Disrupted Intraregional Brain Activity and Functional Connectivity in Unilateral Acute Tinnitus Patients With Hearing Loss.
ABSTRACT: Purpose:The present study combined fractional amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations (fALFF), regional homogeneity (ReHo), and functional connectivity (FC) to explore brain functional abnormalities in acute tinnitus patients (AT) with hearing loss. Methods:We recruited twenty-eight AT patients and 31 healthy controls (HCs) and ran resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scans. fALFF, ReHo, and FC were conducted and compared between AT patients and HCs. After that, we calculated correlation analyses among abnormal fALFF, ReHo, FC, and clinical data in AT patients. Results:Compared with HCs, AT showed increased fALFF values in the right inferior temporal gyrus (ITG). In contrast, significantly decreased ReHo values were observed in the cerebellar vermis, the right calcarine cortex, the right precuneus, the right supramarginal gyrus (SMG), and the right middle frontal gyrus (MFG). Based on the differences in the fALFF and ReHo maps, the latter of which we defined as region-of-interest (ROI) for FC analysis, the right ITG exhibited increased connectivity with the right precentral gyrus. In addition, the right MFG demonstrated decreased connectivity with both the bilateral anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and the left precentral gyrus. Conclusion:By combining ReHo, fALFF, and FC analyses, our work indicated that AT with hearing loss had abnormal intraregional neural activity and disrupted connectivity in several brain regions which mainly involving the non-auditory area, and these regions are major components of default mode network (DMN), attention network, visual network, and executive control network. These findings will help us enhance the understanding of the neuroimaging mechanism in tinnitus populations. Moreover, these abnormalities remind us that we should focus on the early stages of this hearing disease.
Project description:Non-syndromic clefts of the lip and/or palate (NSCLP) is the most common congenital anomaly in the craniofacial region. NSCLP is a highly gene-associated malformation. We speculate that pregnant women with NSCLP fetuses (pregnancies with NSCLP) may have specific brain changes during pregnancy. To explore characteristic brain function changes of pregnancies with NSCLP, we analyzed resting-state fMRI (rs-fMRI) data of 42 pregnant women (21 pregnancies with NSCLP and 21 pregnancies with normal fetuses) to compare intergroup differences of (fractional) amplitude of low frequency fluctuations (fALFF/ALFF), regional homogeneity (Reho), functional connectivity (FC) and network topological properties. Compared with the control group, increased ALFF in the left hippocampus, the right fusiform and the left anterior cingulate (ACG), increased Reho in left middle occipital gyrus (MOG) and right medial frontal gyrus (MFG) were found for pregnancies with NSCLP. Meanwhile, FC between the left supramarginal gyrus (SMG) and bilateral olfactory cortex (OLF), FC between left precentral gyrus (PreCG) and right MFG, FC between right inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) and left inferior temporal gyrus (ITG) were enhanced in pregnancies with NSCLP. Besides, FC between left PreCG and left amygdala, bilateral para-hippocampal gyrus, FC between left amygdala and left MFG, right IFG were decreased. Graph theory-based analysis explored increased degree centrality (DC), betweenness centrality (BC) and nodal efficiency (Ne) in the left ITG and left SMG for pregnancies with NSCLP. Pregnancies with NSCLP has widespread decreased FC within neural networks of speech and language, which indicated that they were more likely to be associated with defects in speech and language skills. At the same time, increased topological indices showed that speech and language related regions played dominant role in their brain networks. These findings may provide clues for early detection of NSCLP fetuses.
Project description:Objective: Previous studies suggest that abnormal brain structure and function may be neuroimaging endophenotypes of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Comparing the intrinsic brain activity of OCD patients and their unaffected siblings will help to further understand the susceptibility to, and pathological mechanisms of, OCD. We used a case-control study design aiming to establish whether the abnormal regional homogeneity (ReHo) found in OCD patients also exists in their unaffected siblings. Method: Fifteen unmedicated OCD patients, 15 of their unaffected siblings, and 30 healthy controls (HCs) received resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (r-s fMRI) scanning and clinical evaluation. We used the ReHo method to analyze the inter-regional synchronized activity of all participants. One-way analysis of covariance with post hoc tests was used to compare the ReHo maps across groups. A Pearson correlation analysis was conducted to assess the correlations between clinical characteristics and abnormal ReHo in OCD patients. Results: Relative to HCs, OCD patients and their unaffected siblings showed overlapping higher ReHo values in the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). Patients with OCD showed increased ReHo in left middle frontal gyrus (MFG) relative to both their unaffected siblings and HCs. In addition to the right DLPFC and left MFG, OCD patients, compared with HCs, also showed abnormal ReHo in other regions, including higher ReHo in the right superior parietal cortex and lower ReHo in the left inferior parietal cortex, right parahippocampal region, left thalamus, and right inferior temporal cortex. Compared with HCs, the unaffected siblings of patients with OCD had significantly higher ReHo in the right inferior parietal cortex, right MFG, and right supplementary motor area. There was no association between clinical symptoms and abnormal ReHo values in OCD patients. Conclusions: This study found overlapping higher ReHo values in the right DLPFC of OCD patients and their unaffected siblings. Our results suggest that the higher ReHo in the right DLPFC may be a potential neuroimaging endophenotype, which may reflect an increased genetic risk of OCD.
