Metabolomic adaptations and correlates of survival to immune checkpoint blockade.
ABSTRACT: Despite remarkable success of immune checkpoint inhibitors, the majority of cancer patients have yet to receive durable benefits. Here, in order to investigate the metabolic alterations in response to immune checkpoint blockade, we comprehensively profile serum metabolites in advanced melanoma and renal cell carcinoma patients treated with nivolumab, an antibody against programmed cell death protein 1 (PD1). We identify serum kynurenine/tryptophan ratio increases as an adaptive resistance mechanism associated with worse overall survival. This advocates for patient stratification and metabolic monitoring in immunotherapy clinical trials including those combining PD1 blockade with indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase/tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO/TDO) inhibitors.
Project description:Tryptophan catabolism by the enzymes indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 1 and tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase 2 (IDO/TDO) promotes immunosuppression across different cancer types. The tryptophan metabolite L-Kynurenine (Kyn) interacts with the ligand-activated transcription factor aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) to drive the generation of Tregs and tolerogenic myeloid cells and PD-1 up-regulation in CD8+ T cells. Here, we show that the AHR pathway is selectively active in IDO/TDO-overexpressing tumors and is associated with resistance to immune checkpoint inhibitors. We demonstrate that IDO-Kyn-AHR-mediated immunosuppression depends on an interplay between Tregs and tumor-associated macrophages, which can be reversed by AHR inhibition. Selective AHR blockade delays progression in IDO/TDO-overexpressing tumors, and its efficacy is improved in combination with PD-1 blockade. Our findings suggest that blocking the AHR pathway in IDO/TDO expressing tumors would overcome the limitation of single IDO or TDO targeting agents and constitutes a personalized approach to immunotherapy, particularly in combination with immune checkpoint inhibitors.
Project description:Tryptophan dioxygenase (TDO) and indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) are two heme-containing enzymes which catalyze the conversion of L: -tryptophan to N-formylkynurenine (NFK). In mammals, TDO is mostly expressed in liver and is involved in controlling homeostatic serum tryptophan concentrations, whereas IDO is ubiquitous and is involved in modulating immune responses. Previous studies suggested that the first step of the dioxygenase reaction involves the deprotonation of the indoleamine group of the substrate by an evolutionarily conserved distal histidine residue in TDO and the heme-bound dioxygen in IDO. Here, we used classical molecular dynamics and hybrid quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical methods to evaluate the base-catalyzed mechanism. Our data suggest that the deprotonation of the indoleamine group of the substrate by either histidine in TDO or heme-bound dioxygen in IDO is not energetically favorable. Instead, the dioxygenase reaction can be initiated by a direct attack of heme-bound dioxygen on the C(2)=C(3) bond of the indole ring, leading to a protein-stabilized 2,3-alkylperoxide transition state and a ferryl epoxide intermediate, which subsequently recombine to generate NFK. The novel sequential two-step oxygen addition mechanism is fully supported by our recent resonance Raman data that allowed identification of the ferryl intermediate (Lewis-Ballester et al. in Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 106:17371-17376, 2009). The results reveal the subtle differences between the TDO and IDO reactions and highlight the importance of protein matrix in modulating stereoelectronic factors for oxygen activation and the stabilization of both transition and intermediate states.
Project description:Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) and tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase (TDO) are tryptophan-degrading enzymes that have independently evolved to catalyze the first step in tryptophan catabolism via the kynurenine pathway (KP). The depletion of tryptophan and formation of KP metabolites modulates the activity of the mammalian immune, reproductive, and central nervous systems. IDO and TDO enzymes can have overlapping or distinct functions depending on their expression patterns. The expression of TDO and IDO enzymes in mammals differs not only by tissue/cellular localization but also by their induction by distinct stimuli. To add to the complexity, these genes also have undergone duplications in some organisms leading to multiple isoforms of IDO or TDO. For example, many vertebrates, including all mammals, have acquired two IDO genes via gene duplication, although the IDO1-like gene has been lost in some lower vertebrate lineages. Gene duplications can allow the homologs to diverge and acquire different properties to the original gene. There is evidence for IDO enzymes having differing enzymatic characteristics, signaling properties, and biological functions. This review analyzes the evolutionary convergence of IDO and TDO enzymes as tryptophan-catabolizing enzymes and the divergent evolution of IDO homologs to generate an enzyme family with diverse characteristics not possessed by TDO enzymes, with an emphasis on the immune system.
