Airway Inflammation and Lung Function in Sickle Cell Disease.
ABSTRACT: Rationale: Asthma is a common comorbid condition in sickle cell disease (SCD). However, obstructive lung disease is prevalent in SCD, independent of a diagnosis of asthma. It is speculated that the heightened state of inflammation in SCD, involving pathways distinct from allergic asthma, may underlie the SCD-specific obstructive disease. Objective: The objective of the study was to compare airway and systemic inflammatory markers between SCD patients with pulmonary manifestations and patients with allergic asthma, and correlate the discriminating inflammatory markers with clinical measures of pulmonary disease. Materials and Methods: In a pilot translational study conducted at the Children's Hospital at Montefiore, 15 patients with SCD, and history of asthma, airway obstruction, or airway hyper-reactivity, and 15 control patients with allergic asthma 6-21 years of age were recruited. Inflammatory markers, including peripheral blood T helper cell subsets, serum and exhaled breath condensate (EBC) cytokines and chemokines of the Th-1/Th-17, Th-2, and monocytic pathways, and serum cysteinyl leukotrienes B4 (LTB4), were quantified, compared between the study groups, and correlated with atopic sensitization, pulmonary function tests, and markers of hemolysis. Results: White blood cells (P?
Project description:BACKGROUND:Allergic asthma is a chronic inflammatory airway disease driven predominantly by a TH 2 immune response to environmental allergens. IL-4R?-signaling is essential for driving TH 2-type immunity to allergens. Anti-TH 2 therapies have the potential to effectively reduce airway obstruction and inflammation in allergic asthma. OBJECTIVE:We investigated potential therapeutic effects of selective inhibition of this pathway in mice with established allergic airway disease. We further investigated whether IL-4R? disruption in systemically sensitized mice can prevent the onset of the disease. METHODS:We used RosacreERT2 IL-4R?-/lox mice, a tamoxifen (TAM)-inducible IL-4R? knockdown model to investigate the role of IL-4/IL-13 signaling prior to the onset of the disease and during the effector phase in the ovalbumin-induced allergic airway disease. RESULTS:Inducible deletion of IL-4R? demonstrated therapeutic effects, on established allergic airway disease, and prevented the development of ovalbumin-induced airway hyperreactivity, eosinophilia, and goblet cell metaplasia in allergen-sensitized mice. Interestingly, IL-4R? knockdown after allergic sensitization did not induce TH 17, a neutrophilic inflammatory response as observed in global IL-4R?-deficient mice after intranasal allergen challenge. CONCLUSION:Abrogation of IL-4R? signaling after allergic sensitization would have significant therapeutic benefit for TH 2-type allergic asthma.
Project description:Allergic asthma is a highly prevalent airway inflammatory disease, which involves the interaction between the immune system, environmental and genetic factors. Co-relation between allergic asthma and gut microbiota upon the change of diet have been widely reported, implicating that oral intake of alternative medicines possess a potential in the management of allergic asthma. Previous clinical, in vivo, and in vitro studies have shown that the Pentaherbs formula (PHF) comprising five traditional Chinese herbal medicines Lonicerae Flos, Menthae Herba, Phellodendri Cortex, Moutan Cortex, and Atractylodis Rhizoma possesses an anti-allergic and anti-inflammatory potential through suppressing various immune effector cells. In the present study, to further investigate the anti-inflammatory activities of PHF in allergic asthma, intragastrical administration of PHF was found to reduce airway hyperresponsiveness, airway wall remodeling and goblet cells hyperplasia in an ovalbumin (OVA)-induced allergic asthma mice model. PHF also significantly suppressed pulmonary eosinophilia and asthma-related cytokines IL-4 and IL-33 in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid. In addition, PHF modulated the splenic regulatory T cells population, up-regulated regulatory interleukin (IL)-10 in serum, altered the microbial community structure and the short chain fatty acids content in the gut of the asthmatic mice. This study sheds light on the anti-inflammatory activities of PHF on allergic asthma. It also provides novel in vivo evidence that herbal medicines can ameliorate symptoms of allergic diseases may potentially prevent the development of subsequent atopic disorder such as allergic asthma through the influence of the gut microbiota.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Recent genome-wide association studies have identified single nucleotide polymorphisms in the gene encoding the protein ?T-catenin (CTNNA3) that correlate with both steroid-resistant atopic asthma and asthmatic exacerbations. ?