Nitrate Ion-Incorporated Stable Perovskite Nanocrystals by a Solvent-Free Mechanochemical Reaction.
ABSTRACT: We have synthesized a new class of organolead halide perovskite nanocrystals by a solvent-free mechanochemical green approach. We have developed a new combination of precursor by incorporating nitrate ions into the MAPbBr3 perovskite core. While the presence of nitrate ion is evidenced by Fourier-transform infrared spectra, X-ray diffraction data shows the formation of perovskite nanocrystals. By altering the precursor composition, the morphology of the nanocrystals changes. Photoluminescence properties of these nanocrystals are preserved. Moreover, the stability of these nanocrystals is monitored for a long time, which shows that the incorporation of nitrate ions into the perovskite nanocrystal core does not have any decremental effect on its stability. Nonetheless, this strategy to synthesize perovskite nanocrystals reduces the solvent toxicity.
Project description:Controlling the morphology of organolead halide perovskite crystals is crucial to a fundamental understanding of the materials and to tune their properties for device applications. Here, we report a facile solution-based method for morphology-controlled synthesis of rod-like and plate-like organolead halide perovskite nanocrystals using binary capping agents. The morphology control is likely due to an interplay between surface binding kinetics of the two capping agents at different crystal facets. By high-resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy, we show that the obtained nanocrystals are monocrystalline. Moreover, long photoluminescence decay times of the nanocrystals indicate long charge diffusion lengths and low trap/defect densities. Our results pave the way for large-scale solution synthesis of organolead halide perovskite nanocrystals with controlled morphology for future device applications.
Project description:This paper explores the gas sensing properties of graphene nanolayers decorated with lead halide perovskite (CH3NH3PbBr3) nanocrystals to detect toxic gases such as ammonia (NH3) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2). A chemical-sensitive semiconductor film based on graphene has been achieved, being decorated with CH3NH3PbBr3 perovskite (MAPbBr3) nanocrystals (NCs) synthesized, and characterized by several techniques, such as field emission scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Reversible responses were obtained towards NO2 and NH3 at room temperature, demonstrating an enhanced sensitivity when the graphene is decorated by MAPbBr3 NCs. Furthermore, the effect of ambient moisture was extensively studied, showing that the use of perovskite NCs in gas sensors can become a promising alternative to other gas sensitive materials, due to the protective character of graphene, resulting from its high hydrophobicity. Besides, a gas sensing mechanism is proposed to understand the effects of MAPbBr3 sensing properties.
Project description:Solar cells based on metal halide perovskites often show excellent efficiency but poor stability. This degradation of perovskite devices has been associated with the migration of mobile ions. MAPbBr3 perovskite materials are significantly more stable under ambient conditions than MAPbI3 perovskite materials. In this work, we use transient ion drift to quantify the key characteristics of ion migration in MAPbBr3 perovskite solar cells. We then proceed to compare them with those of MAPbI3 perovskite solar cells. We find that in MAPbBr3, bromide migration is the main process at play and that contrary to the case of MAPbI3, there is no evidence for methylammonium migration. Quantitatively, we find a reduced activation energy, a reduced diffusion coefficient, and a reduced concentration for halide ions in MAPbBr3 compared to MAPbI3. Understanding this difference in mobile ion migration is a crucial step in understanding the enhanced stability of MAPbBr3 versus MAPbI3.
Project description:This paper reports a new method to generate stable and high-brightness electroluminescence (EL) by subsequently growing large/small grains at micro/nano scales with the configuration of attaching small grains on the surfaces of large grains in perovskite (MAPbBr3) films by mixing two precursor solutions (PbBr2 + MABr and Pb(Ac)2·3H2O + MABr). Consequently, the small and large grains serve, respectively, as passivation agents and light-emitting centers, enabling self-passivation on the defects located on the surfaces of light-emitting large grains. Furthermore, the light-emitting states become linearly polarized with maximal polarization of 30.8%, demonstrating a very stable light emission (49,119 cd/m2 with EQE = 11.31%) and a lower turn-on bias (1.9 V) than the bandgap (2.25V) in the perovskite LEDs (ITO/PEDOT:PSS/MAPbBr3/TPBi[50 nm]/LiF[0.7 nm]/Ag). Therefore, mixing large/small grains with the configuration of attaching small grains on the surfaces of large grains by mixing two precursor solutions presents a new strategy to develop high-performance perovskite LEDs.
Project description:We report chemical routes for the synthesis of both nanocrystals and bulk crystals of methylammonium (MA) lead halide perovskites employing N-methylformamide (NMF) as a source of MA ions. Colloidal nanocrystals were prepared by a transamidation reaction between NMF and an alkyl amine (oleylamine). The nanocrystals showed photoluminescence quantum yields reaching 74% for MAPbBr3 and 60% for MAPbI3. Bulk crystals were grown at room temperature, with no need for an antisolvent, by the acid hydrolysis of NMF. Important advantages of using NMF instead of MA salts are that the syntheses involve fewer steps and less toxic and less expensive chemicals.
