (OR?=?1.7335, 95% CI?=?1.1067-2.7152). But no association was determined between GSTT1 null genotype (OR?=?1.102, 95% CI?=?0.9596-1.2655) or GSTP1 A131G polymorphism (OR?=?1.0845, 95% CI?=?0.96-1.2251) and the PCa risk. CONCLUSIONS: Our meta-analysis suggested that the people with GSTM1 null genotype, with dual null genotype of GSTM1 and GSTT1, or with GSTT1 null genotype and GSTP1 A131G polymorphism are associated with high risks of PCa, but no association was found between GSTT1 null genotype or GSTP1 A131G polymorphism and the risk of PCa. Further rigorous analytical studies are highly expected to confirm our conclusions and assess gene-environment interactions with PCa risk.
Project description:The polymorphisms in genes including GSTM1, GSTP1 and GSTT1 have been found to predict development and therapeutic efficacy in various malignancies. Breast cancer is one of most common cancers among women. In this study, we evaluated the prognostic value of three functional polymorphisms of GSTs in patients with previously untreated metastatic breast cancer (MBC).The genotype of GSTT1, GSTP1, and GSTM1 in 170 patients with previously untreated MBC from one single center were assessed via PCR-based RFLP methods. The prognostic of polymorphisms on overall survival (OS) was examined using the Kaplan-Meier estimates and Cox proportional hazard ratio (HR) regression analyses.The null genotypes of GSTT1 and GSTM1 were significantly correlated to poor OS compared with the present genotypes, respectively. After adjusting for clinic-pathologic factors, GSTT1 and GSTM1 genetic variants were still significantly associated with OS (HR, 1.92; 95% CI, 1.26-2.91 and HR, 1.53; 95% CI, 1.05-2.23). GSTT1 and GSTM1 were independent survival predictors and GSTP1 was not associated with overall survival of previous untreated MBC.This exploratory analysis suggests that in addition to clinic-pathologic factors, the genetic variants in GSTT1 and GSTM1 might be predictive of survival outcome in patients with previously untreated MBC.
Project description:The GSTP1, GSTM1, and GSTT1 detoxification genes all have functional polymorphisms that are common in the general population. A single study of 320 BRCA1/2 carriers previously assessed their effect in BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation carriers. This study showed no evidence for altered risk of breast cancer for individuals with the GSTT1 and GSTM1 deletion variants, but did report that the GSTP1 Ile105Val (rs1695) variant was associated with increased breast cancer risk in carriers. We investigated the association between these three GST polymorphisms and breast cancer risk using existing data from 718 women BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers from Australia, the UK, Canada, and the USA. Data were analyzed within a proportional hazards framework using Cox regression. There was no evidence to show that any of the polymorphisms modified disease risk for BRCA1 or BRCA2 carriers, and there was no evidence for heterogeneity between sites. These results support the need for replication studies to confirm or refute hypothesis-generating studies.
Project description:The aim of this study was to evaluate specific glutathione S-transferase (GST) gene variants as determinants of risk in patients with clear cell renal cell carcinoma (cRCC), independently or simultaneously with established RCC risk factors, as well as to discern whether phenotype changes reflect genotype-associated risk. GSTA1, GSTM1, GSTP1 and GSTT1 genotypes were determined in 199 cRCC patients and 274 matched controls. Benzo(a)pyrene diolepoxide (BPDE)-DNA adducts were determined in DNA samples obtained from cRCC patients by ELISA method. Significant association between GST genotype and risk of cRCC development was found for the GSTM1-null and GSTP1-variant genotype (p = 0.02 and p<0.001, respectively). Furthermore, 22% of all recruited cRCC patients were carriers of combined GSTM1-null, GSTT1-active, GSTA1-low activity and GSTP1-variant genotype, exhibiting 9.32-fold elevated cRCC risk compared to the reference genotype combination (p = 0.04). Significant association between GST genotype and cRCC risk in smokers was found only for the GSTP1 genotype, while GSTM1-null/GSTP1-variant/GSTA1 low-activity genotype combination was present in 94% of smokers with cRCC, increasing the risk of cRCC up to 7.57 (p = 0.02). Furthermore, cRCC smokers with GSTM1-null genotype had significantly higher concentration of BPDE-DNA adducts in comparison with GSTM1-active cRCC smokers (p = 0.05). GSTM1, GSTT1, GSTA1 and GSTP1 polymorphisms might be associated with the risk of cRCC, with special emphasis on GSTM1-null and GSTP1-variant genotypes. Combined GSTM1-null, GSTT1-active, GSTA1 low activity and GSTP1-variant genotypes might be considered as "risk-carrying genotype combination" in cRCC.
Project description:Background and Objectives: One of the most frequent genetic alterations reported to date in prostate cancer (PC) is aberrant methylation of glutathione transferase P1 (GSTP1). Taking into consideration the involvement of oxidative stress in PC pathogenesis and recent advances in scientific understanding of the role of GSTP1*Ala114Val rs1138272 polymorphism in carcinogenesis, we hypothesized that this single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) influences the risk of PC independently of, or in combination with, other GST polymorphisms, including GSTP1*IIe105Val rs1695 or GSTM1 and GSTT1 deletion polymorphisms. Materials and Methods: Genotyping was performed in 237 PC cases and in 236 age-matched controls by multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for deletion of GST polymorphisms and by quantitative PCR for SNPs. Results: We found that carriers of either GSTP1*Val (rs1138272) or GSTP1*Val (rs1695) variant alleles had a PC risk compared to individuals with both referent alleles (OR = 4.93, 95%CI: 2.89-8.40, p < 0.001 and OR = 1.8, 95%CI: 1.19-2.73, p = 0.006, respectively). Additionally, in a haplotype analysis we found that individuals with GSTP1*C haplotype, represented by both variant alleles (GSTP1*Val rs1695 + GSTP1*Val rs1138272), had a 5.46 times higher risk of PC development compared to individuals with the most frequent haplotype (95%CI = 2.56-11.65, p < 0.001), suggesting a potential role of those variants in PC susceptibility. A regression analysis on the number of risk-associated alleles per individual (GSTM1*active, GSTT1*null, GSTP1*Val rs1695 and GSTP1*Val rs1138272) showed a significant increase in the risk of developing PC, from 3.65-fold in carriers of two risk alleles (95%CI = 1.55-8.61, p = 0.003) to an approximately 12-fold increase in carriers of all four risk alleles (95%CI = 3.05-44.93, p < 0.001). Conclusion: Prostate cancer may be influenced by multiple glutathione transferase (GST) polymorphic genes, especially GSTP1, highlighting the role of gene-gene interactions in human susceptibility to this cancer.
Project description:We investigated the role of glutathione S-transferase (GST) genes in Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). We used data from 111 pairs of age- and sex-matched ASD cases and typically developing (TD) controls between 2-8 years of age from Jamaica to investigate the role of GST pi 1 (GSTP1), GST theta 1 (GSTT1), and GST mu 1 (GSTM1) polymorphisms in susceptibility to ASD. In univariable conditional logistic regression models we did not observe significant associations between ASD status and GSTT1, GSTM1, or GSTP1 genotype (all P > 0.15). However, in multivariable conditional logistic regression models, we identified a significant interaction between GSTP1 and GSTT1 in relation to ASD. Specifically, in children heterozygous for the GSTP1 Ile105Val polymorphism, the odds of ASD was significantly higher in those with the null GSTT1 genotype than those with the other genotypes [Matched Odds Ratio (MOR) = 2.97, 95% CI (1.09, 8.01), P = 0.03]. Replication in other populations is warranted.