Discrimination of urinary exosomes from microvesicles by lipidomics using thin layer liquid chromatography (TLC) coupled with MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry.
ABSTRACT: Urinary extracellular vesicles (EVs), including microvesicles and exosomes, play several important roles in cell biology and serve as potential biomarkers in various kidney diseases. Although they have differential biophysical properties, specific biomarkers are required to discriminate these EVs during isolation/purification. The present study aimed to define differential lipidome profiles of urinary microvesicles vs. exosomes. Urine samples collected from eight healthy individuals were pooled and underwent lipid extraction using 2:1(v/v) chloroform/methanol. The recovered lipids were resolved by thin layer liquid chromatography (TLC) and analyzed by MALDI-TOF MS. From three and five TLC bands observed in microvesicles and exosomes, respectively, several fatty acids, glycerolipids and phospholipids were identified from both EVs without clear differential patterns. However, their sphingolipid profiles were unique. Ceramide phosphates (CerP), hexosyl sphingoid bases (HexSph), lactosyl ceramides (LacCer), mannosyl di-PI-ceramides (M(IP)2?C), sulfatides hexosyl ceramide (SHexCer) and sulfatides hexoxyl sphingoid bases (SHexSph) were detectable only in urinary exosomes, whereas phosphatidylinositol ceramides (PI-Cer) were detectable only in urinary microvesicles. The presence of CerP only in urinary exosomes was successfully validated by dot blot analysis. Our extensive lipidome analyses of urinary microvesicles vs. exosomes provide potential lipidome markers to discriminate exosomes from microvesicles and may lead to better understanding of EVs biogenesis.
Project description:Extracellular vesicles (EVs), including exosomes and microvesicles (MVs), are explored for use in diagnostics, therapeutics and drug delivery. However, little is known about the relationship of protein and lipid composition of EVs and their source cells. Here, we report high-resolution lipidomic and proteomic analyses of exosomes and MVs derived by differential ultracentrifugation from 3 different cell types: U87 glioblastoma cells, Huh7 hepatocellular carcinoma cells and human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). We identified 3,532 proteins and 1,961 lipid species in the screen. Exosomes differed from MVs in several different areas: (a) The protein patterns of exosomes were more likely different from their cells of origin than were the protein patterns of MVs; (b) The proteomes of U87 and Huh7 exosomes were similar to each other but different from the proteomes of MSC exosomes, whereas the lipidomes of Huh7 and MSC exosomes were similar to each other but different from the lipidomes of U87 exosomes; (c) exosomes exhibited proteins of extracellular matrix, heparin-binding, receptors, immune response and cell adhesion functions, whereas MVs were enriched in endoplasmic reticulum, proteasome and mitochondrial proteins. Exosomes and MVs also differed in their types of lipid contents. Enrichment in glycolipids and free fatty acids characterized exosomes, whereas enrichment in ceramides and sphingomyelins characterized MVs. Furthermore, Huh7 and MSC exosomes were specifically enriched in cardiolipins; U87 exosomes were enriched in sphingomyelins. This study comprehensively analyses the protein and lipid composition of exosomes, MVs and source cells in 3 different cell types.
Project description:Extracellular vesicles (EVs), including exosomes and microvesicles, function in cell-to-cell communication through delivery of proteins, lipids and microRNAs to target cells via endocytosis and membrane fusion. These vesicles are enriched in ceramide, a sphingolipid associated with the promotion of cell senescence and apoptosis. We investigated the ceramide profile of serum exosomes from young (24?40 yrs.) and older (75?90 yrs.) women and young (6?10 yrs.) and older (25?30 yrs.) rhesus macaques to define the role of circulating ceramides in the aging process. EVs were isolated using size-exclusion chromatography. Proteomic analysis was used to validate known exosome markers from Exocarta and nanoparticle tracking analysis used to characterize particle size and concentration. Specific ceramide species were identified with lipidomic analysis. Results show a significant increase in the average amount of C24:1 ceramide in EVs from older women (15.4 pmol/sample) compared to those from younger women (3.8 pmol/sample). Results were similar in non-human primate serum samples with increased amounts of C24:1 ceramide (9.3 pmol/sample) in older monkeys compared to the younger monkeys (1.8 pmol/sample). In vitro studies showed that primary bone-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) readily endocytose serum EVs, and serum EVs loaded with C24:1 ceramide can induce BMSC senescence. Elevated ceramide levels have been associated with poor cardiovascular health and memory impairment in older adults. Our data suggest that circulating EVs carrying C24:1 ceramide may contribute directly to cell non-autonomous aging.