-Catenins are important mediators of cell-cell adhesion, and ?T-catenin is predominantly expressed in cardiomyocytes. In the lung ?T-catenin appears to be exclusively expressed in cardiomyocytes surrounding the pulmonary veins (PVs), but its contribution to atopic asthma remains unknown. OBJECTIVE:We sought to understand the role of ?T-catenin in asthma pathogenesis. METHODS:We used ?T-catenin knockout mice and a house dust mite (HDM) extract model of atopic asthma, with assessment by means of forced oscillation, bronchoalveolar lavage, and histologic analysis. RESULTS:We found that the genetic loss of ?T-catenin in mice largely attenuated HDM-induced airway inflammation and airway hyperresponsiveness to methacholine. Mice lacking ?T-catenin that were exposed to HDM extract had reduced PV inflammation, specifically near the large veins surrounded by cardiac cells. The proximity of the airways to PVs correlated with the severity of airway goblet cell metaplasia, suggesting that PVs can influence the inflammatory milieu of adjacent airways. Loss of ?T-catenin led to compensatory upregulation of ?E-catenin, which itself has a defined anti-inflammatory function. CONCLUSION:These data mechanistically support previous clinical and genetic associations between ?T-catenin and the development of atopic asthma and suggest that PVs might have an underappreciated role in allergic airway inflammation.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>In addition to allergen-specific IgE (sIgE), allergen-specific IgG4 (sIgG4) antibodies are also involved in the immune response resulting from an allergen exposure. The aim of our study was to analyze sIgE and sIgG4 patterns in the most common allergic disorders: bronchial asthma, upper airway disorders and atopic dermatitis.<h4>Methods</h4>In this study a screening analysis of blood serum samples from 673 patients aged from 6 months to 17 years with different allergic entities was performed on microarrays. sIgE and sIgG4 levels to the most common allergens were estimated.<h4>Results</h4>sIgE response to most pollen allergens is more strongly associated with respiratory diseases than with atopic dermatitis, while sIgE responses to cat and dog dander are more strongly associated with bronchial asthma than with atopic dermatitis and upper airway disorders such as rhinosinusitis and allergic rhinitis. A lower prevalence of sIgG4 to pollen allergens in cases of atopic dermatitis is observed compared with that in cases of asthma and upper airway disorders. Analyzing all the allergic disorders, one can see that sIgG4 response to inhalant allergens is strongly associated with sensitization to the corresponding allergen.<h4>Conclusion</h4>Allergen-specific IgE and IgG4 patterns that are relevant to concrete allergic diseases differ by sIgE and sIgG4 prevalences to defined allergens.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Asthma is estimated to affect as many as 300 million people worldwide and its incidence and prevalence are rapidly increasing throughout the world, especially in children and within developing countries. Recently, there has been a growing interest in the use of potentially beneficial bacteria for allergic diseases. This study is aimed at exploring the therapeutic effects of long-term treatment with two different beneficial bacterial strains (Bifidobacterium breve M-16?V and Lactobacillus rhamnosus NutRes1) and a glucocorticoid (budesonide), as a reference treatment, on inflammatory response in a murine model for chronic allergic asthma. METHODS: To mimic the chronic disease in asthmatic patients, we used the murine ovalbumin-induced asthma model combined with prolonged allergen exposure. Airway function; pulmonary airway inflammation; airway remodelling, mRNA expression of pattern recognition receptors, Th-specific cytokines and transcription factors in lung tissue; mast cell degranulation; in vitro T cell activation; and expression of Foxp3 in blood Th cells were examined. RESULTS: Lactobacillus rhamnosus reduced lung resistance to a similar extent as budesonide treatment in chronically asthmatic mice. Pulmonary airway inflammation, mast cell degranulation, T cell activation and airway remodelling were suppressed by all treatments. Beneficial bacteria and budesonide differentially modulated the expression of toll-like receptors (TLRs), nod-like receptors (NLRs), cytokines and T cell transcription factors. Bifidobacterium breve induced regulatory T cell responses in the airways by increasing Il10 and Foxp3 transcription in lung tissue as well as systemic by augmenting the mean fluorescence intensity of Foxp3 in blood CD4+ T cells. CONCLUSION: These findings show that Bifidobacterium breve M-16?V and Lactobacillus rhamnosus NutRes1 have strong anti-inflammatory properties that are comparable to budesonide and therefore may be beneficial in the treatment of chronic asthma.
