Controlled release of hydrogen isotope compounds and tunneling effect in the heterogeneously-catalyzed formic acid dehydrogenation.
ABSTRACT: The hydrogen isotope deuterium is widely used in the synthesis of isotopically-labeled compounds and in the fabrication of semiconductors and optical fibers. However, the facile production of deuterium gas (D2) and hydrogen deuteride (HD) in a controlled manner is a challenging task, and rational heterogeneously-catalyzed protocols are still lacking. Herein, we demonstrate the selective production of hydrogen isotope compounds from a combination of formic acid and D2O, through cooperative action by a PdAg nanocatalyst on a silica substrate whose surface is modified with amine groups. In this process, D2 is predominantly evolved by the assist of weakly basic amine moieties, while nanocatalyst particles in the vicinity of strongly basic amine groups promote the preferential formation of HD. Kinetic data and calculations based on semi-classically corrected transition state theory coupled with density functional theory suggest that quantum tunneling dominates the hydrogen/deuterium exchange reaction over the metallic PdAg surfaces.
Project description:Very few hydride complexes are known in which the metals have a high-spin electronic configuration. We describe the characterization of several high-spin iron(II) hydride/deuteride isotopologues and their exchange reactions with one another and with H2/D2. Though the hydride/deuteride signal is not observable in NMR spectra, the choice of isotope has an influence on the chemical shifts of distant protons in the dimers through the paramagnetic isotope effect on chemical shift. This provides the first way to monitor the exchange of H and D in the bridging positions of these hydride complexes. The rate of exchange depends on the size of the supporting ligand, and this is consistent with the idea that H2/D2 exchange into the hydrides occurs through the dimeric complexes rather than through a transient monomer. The understanding of H/D exchange mechanisms in these high-spin iron hydride complexes may be relevant to postulated nitrogenase mechanisms.
Project description:The preparation of N-heterocyclic carbene-stabilized iridium nanoparticles and their application in hydrogen isotope exchange reactions is reported. These air-stable and easy-to-handle iridium nanoparticles showed a unique catalytic activity, allowing selective and efficient hydrogen isotope incorporation on anilines using D2 or T2 as isotopic source. The usefulness of this transformation has been demonstrated by the deuterium and tritium labeling of diverse complex pharmaceuticals.
Project description:Cobalt dialkyl complexes bearing ?-diimine ligands proved to be active precatalysts for the nondirected, C(sp3)-H selective hydrogen isotope exchange (HIE) of alkylarenes using D2 gas as the deuterium source. Alkylarenes with a variety of substitution patterns and heteroatom substituents on the arene ring were successfully labeled, enabling high levels of incorporation into primary, secondary, and tertiary benzylic C(sp3)-H bonds. In some cases, the HIE proceeded with high diastereoselectivity and application of the cobalt-catalyzed method to enantioenriched substrates with benzylic stereocenters provided enantioretentive hydrogen isotope exchange at tertiary carbons.
Project description:Deuterium has been recognized as an irreplaceable element in industrial and scientific research. However, hydrogen isotope separation still remains a huge challenge due to the identical physicochemical properties of the isotopes. In this paper, a partially fluorinated metal-organic framework (MOF) with copper, a so-called FMOFCu, was investigated to determine the separation efficiency and capacity of the framework for deuterium extraction from a hydrogen isotope mixture. The unique structure of this porous material consists of a trimodal pore system with large tubular cavities connected through a smaller cavity with bottleneck apertures with a size of 3.6 Å plus a third hidden cavity connected by an even smaller aperture of 2.5 Å. Depending on the temperature, these two apertures show a gate-opening effect and the cavities get successively accessible for hydrogen with increasing temperature. Thermal desorption spectroscopy (TDS) measurements indicate that the locally flexible MOF can separate D2 from anisotope mixture efficiently, with a selectivity of 14 at 25 K and 4 at 77 K.
Project description:The mechanisms involved in enzymatic hydride transfer have been studied for years, but questions remain due, in part, to the difficulty of probing the effects of protein motion and hydrogen tunneling. In this study, we use transition path sampling (TPS) with normal mode centroid molecular dynamics (CMD) to calculate the barrier to hydride transfer in yeast alcohol dehydrogenase (YADH) and human heart lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). Calculation of the work applied to the hydride allowed for observation of the change in barrier height upon inclusion of quantum dynamics. Similar calculations were performed using deuterium as the transferring particle in order to approximate kinetic isotope effects (KIEs). The change in barrier height in YADH is indicative of a zero-point energy (ZPE) contribution and is evidence that catalysis occurs via a protein compression that mediates a near-barrierless hydride transfer. Calculation of the KIE using the difference in barrier height between the hydride and deuteride agreed well with experimental results.