Project description:Analysis of extracellular vesicles (EVs) derived from plasma or cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) has emerged as a promising biomarker platform for therapeutic monitoring in glioblastoma patients. However, the contents of the various subpopulations of EVs in these clinical specimens remain poorly defined. Here we characterize the relative abundance of miRNA species in EVs derived from the serum and cerebrospinal fluid of glioblastoma patients. EVs were isolated from glioblastoma cell lines as well as the plasma and CSF of glioblastoma patients. The microvesicle subpopulation was isolated by pelleting at 10,000×g for 30 min after cellular debris was cleared by a 2000×g (20 min) spin. The exosome subpopulation was isolated by pelleting the microvesicle supernatant at 120,000×g (120 min). qRT-PCR was performed to examine the distribution of miR-21, miR-103, miR-24, and miR-125. Global miRNA profiling was performed in select glioblastoma CSF samples. In plasma and cell line derived EVs, the relative abundance of miRNAs in exosome and microvesicles were highly variable. In some specimens, the majority of the miRNA species were found in exosomes while in other, they were found in microvesicles. In contrast, CSF exosomes were enriched for miRNAs relative to CSF microvesicles. In CSF, there is an average of one molecule of miRNA per 150-25,000 EVs. Most EVs derived from clinical biofluids are devoid of miRNA content. The relative distribution of miRNA species in plasma exosomes or microvesicles is unpredictable. In contrast, CSF exosomes are the major EV compartment that harbor miRNAs.
Project description:Primary human trophoblasts release a repertoire of extracellular vesicles (EVs). Among them are nano-sized exosomes, which we found to suppress the replication of a wide range of diverse viruses. These exosomes contain trophoblastic microRNAs (miRNAs) that are expressed from the chromosome 19 miRNA cluster and exhibit antiviral properties. Here, we report our investigation of the cargo of placental EVs, focusing on the composition and the antiviral properties of exosomes, microvesicles, and apoptotic blebs.We isolated EVs using ultracentrifugation and defined their purity using immunoblotting, electron microscopy, and nanoparticle tracking. We used liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry, protein mass spectrometry, and miRNA TaqMan card PCR to examine the phospholipids, proteins, and miRNA cargo of trophoblastic EVs and an in vitro viral infection assay to assess the antiviral properties of EVs.We found that all three EV types contain a comparable repertoire of miRNA. Interestingly, trophoblastic exosomes harbor a protein and phospholipid profile that is distinct from that of microvesicles or apoptotic blebs. Functionally, trophoblastic exosomes exhibit the highest antiviral activity among the EVs. Consistently, plasma exosomes derived from pregnant women recapitulate the antiviral effect of trophoblastic exosomes derived from in vitro cultures of primary human trophoblasts.When compared to other trophoblastic EVs, exosomes exhibit a unique repertoire of proteins and phospholipids, but not miRNAs, and a potent viral activity. Our work suggests that human trophoblastic EVs may play a key role in maternal-placental-fetal communication.
Project description:Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are traditionally divided into two major groups: (i) large vesicles originating from plasma membrane and called microvesicles, and (ii) small vesicles originating from the endoplasmic membrane and called exosomes. However, it is increasingly clear that the actual composition of a particular EV preparation cannot be adequately described with these two simple terms and is much more complex. Since the cell membrane origin of EVs predetermines their biological functions, the understanding of EV biogenesis is important for accurate interpretation of observed results. In the present study, we propose to take advantage of selective expression of some proteins in plasma or endosomal membranes and to use these proteins as plasma membrane-specific or endosomal membrane-specific markers. We have demonstrated that a quantitative mass spectrometry analysis allows simultaneous measurement of plasma membrane-specific and endosomal membrane-specific proteins in microvesicles and exosomes obtained after differential ultracentrifugation. Before mass spectrometry analysis, we also used sonicated platelets as a model of mixed EVs and multidetector asymmetrical-flow field-flow fractionation as an analytical method to verify a possible cross contamination of obtained microvesicles and exosomes. Based on the quantitative appearance of membrane-specific protein markers in EV preparations from human plasma and from human ARPE-19 cell medium, we concluded that there is no actual size limitation and both microvesicles and exosomes can be represented by large and small vesicles.