Project description:PURPOSE:CD4?T cells are essential in the pathogenesis of allergic asthma. We have previously demonstrated that microRNA-1165-3p (miR-1165-3p) was significantly reduced in T-helper type (Th) 2 cells and that miR-1165-3p was a surrogate marker for atopic asthma. Little is known about the mechanisms of miR-1165-3p in the regulation of Th2-dominated allergic inflammation. We aimed to investigate the associations between Th2 differentiation and miR-1165b-3p in asthma as well as the possible mechanisms. METHODS:CD4? naïve T cells were differentiated into Th1 or Th2 cells in vitro. MiR-1165-3p was up-regulated or down-regulated using lentiviral systems during Th1/Th2 differentiation. In vivo, the lentiviral particles with the miR-1165-3p enhancer were administered by tail vein injection on the first day of a house dust mite -induced allergic airway inflammation model. Allergic inflammation and Th1/Th2 differentiation were routinely monitored. To investigate the potential targets of miR-1165-3p, biotin-microRNA pull-down products were sequenced, and the candidates were further verified with a dual-luciferase reporter assay. The roles of a target protein phosphatase, Mg2+/Mn2+-dependent 1A (PPM1A), in Th2 cell differentiation and allergic asthma were further explored. Plasma PPM1A was determined by ELISA in 18 subjects with asthma and 20 controls. RESULTS:The lentivirus encoding miR-1165-3p suppressed Th2-cell differentiation in vitro. In contrast, miR-1165-3p silencing promoted Th2-cell development. In the HDM-induced model of allergic airway inflammation, miR-1165-3p up-regulation was accompanied by reduced airway hyper-responsiveness, serum immunoglobulin E, airway inflammation and Th2-cell polarization. IL-13 and PPM1A were the direct targets of miR-1165-3p. The expression of IL-13 or PPM1A was inversely correlated with that of miR-1165-3p. PPM1A regulated the signal transducer and activator of transcription and AKT signaling pathways during Th2 differentiation. Moreover, plasma PPM1A was significantly increased in asthmatic patients. CONCLUSIONS:MiR-1165-3p negatively may regulate Th2-cell differentiation by targeting IL-13 and PPM1A in allergic airway inflammation.
Project description:Mycoplasma pneumoniae causes acute and chronic lung infections in humans, leading to a variety of pulmonary and extrapulmonary sequelae. Of the airway complications of M. pneumoniae infection, M. pneumoniae-associated exacerbation of asthma and pediatric wheezing are emerging as significant sources of human morbidity. However, M. pneumoniae products capable of promoting allergic inflammation are unknown. Recently, we reported that M. pneumoniae produces an ADP-ribosylating and vacuolating toxin termed the community-acquired respiratory distress syndrome (CARDS) toxin. Here we report that naive mice exposed to a single dose of recombinant CARDS (rCARDS) toxin respond with a robust inflammatory response consistent with allergic disease. rCARDS toxin induced 30-fold increased expression of the Th-2 cytokines IL-4 and IL-13 and 70- to 80-fold increased expression of the Th-2 chemokines CCL17 and CCL22, corresponding to a mixed cellular inflammatory response comprised of a robust eosinophilia, accumulation of T cells and B cells, and mucus metaplasia. The inflammatory responses correlate temporally with toxin-dependent increases in airway hyperreactivity characterized by increases in airway restriction and decreases in lung compliance. Furthermore, CARDS toxin-mediated changes in lung function and histopathology are dependent on CD4(+) T cells. Altogether, the data suggest that rCARDS toxin is capable of inducing allergic-type inflammation in naive animals and may represent a causal factor in M. pneumoniae-associated asthma.