Project description:The catabolism of tryptophan to immunosuppressive and neuroactive kynurenines is a key metabolic pathway regulating immune responses and neurotoxicity. The rate-limiting step is controlled by indoleamine-2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) and tryptophan-2,3-dioxygenase (TDO). IDO is expressed in antigen presenting cells during immune reactions, hepatic TDO regulates blood homeostasis of tryptophan and neuronal TDO influences neurogenesis. While the role of IDO has been described in multiple immunological settings, little is known about TDO's effects on the immune system. TDO-deficiency is neuroprotective in C. elegans and Drosophila by increasing tryptophan and specific kynurenines. Here we have determined the role of TDO in autoimmunity and neurodegeneration in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), a model of multiple sclerosis. We created reporter-TDO mice for in vivo imaging to show that hepatic but not CNS TDO expression is activated during EAE. TDO deficiency did not influence myelin-specific T cells, leukocyte infiltration into the CNS, demyelination and disease activity. TDO-deficiency protected from neuronal loss in the spinal cord but not in the optic nerves. While this protection did not translate to an improved overt clinical outcome, our data suggest that spatially distinct neuroprotection is conserved in mammals and support TDO as a potential target for treatment of diseases associated with neurodegeneration.
Project description:Mechanisms of dysfunctional T cell immunity in Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC) need to be well defined. B7 family molecules provide both co-stimulatory and co-inhibitory signals to T cells while tryptophan degrading enzymes like Indoleamine 2,3 dioxygenase (IDO) and Tryptophan 2,3 Dioxygenase (TDO) mediate tumor immune tolerance. It is necessary to identify their in situ correlative expression, which informs targets for combined immunotherapy approaches. We investigated B7 family molecules, IDO, TDO and immune responsive effectors in the tumor tissues of patients with HCC (n = 28) using a pathway-focused quantitative nanoscale chip real-time PCR. Four best correlative expressions, namely (1) B7-1 & PD-L2, (2) B7-H2 & B7-H3, (3) B7-2 & PD-L1, (4) PD-L1 & PD-L2, were identified among B7 family ligands, albeit they express at different levels. Although TDO expression is higher than IDO, PD-L1 correlates only with IDO but not TDO. Immune effector (Granzyme B) and suppressive (PD-1 and TGF-?) genes correlate with IDO and B7-1, B7-H5, PD-L2. Identification of the in situ correlation of PD-L1, PD-L2 and IDO suggest their cumulative immuno suppressive role in HCC. The distinct correlations among B7-1, B7-2, B7-H2, and B7-H3, correlation of PD-1 with non-cognate ligands such as B7-1 and B7-H5, and correlation of tumor lytic enzyme Granzyme B with IDO and PD-L2 suggest that HCC microenvironment is complexly orchestrated with both stimulatory and inhibitory molecules which together neutralize and blunt anti-HCC immunity. Functional assays demonstrate that both PDL-1 and IDO synergistically inhibit T cell responses. Altogether, the present data suggest the usage of combined immune checkpoint blocking strategies targeting co-inhibitory B7 molecules and IDO for HCC management.
Project description:Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO)-initiated tryptophan degradation in the placenta has been implicated in the prevention of the allogeneic fetus rejection [Munn, Zhou, Attwood, Bondarev, Conway, Marshall, Brown, and Mellor (1998) Science 281, 1191-1193]. To determine how IDO is associated with the development of the fetus and placenta, the time course of IDO expression (tryptophan-degrading activity, IDO protein and IDO mRNA) in the embryonic and extra-embryonic tissues as well as maternal tissues of mice was examined. A high tryptophan-degrading activity was detected in early concepti on days 6.5 and 7.5, whereas IDO protein and its mRNA were not expressed during early gestation, but appeared 2-3 days later, lasted for about 3 days and declined rapidly thereafter. The expression of IDO basically coincided with the formation of the placenta. On the contrary, the early tryptophan-degrading activity was due to gene expression of tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase (TDO), as shown by Northern and Western analysis. These findings indicate that IDO is transiently expressed in the placenta but that the expression does not last until birth, and that the IDO expression is preceded by expression of another tryptophan-degrading enzyme, TDO, in the maternal and/or embryonic tissues in early concepti.
Project description:Pyrrolnitrin is a commonly used and clinically effective treatment for fungal infections and provides the structural basis for the more widely used fludioxinil. The pyrrolnitrin biosynthetic pathway consists of four chemical steps, the second of which is the rearrangement of 7-chloro-tryptophan by the enzyme PrnB, a reaction that is so far unprecedented in biochemistry. When expressed in Pseudomonas fluorescens, PrnB is red in color due to the fact that it contains 1 mol of heme b per mole of protein. The crystal structure unexpectedly establishes PrnB as a member of the heme-dependent dioxygenase superfamily with significant structural but not sequence homology to the two-domain indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase enzyme (IDO). The heme-binding domain is also structurally similar to that of tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase (TDO). Here we report the binary complex structures of PrnB with d- and l-tryptophan and d- and l-7-chloro-tryptophan. The structures identify a common hydrophobic pocket for the indole ring but exhibit unusual heme ligation and substrate binding when compared with that observed in the TDO crystal structures. Our solution studies support the heme ligation observed in the crystal structures. Purification of the hexahistidine-tagged PrnB yields homogeneous protein that only displays in vitro activity with 7-chloro-l-tryptophan after reactivation with crude extract from the host strain, suggesting that an as yet unknown cofactor is required for activity. Mutation of the proximal heme ligand results, not surprisingly, in inactive enzyme. Redox titrations show that PrnB displays a significantly different reduction potential to that of IDO or TDO, indicating possible differences in the PrnB catalytic cycle. This is confirmed by the absence of tryptophan dioxygenase activity in PrnB, although a stable oxyferrous adduct (which is the first intermediate in the TDO/IDO catalytic cycle) can be generated. We propose that PrnB shares a key catalytic step with TDO and IDO, generation of a tryptophan hydroperoxide intermediate, although this species suffers a different fate in PrnB, leading to the eventual formation of the product, monodechloroaminopyrrolnitrin.