Project description:Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are a heterogeneous collection of membrane-bound vesicles released by cells that contain bioactive cargoes including proteins, lipids and nucleic acids. Multiple subpopulations of EVs have now been recognized and these include exosomes and microvesicles. EVs have been thought to facilitate intercellular and distal communication to bring about various processes that enable tumor progression and metastases. Here, we describe the current knowledge of the functional cargo contained within EVs, with a focus on tumor microvesicles, and review the emerging theory of how EVs support immune suppression in cancer.
Project description:Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are membranous compartments of distinct cellular origin and biogenesis, displaying different sizes and include exosomes, microvesicles, and apoptotic bodies. The EVs have been described in almost every living organism, from simple unicellular to higher evolutionary scale multicellular organisms, such as mammals. Several functions have been attributed to these structures, including roles in energy acquisition, cell-to-cell communication, gene expression modulation and pathogenesis. In this review, we described several aspects of the recently characterized EVs of the protozoa Acanthamoeba castellanii, a free-living amoeba (FLA) of emerging epidemiological importance, and compare their features to other parasites' EVs. These A. castellanii EVs are comprised of small microvesicles and exosomes and carry a wide range of molecules involved in many biological processes like cell signaling, carbohydrate metabolism and proteolytic activity, such as kinases, glucanases, and proteases, respectively. Several biomedical applications of these EVs have been proposed lately, including their use in vaccination, biofuel production, and the pharmaceutical industry, such as platforms for drug delivery.
Project description:Two broad categories of extracellular vesicles (EVs), exosomes and shed microvesicles (sMVs), which differ in size distribution as well as protein and RNA profiles, have been described. EVs are known to play key roles in cell-cell communication, acting proximally as well as systemically. This Review discusses the nature of EV subtypes, strategies for isolating EVs from both cell-culture media and body fluids, and procedures for quantifying EVs. We also discuss proteins selectively enriched in exosomes and sMVs that have the potential for use as markers to discriminate between EV subtypes, as well as various applications of EVs in clinical diagnosis.
Project description:Exosomes and microvesicles are extracellular vesicles released from cells and can contain lipids, miRNAs and proteins that affect cells at distant sites. Recently, microvesicles containing miRNA have been implicated in uterine microenvironment of pigs, a species with unique epitheliochorial (non-invasive) placentation. Here we report a novel role of conceptus-derived exosomes/microvesicles (hereafter referred to as extracellular vesicles; EVs) in embryo-endometrial cross-talk. We also demonstrate the stimulatory effects of EVs (PTr2-Exo) derived from porcine trophectoderm-cells on various biological processes including the proliferation of maternal endothelial cells (PAOEC), potentially promoting angiogenesis. Transmission immuno-electron microscopy confirmed the presence of EVs in tissue biopsies, PTr2-Exo and PAOEC-derived EVs (PAOEC-Exo). RT-PCR detected 14 select miRNAs in CD63 positive EVs in which miR-126-5P, miR-296-5P, miR-16, and miR-17-5P were the most abundant angiogenic miRNAs. Proteomic analysis revealed EV proteins that play a role in angiogenesis. In-vitro experiments, using two representative cell lines of maternal-fetal interface, demonstrated bidirectional EVs shuttling between PTr2 and PAOEC cells. Importantly, these studies support the idea that PTr2-Exo and PAOEC-Exo containing select miRNAs and proteins can be successfully delivered to recipient cells and that they may have a biological role in conceptus-endometrial cross-talk crucial for the pregnancy success.
Project description:Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are an important class of membrane-bound structures that have been widely investigated for their roles in intercellular communication in the contexts of tumor progression, vascular function, immunity and regenerative medicine. Much of the current knowledge on the functions of EVs pertains to those derived from viable cells (e.g. exosomes and microvesicles) or apoptotic cells (e.g. apoptotic bodies) whilst the generation of EVs from dying cells under non-apoptotic conditions remains poorly characterized. Herein, the release of EVs from THP-1 monocytes under conditions of primary necrosis, secondary necrosis and pyroptosis, was investigated. A comprehensive analysis of THP-1-derived EVs revealed that cells undergoing lytic forms of cell death generated a high number of EVs compared with viable or apoptotic cells in vitro. Differential centrifugation via 16,000 g and 100,000 g revealed that dying THP-1 cells release both medium and small EVs, respectively, consistent with the known characteristics of microvesicles and/or exosomes. In addition, large EVs isolated via 2000 g centrifugation were also present in all samples. These findings suggest that lytic cell death under both sterile and non-sterile inflammatory conditions induces monocytes to generate EVs, which could potentially act as mediators of cell-to-cell communication.