Project description:Background:Sudden sensorineural hearing loss (SSNHL) is an otologic emergency and could lead to social difficulties and mental disorders in some patients. Although many studies have analyzed altered brain function in populations with hearing loss, little information is available about patients with idiopathic SSNHL. This study is aimed at investigating brain functional changes in SSNHL via functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Methods:Thirty-six patients with SSNHL and thirty well-matched normal hearing individuals underwent resting-state fMRI. Amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF), fractional ALFF (fALFF), and functional connectivity (FC) values were calculated. Results:In the SSNHL patients, ALFF and fALFF were significantly increased in the bilateral putamen but decreased in the right calcarine cortex, right middle temporal gyrus (MTG), and right precentral gyrus. Widespread increases in FC were observed between brain regions, mainly including the bilateral auditory cortex, bilateral visual cortex, left striatum, left angular gyrus (AG), bilateral precuneus, and bilateral limbic lobes in patients with SSNHL. No decreased FC was observed. Conclusion:SSNHL causes functional alterations in brain regions, mainly in the striatum, auditory cortex, visual cortex, MTG, AG, precuneus, and limbic lobes within the acute period of hearing loss.
Project description:Objective: A limited number of studies have previously reported on the regional activity [amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF)] and functional integration [functional connectivity (FC)] of the whole brain in deficit schizophrenia (DS). The present study investigates the resting-state characteristics of the fractional ALFF (fALFF) and the FC in both DS and non-deficit schizophrenia (NDS) patients, and further explores their correlations with neurocognitive features. Methods: Demographic, resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and neurocognitive data were collected from 33 DS and 41 NDS male patients, as well as in 40 male healthy controls (HCs). The voxel-wise fALFF was measured to evaluate regional cerebral function. Regions with differences in fALFF between DS and NDS patients were used as seed points in whole-brain FC analysis. Partial correlation analysis was conducted to examine associations between the fALFF or the FC of altered regions and neurocognitive assessments. Results: Both patient groups showed decreased fALFF in the sensorimotor area, visual cortex, and frontoparietal pathway, but increased fALFF in the precuneus and middle cingulate gyrus when compared with the HCs. Moreover, the NDS group demonstrated higher fALFF than HCs in the left thalamus, caudate, and hippocampus. Compared with the NDS group, the fALFF of the visual cortex was specifically increased, but that of the bilateral insula, the anterior cingulate gyrus (ACG), and the regions extended to the frontotemporal cortex was decreased in the DS group. Numerous abnormal FCs of nerve pathways were found between the two patient groups, mainly concentrated in the frontooccipital, frontotemporal, insula-visual cortex, as well as the temporooccipital pathway. Correlation analysis indicated that, in the DS group, the FC value between the left insula and the visual cortex was positively correlated with cognitive flexibility. In the NDS group, the fALFF of the right insula was negatively correlated with speech fluency, and the FC value between the ACG and the visual cortex was positively correlated with visual spatial memory. Conclusion: The present study demonstrates different altered patterns of fALFF and FC between male patients with DS and NDS. The specific altered regions of the salience network (SN) associated with impaired neurocognition in male DS patients suggest novel insights into the pathogenesis of cognitive impairment in schizophrenia.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Major depressive disorder (MDD) is associated with decreased function of cortico-limbic circuits, which play important roles in the pathogenesis of MDD. Abnormal functional connectivity (FC) with the amygdala, which is involved in cortico-limbic circuits, has also been observed in MDD. However, little is known about connectivity alterations in late-onset depression (LOD) or whether disrupted connectivity is correlated with cognitive impairment in LOD.<h4>Methods and results</h4>A total of twenty-two LOD patients and twenty-two matched healthy controls (HC) underwent neuropsychological tests and resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI). Regional homogeneity (ReHo) and FC with bilateral amygdala seeds were used to analyze blood oxygen level-dependent fMRI data between two groups. Compared with HC, LOD patients showed decreased ReHo in the right middle frontal gyrus and left superior frontal gyrus. In the LOD group, the left amygdala had decreased FC with the right middle frontal gyrus and the left superior frontal gyrus in the amygdala positive network, and it had increased FC with the right post-central gyrus in the amygdala negative network. However, significantly reduced FC with the right amygdala was observed in the right middle occipital gyrus in the amygdala negative network. Further correlative analyses revealed that decreased FC between the amygdala and the right middle occipital gyrus was negatively correlated with the verbal fluency test (VFT, r?=?-0.485, P?=?0.022) and the digit span test (DST, r?=?-0.561, P?=?0.007).<h4>Conclusions</h4>Our findings of reduced activity of the prefrontal gyrus and abnormal FC with the bilateral amygdala may be key markers of cognitive dysfunction in LOD patients.