Project description:Uveal melanoma (UM) is the most common primary eye malignancy in adults and up to 50% of patients subsequently develop systemic metastasis. Metastatic uveal melanoma (MUM) is highly resistant to immunotherapy. One of the mechanisms for resistance would be the immune-suppressive tumor microenvironment. Here, we have investigated the role of tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase (TDO) in UM. Both TDO and indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) catalyze tryptophan and produce kynurenine, which could cause inhibition of T cell immune responses. We first studied the expression of TDO on tumor tissue specimens obtained from UM hepatic metastasis. High expression of TDO protein was confirmed in all hepatic metastasis. TDO was positive in both normal hepatocytes and the tumor cells with relatively higher expression in tumor cells. On the other hand, IDO protein remained undetectable in all of the MUM specimens. UM cell lines established from metastasis also expressed TDO protein and increasing kynurenine levels were detected in the supernatant of MUM cell culture. In TCGA database, higher TDO2 expression in primary UM significantly correlated to BAP1 mutation and monosomy 3. These results indicate that TDO might be one of the key mechanisms for resistance to immunotherapy in UM.
Project description:The first and rate-limiting step of the kynurenine pathway, in which tryptophan (Trp) is converted to N-formylkynurenine is catalyzed by two heme-containing proteins, Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO), and Tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase (TDO). In mammals, TDO is found exclusively in liver tissue, IDO is found ubiquitously in all tissues. IDO has become increasingly popular in pharmaceutical research as it was found to be involved in many physiological situations, including immune escape of cancer. More importantly, small-molecule inhibitors of IDO are currently utilized in cancer therapy. One of the main concerns for the design of human IDO (hIDO) inhibitors is that they should be selective enough to avoid inhibition of TDO. In this work, we have used a combination of classical molecular dynamics (MD) and hybrid quantum-classical (QM/MM) methodologies to establish the structural basis that determine the differences in (a) the interactions of TDO and IDO with small ligands (CO/O(2)) and (b) the substrate stereo-specificity in hIDO and TDO. Our results indicate that the differences in small ligand bound structures of IDO and TDO arise from slight differences in the structure of the bound substrate complex. The results also show that substrate stereo-specificity of TDO is achieved by the perfect fit of L-Trp, but not D-Trp, which exhibits weaker interactions with the protein matrix. For hIDO, the presence of multiple stable binding conformations for L/D-Trp reveal the existence of a large and dynamic active site. Taken together, our data allow determination of key interactions useful for the future design of more potent hIDO-selective inhibitors.
Project description:Male meiotic germ cell including the spermatozoa represent a great challenge to the immune system, as they appear long after the establishment of normal immune tolerance mechanisms. The capacity of the testes to tolerate autoantigenic germ cells as well as survival of allogeneic organ engrafted in the testicular interstitium have led to consider the testis an immunologically privileged site. Disruption of this immune privilege following trauma, tumor, or autoimmune orchitis often results in male infertility. Strong evidence indicates that indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) has been implicated in fetal and allograft tolerance, tumor immune resistance, and regulation of autoimmune diseases. IDO and tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase (TDO) catalyze the same rate-limiting step of tryptophan metabolism along a common pathway, which leads to tryptophan starvation and generation of catabolites collectively known as kynurenines. However, the relevance of tryptophan metabolism in testis pathophysiology has not yet been explored. Here we assessed the in vivo role of IDO/TDO in experimental autoimmune orchitis (EAO), a model of autoimmune testicular inflammation and immunologically impaired spermatogenesis. EAO was induced in adult Wistar rats with testicular homogenate and adjuvants. Control (C) rats injected with saline and adjuvants and normal untreated rats (N) were also studied. mRNA expression of IDO decreased in whole testes and in isolated Sertoli cells during EAO. TDO and IDO localization and level of expression in the testis were analyzed by immunostaining and Western blot. TDO is expressed in granulomas from EAO rats, and similar protein levels were observed in N, C, and EAO groups. IDO was detected in mononuclear and endothelial cells and reduced IDO expression was detected in EAO group compared to N and C rats. This phenomenon was concomitant with a significant reduction of IDO activity in EAO testis measured by tryptophan and kynurenine concentrations (HPLC). Finally, in vivo inhibition of IDO with 1-methyl-tryptophan increased severity of the disease, demonstrating down regulation of IDO-based tolerance when testicular immune regulation was disrupted. We present evidence that an IDO-based mechanism is involved in testicular immune privilege.