Project description:IL-25 initiates, promotes, and augments Th2 immune responses. In this study, we report that Act1, a key component in IL-17-mediated signaling, is an essential signaling molecule for IL-25 signaling. Although Act1-deficient mice showed reduced expression of KC (CXCL1) and neutrophil recruitment to the airway compared with wild-type mice in response to IL-17 stimulation, Act1 deficiency abolished IL-25-induced expression of IL-4, IL-5, IL-13, eotaxin-1 (CCL11), and pulmonary eosinophilia. Using a mouse model of allergic pulmonary inflammation, we observed diminished Th2 responses and lung inflammation in Act1-deficient mice compared with wild-type mice. Importantly, Act1 deficiency in epithelial cells reduced the phenotype of allergic pulmonary inflammation due to loss of IL-17-induced neutrophilia and IL-25-induced eosinophilia, respectively. These results demonstrate the essential role of epithelial-derived Act1 in allergic pulmonary inflammation through the distinct impact of the IL-17R-Act1 and IL-25R-Act1 axes. Such findings are crucial for the understanding of pathobiology of atopic diseases, including allergic asthma, which identifies Act1 as a potential therapeutic target.
Project description:CD26 displays variable levels between effector (TH<sub>17</sub>???TH<sub>1</sub>?>?TH<sub>2</sub>?>?Treg) and naïve/memory (memory?>?naïve) CD4<sup>+</sup> T lymphocytes. Besides, IL-6/IL<sup>-</sup>6R is associated with TH<sub>17</sub>-differentiation and asthma severity. Allergic/atopic asthma (AA) is dominated by TH<sub>2</sub> responses, while TH<sub>17</sub> immunity might either modulate the TH<sub>2</sub>-dependent inflammation in AA or be an important mechanism boosting non-allergic asthma (NAA). Therefore, in this work we have compared the expression of CD26 and CD126 (IL-6R?) in lymphocytes from different groups of donors: allergic (AA) and non-allergic (NAA) asthma, rhinitis, and healthy subjects. For this purpose, flow cytometry, haematological/biochemical, and in vitro proliferation assays were performed. Our results show a strong CD26-CD126 correlation and an over-representation of CD26<sup>-</sup> subsets with a highly-differentiated effector phenotype in AA (CD4<sup>+</sup>CD26<sup>-/low</sup> T cells) and NAA (CD4<sup>-</sup>CD26<sup>-</sup> ??-T cells). In addition, we found that circulating levels of CD26 (sCD26) were reduced in both AA and NAA, while loss of CD126 expression on different leukocytes correlated with higher disease severity. Finally, selective inhibition of CD26-mRNA translation led to enhanced T cell proliferation in vitro. These findings support that CD26 down-modulation could play a role in facilitating the expansion of highly-differentiated effector T cell subsets in asthma.
Project description:Interleukin(IL)-33 is an epithelial alarmin important for eosinophil maturation, activation and survival. The aim of this study was to examine the association between IL-33, its receptor expression and airway eosinophilic inflammation in non-atopic COPD.IL-33 concentrations were measured in exhaled breath condensate (EBC) collected from healthy non-smokers, asthmatics and non-atopic COPD subjects using ELISA. Serum and sputum samples were collected from healthy non-smokers, healthy smokers and non-atopic COPD patients. Based on sputum eosinophil count, COPD subjects were divided into subgroups with airway eosinophilic inflammation (sputum eosinophils >?3%) or without (sputum eosinophils ?3%). IL-33 and soluble form of IL-33 receptor (sST2) protein concentrations were measured in serum and sputum supernatants using ELISA. ST2 mRNA expression was measured in peripheral mononuclear cells and sputum cells by qPCR. Hemopoietic progenitor cells (HPC) expressing ST2 and intracellular IL-5 were enumerated in blood and induced sputum by means of flow cytometry.IL-33 levels in EBC were increased in COPD patients to a similar extent as in asthma and correlated with blood eosinophil count. Furthermore, serum and sputum IL-33 levels were higher in COPD subjects with sputum eosinophilia than in those with a sputum eosinophil count ?3% (p?<?0.001 for both). ST2 mRNA was overexpressed in sputum cells obtained from COPD patients with airway eosinophilic inflammation compared to those without sputum eosinophilia (p?<?0.01). Similarly, ST2?+?IL-5+ HPC numbers were increased in the sputum of COPD patients with airway eosinophilia (p?<?0.001).Our results indicate that IL-33 is involved in the development of eosinophilic airway inflammation in non-atopic COPD patients.