Project description:To investigate changes of vision-related resting-state activity in pituitary adenoma (PA) patients with visual damage through comparison to healthy controls (HCs).25 PA patients with visual damage and 25 age- and sex-matched corrected-to-normal-vision HCs underwent a complete neuro-ophthalmologic evaluation, including automated perimetry, fundus examinations, and a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) protocol, including structural and resting-state fMRI (RS-fMRI) sequences. The regional homogeneity (ReHo) of the vision-related cortex and the functional connectivity (FC) of 6 seeds within the visual cortex (the primary visual cortex (V1), the secondary visual cortex (V2), and the middle temporal visual cortex (MT+)) were evaluated. Two-sample t-tests were conducted to identify the differences between the two groups.Compared with the HCs, the PA group exhibited reduced ReHo in the bilateral V1, V2, V3, fusiform, MT+, BA37, thalamus, postcentral gyrus and left precentral gyrus and increased ReHo in the precuneus, prefrontal cortex, posterior cingulate cortex (PCC), anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), insula, supramarginal gyrus (SMG), and putamen. Compared with the HCs, V1, V2, and MT+ in the PAs exhibited decreased FC with the V1, V2, MT+, fusiform, BA37, and increased FC primarily in the bilateral temporal lobe (especially BA20,21,22), prefrontal cortex, PCC, insular, angular gyrus, ACC, pre-SMA, SMG, hippocampal formation, caudate and putamen. It is worth mentioning that compared with HCs, V1 in PAs exhibited decreased or similar FC with the thalamus, whereas V2 and MT+ exhibited increased FCs with the thalamus, especially pulvinar.In our study, we identified significant neural reorganization in the vision-related cortex of PA patients with visual damage compared with HCs. Most subareas within the visual cortex exhibited remarkable neural dysfunction. Some subareas, including the MT+ and V2, exhibited enhanced FC with the thalamic pulvinar, which indicates an important role in the compensatory mechanism following visual impairment. In addition, neural dysfunction within the visual cortex was associated with neural activity alternation in the higher-order cognitive cortex, especially subareas in default mode network (DMN) and salience network (SN).
Project description:Aims:We sought to explore the role of the SLC6A3 rs393795 allelic variant in cerebral spontaneous activity and clinical features in Parkinson's disease (PD) via imaging genetic approach. Methods:Our study recruited 50 PD and 45 healthy control (HC) participants to provide clinical, genetic, and resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) data. All subjects were separated into 16 PD-AA, 34 PD-CA/CC, 14 HC-AA, and 31 HC-CA/CC four subgroups according to SLC6A3 rs393795 genotyping. Afterwards, main effects and interactions of groups (PD versus HC) and genotypes (AA versus CA/CC) on cerebral function reflected by regional homogeneity (ReHo) were explored using two-way analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) after controlling age and gender. Finally, Spearman' s correlations were employed to investigate the relationships between significantly interactive brain regions and clinical manifestations in PD subgroups. Results:Compared with HC subjects, PD patients exhibited increased ReHo signals in left middle temporal gyrus and decreased ReHo signals in left pallidum. Compared with CA/CC carriers, AA genotype individuals showed abnormal increased ReHo signals in right inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) and supplementary motor area (SMA). Moreover, significant interactions (affected by both disease factor and allelic variation) were detected in right inferior temporal gyrus (ITG). Furthermore, aberrant increased ReHo signals in right ITG were observed in PD-AA in comparison with PD-CA/CC. Notably, ReHo values in right ITG were negatively associated with Tinetti Mobility Test (TMT) gait subscale scores and positively related to Freezing of Gait Questionnaire (FOG-Q) scores in PD-AA subgroup. Conclusions:Our findings suggested that SLC6A3 rs393795 allelic variation might have a trend to aggravate the severity of gait disorders in PD patients by altering right SMA and IFG function, and ultimately result in compensatory activation of right ITG. It could provide us with a new perspective for exploring deeply genetic mechanisms of gait disturbances in PD.