Project description:Metal halide perovskite nanocrystals are promising materials for a diverse range of applications, such as light-emitting devices and photodetectors. We demonstrate the bandgap tunability of strongly emitting CH3NH3PbBr3 nanocrystals synthesized at both room and elevated (60?°C) temperature through the variation of the precursor and ligand concentrations. We discuss in detail the role of two ligands, oleylamine and oleic acid, in terms of the coordination of the lead precursors and the nanocrystal surface. The growth mechanism of nanocrystals is elucidated by combining the experimental results with the principles of nucleation/growth models. The proposed formation mechanism of perovskite nanocrystals will be helpful for further studies in this field and can be used as a guide to improve the synthetic methods in the future.The development of perovskite nanocrystals is limited by poor mechanistic understanding of their growth. Here, the authors systematically study the ligand-assisted reprecipitation synthesis of CH3NH3PbBr3 nanocrystals, revealing the effect of precursor and ligand concentrations on bandgap tunability.
Project description:Lead halide perovskite nanocrystals are currently under intense investigation as components of solution-processed light-emitting devices (LEDs). We demonstrate LEDs based on Ag doped-passivated CsPbI3 perovskite nanocrystals with external quantum efficiency of 11.2% and an improved stability. Ag and trilayer MoO3/Au/MoO3 structure were used as cathode and anode, respectively, which reduce the electron injection barrier and ensure the high transparency and low resistance of the anode. Silver ions diffuse into perovskite film from the Ag electrode, as confirmed by the elemental mapping, the presence of Ag 3d peaks in the X-ray photoelectron spectrum, and the peak shift in the X-ray diffraction patterns of CsPbI3. In addition to doping, silver ions play the beneficial role of passivating surface defect states of CsPbI3 nanocrystals, which results in increased photoluminescence quantum yield, elongated emission lifetime, and improved stability of perovskite films.
Project description:Perovskite light-emitting diodes (PeLEDs) are fabricated with a structure of indium tin oxide (ITO)/poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):polystyrene sulfonate (PEDOT:PSS)/CH3NH3PbBr3 (MAPbBr3)/1,3,5-tris(2-N-phenylbenzimidazolyl) benzene (TPBi)/Ag.PSS films treated with alcohols including methanol, ethanol, and isopropanol are used to realize high-performance PeLEDs. Among them, by using PEDOT:PSS film treated by methanol as the hole transport layer, the PeLED with a maximum luminance of 2075 cd m-2 and a maximum current efficiency of 0.38 cd A-1 is achieved. Meanwhile, the result shows that the luminance of PeLEDs increases with the polarity of alcohol solvent. The conductivity of PEDOT:PSS films and crystallization of perovskite films are analyzed to gain a deep illumination into the influence of alcohol solvent treatment on device performance. It is also found that the treatment brings not only an improved hole injection capability but also a significantly enhanced crystallization of perovskite. This work indicates that our founding brings a simple and effective method to improve the device performance of PeLEDs.
Project description:To start a step such as some realization of minimized and integrated devices, it requires simply understanding the surface status of hybrid perovskite on the e-beam irradiation because many commercial semiconductor devices are performed with a surface patterning process using e-beam or etching gas. The surface status of CH3NH3PbBr3 (MAPbBr3) single crystal was studied after a grazing e-beam irradiation in an ultra-high vacuum. The prepared hybrid perovskite single crystal was irradiated by the 3 degree-grazing e-beam with energy of 15 kV for 10 min using a reflection high-electron energy diffraction technique. The e-beam irradiation on the MAPbBr3 hybrid perovskite single crystal induced the deformation from MAPbBr3 into MABr, Br2, and Pb on the surface. The gas phases of MABr and Br2 are depleted from the surface and the Pb element has remained on the surface. As a result of the e-beam irradiation, it formed a polycrystalline-like phase and Pb metal particles on the surface, respectively.
Project description:Hybrid metal halide perovskites have been paid enormous attentions in photophysics research, whose excellent performances were attributed to their intriguing charge carriers proprieties. However, it still remains far from satisfaction in the comprehensive understanding of perovskite charge-transport properities, especially about trap-assisted recombination process. In this Letter, through time-resolved transient absorption (TA) and photoluminescence (PL) measurements, we provided a relative comprehensive investigation on the charge carriers recombination dynamics of CH3NH3PbBr3 (MAPbBr3) perovskite films and quantum dots (QDs), especially about trap-assisted recombination. It was found that the integral recombination mode of MAPbBr3 films was highly sensitive to the density distribution of generated charge carriers and trap states. Additional, Trap effects would be gradually weakened with elevated carrier densities. Furthermore, the trap-assisted recombination can be removed from MAPbBr3 QDs through its own surface passivation mechanism and this specialty may render the QDs as a new material in illuminating research. This work provides deeper physical insights into the dynamics processes of MAPbBr3 materials and paves a way toward more light-harvesting applications in future.