Project description:Dissociation of molecular hydrogen is an important step in a wide variety of chemical, biological, and physical processes. Due to the light mass of hydrogen, it is recognized that quantum effects are often important to its reactivity. However, understanding how quantum effects impact the reactivity of hydrogen is still in its infancy. Here, we examine this issue using a well-defined Pd/Cu(111) alloy that allows the activation of hydrogen and deuterium molecules to be examined at individual Pd atom surface sites over a wide range of temperatures. Experiments comparing the uptake of hydrogen and deuterium as a function of temperature reveal completely different behavior of the two species. The rate of hydrogen activation increases at lower sample temperature, whereas deuterium activation slows as the temperature is lowered. Density functional theory simulations in which quantum nuclear effects are accounted for reveal that tunneling through the dissociation barrier is prevalent for H2 up to ?190 K and for D2 up to ?140 K. Kinetic Monte Carlo simulations indicate that the effective barrier to H2 dissociation is so low that hydrogen uptake on the surface is limited merely by thermodynamics, whereas the D2 dissociation process is controlled by kinetics. These data illustrate the complexity and inherent quantum nature of this ubiquitous and seemingly simple chemical process. Examining these effects in other systems with a similar range of approaches may uncover temperature regimes where quantum effects can be harnessed, yielding greater control of bond-breaking processes at surfaces and uncovering useful chemistries such as selective bond activation or isotope separation.
Project description:The peroxidation of 7-dehydrocholesterol (7-DHC), a biosynthetic precursor to vitamin D3 and cholesterol, has been linked to the pathophysiology of Smith-Lemli-Optiz syndrome (SLOS), a devastating human disorder. In SLOS, 7-DHC plasma and tissue levels are elevated because of defects in the enzyme that convert it to cholesterol. ?-Tocopherol can mediate the peroxidation of 7-DHC under certain circumstances and this prompted us to investigate the kinetic isotope effect (KIE) during this process. Thus, 9,14-d2-7-DHC was synthesized using a photochemical cyclization of deuterium-reinforced previtamin D3 (retro to its biosynthesis). Subsequently, we carried out co-oxidation of 9,14-h2-25,26,26,26,27,27,27-d7- and 9,14-d2-7-DHC in the presence of ?-tocopherol under conditions that favor TMP. By monitoring the products formed from each precursor using mass spectrometry, the KIE for the hydrogen (deuterium) atom removal at C9 was found to be 21 ± 1. This large KIE value indicates that tunneling plays a role in the hydrogen atom transfer step in the tocopherol-mediated peroxidation of 7-DHC.
Project description:This work describes the application of NMR to the measurement of secondary deuterium (2° (2)H) and carbon-13 ((13)C) kinetic isotope effects (KIEs) at positions 9-13 within the substrate linoleic acid (LA) of soybean lipoxygenase-1. The KIEs have been measured using LA labeled with either protium (11,11-h2-LA) or deuterium (11,11-d2-LA) at the reactive C11 position, which has been previously shown to yield a primary deuterium isotope effect of ca. 80. The conditions of measurement yield the intrinsic 2° (2)H and (13)C KIEs on k(cat)/K(m) directly for 11,11-d2-LA, whereas the values for the 2° (2)H KIEs for 11,11-h2-LA are obtained after correction for a kinetic commitment. The pattern of the resulting 2° (2)H and (13)C isotope effects reveals values that lie far above those predicted from changes in local force constants. Additionally, many of the experimental values cannot be modeled by electronic effects, torsional strain, or the simple inclusion of a tunneling correction to the rate. Although previous studies have shown the importance of extensive tunneling for cleavage of the primary hydrogen at C11 of LA, the present findings can only be interpreted by extending the conclusion of nonclassical behavior to the secondary hydrogens and carbons that flank the position undergoing C-H bond cleavage. A quantum mechanical method introduced by Buhks et al. [J. Phys. Chem. 1981, 85, 3763] to model the inner-sphere reorganization that accompanies electron transfer has been shown to be able to reproduce the scale of the 2° (2)H KIEs.
Project description:The production of pure deuterium and the removal of tritium from nuclear waste are the key challenges in separation of light isotopes. Presently, the technological methods are extremely energy- and cost-intensive. Here we report the capture of heavy hydrogen isotopes from hydrogen gas by selective adsorption at Cu(I) sites in a metal-organic framework. At the strongly binding Cu(I) sites (32?kJ?mol-1) nuclear quantum effects result in higher adsorption enthalpies of heavier isotopes. The capture mechanism takes place most efficiently at temperatures above 80?K, when an isotope exchange allows the preferential adsorption of heavy isotopologues from the gas phase. Large difference in adsorption enthalpy of 2.5?kJ?mol-1 between D2 and H2 results in D2-over-H2 selectivity of 11 at 100?K, to the best of our knowledge the largest value known to date. Combination of thermal desorption spectroscopy, Raman measurements, inelastic neutron scattering and first principles calculations for H2/D2 mixtures allows the prediction of selectivities for tritium-containing isotopologues.
Project description:Terpenes represent one of the most diversified classes of natural products with potent biological activities. The key to the myriad of polycyclic terpene skeletons with crucial functions in organisms from all kingdoms of life are terpene cyclase enzymes. These biocatalysts enable stereospecific cyclization of relatively simple, linear, prefolded polyisoprenes by highly complex, partially concerted, electrophilic cyclization cascades that remain incompletely understood. Herein, additional mechanistic light is shed on terpene biosynthesis by kinetic studies in mixed H2 O/D2 O buffers of a class?II bacterial ent-copalyl diphosphate synthase. Mass spectrometry determination of the extent of deuterium incorporation in the bicyclic product, reminiscent of initial carbocation formation by protonation, resulted in a large kinetic isotope effect of up to seven. Kinetic analysis at different temperatures confirmed that the isotope effect was independent of temperature, which is consistent with hydrogen tunneling.