Project description:Whereas research using structural magnetic resonance imaging (sMRI) reports sizable grey matter reductions in patients suffering from acute anorexia nervosa (AN) to be largely reversible already after short-term weight gain, many task-based and resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) studies suggest persistent brain alterations even after long-term weight rehabilitation. First investigations into spontaneous regional brain activity using voxel-wise resting-state measures found widespread abnormalities in acute AN, but no studies have compared intrinsic brain activity properties in weight-recovered individuals with a history of AN (recAN) with healthy controls (HCs). SMRI and RSFC data were analysed from a sample of 130 female volunteers: 65 recAN and 65 pairwise age-matched HC. Cortical grey matter thickness was assessed using FreeSurfer software. Fractional amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations (fALFFs), mean-square successive difference (MSSD), regional homogeneity (ReHo), voxel-mirrored homotopic connectivity (VHMC), and degree centrality (DC) were calculated. SMRI and RSFC data were analysed from a sample of 130 female volunteers: 65 recAN and 65 pairwise age-matched HCs. Cortical grey matter thickness was assessed using FreeSurfer software. Fractional amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations (fALFF), mean-square successive difference (MSSD), regional homogeneity (ReHo), voxel-mirrored homotopic connectivity (VHMC), and degree centrality (DC) were calculated. Abnormal regional homogeneity found in acute AN seems to normalize in recAN, supporting assumptions of a state rather than a trait marker. Aberrant fALFF values in the cerebellum and the infertior temporal gyrus could possibly hint towards trait factors or a scar (the latter, e.g., from prolonged periods of undernutrition), warranting further longitudinal research.
Project description:Abnormal functional connectivity (FC) at rest has been identified in clinical depressive disorder. However, very few studies have been conducted to understand the underlying neural substrates of subclinical depression. The newly proposed centrality analysis approach has been increasingly used to explore the large-scale brain network of mental diseases. This study aimed to identify the degree centrality (DC) alteration of the brain network in subclinical depressive subjects. Thirty-seven candidates with subclinical depression and 34 well-matched healthy controls (HCs) were recruited from the same sample of college students. All subjects underwent a resting-state fMRI (rs-fMRI) scan to assess the DC of the whole brain. Compared with controls, subclinical depressive subjects displayed decreased DC in the right parahippocampal gyrus (PHG), left PHG/amygdala, and left caudate and elevated DC in the right posterior parietal lobule (PPL), left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) and left middle frontal gyrus (MFG). In addition, by using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis, we determined that the DC values in the regions with altered FC between the two groups can be used to differentiate subclinical depressive subjects from HCs. We suggest that decreased DC in subcortical and increased DC in cortical regions might be the neural substrates of subclinical depression.
Project description:Previous resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) studies of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) have facilitated our understanding of OCD pathophysiology based on its intrinsic activity. However, whether the group difference derived from univariate analysis could be useful for informing the diagnosis of individual OCD patients remains unclear. We aimed to apply multivariate pattern analysis of different rs-fMRI parameters to distinguish drug-naive patients with OCD from healthy control subjects (HCS). Fifty-four drug-naive OCD patients and 54 well-matched HCS were recruited. Four different rs-fMRI parameter maps, including the amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations (ALFF), fractional amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations (fALFF), regional homogeneity (ReHo) and functional connectivity strength (FCS), were calculated. Training of a support vector machine (SVM) classifier using rs-fMRI maps produced voxelwise discrimination maps. Overall, the classification accuracies were acceptable for the four rs-fMRI parameters. Excellent performance was achieved when ALFF maps were employed (accuracy, 95.37%, p?<?0.01), good performance was achieved by using ReHo maps, weaker performance was achieved by using fALFF maps, and fair performance was achieved by using FCS maps. The brain regions showing the greatest discriminative power included the prefrontal cortex, anterior cingulate cortex, precentral gyrus, and occipital lobes. The application of SVM to rs-fMRI features may provide potential power for OCD classification.