Effect of vitamin D on serum markers of bone turnover in SLE in a randomised controlled trial.
ABSTRACT: Objective:Bone health in SLE is adversely affected by vitamin D deficiency, inflammatory cytokines and glucocorticoid use. We hypothesised that vitamin D supplementation would increase markers of bone formation and decrease markers of bone resorption in SLE subjects. Methods:We studied 43 vitamin D-deficient SLE subjects who participated in a 12-week randomised controlled trial of 2000-4000?IU/day vitamin D supplementation versus placebo. Subjects had inactive SLE (SLE Disease Activity Index ?4) and were taking <20?mg prednisone daily at baseline. We assayed baseline and week 12 serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D, N-terminal propeptide of type 1 collagen (P1NP) and C-telopeptide (CTX). We tested the effect of vitamin D versus placebo on change (?) in P1NP and ?CTX in an intention-to-treat analysis. Secondary analyses evaluated whether vitamin D affected bone turnover among subjects achieving vitamin D repletion (?30?ng/mL) or currently taking glucocorticoids. Results:28 subjects were randomised to vitamin D and 15 to placebo. Mean age was 39 years and 40% were using glucocorticoids at enrolment. Repletion was achieved by 46% in the vitamin D group versus none in the placebo group. Changes in bone turnover markers were not significantly different in the vitamin D group versus placebo group (median ?P1NP -0.2 vitamin D group vs -1.1 placebo group (p=0.83); median ?CTX +3.5 vitamin D group vs -37.0 placebo group (p=0.50)). The effect of vitamin D did not differ based on achieving vitamin D repletion or baseline glucocorticoid use. Conclusion:Vitamin D supplementation did not affect the 12-week change in bone turnover markers among SLE subjects in this trial.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:Vitamin D is essential for the maintenance of calcium homeostasis and bone mineralization; and low serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (s-25-(OH)D) concentrations are associated with increased bone turnover. However, there is a lack of randomized controlled trials that have investigated the effect of vitamin D treatment on bone turnover in immigrant populations. We aimed to investigate the effect of 16-week daily vitamin D3 supplementation on bone formation marker serum procollagen type 1 amino-terminal propeptide (P1NP) and bone resorption marker C-terminal crosslinked telopeptide of type I collagen (CTX). DESIGN:Double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. SETTING:Immigrant community centers in Oslo, Norway. PARTICIPANTS:251 healthy adults aged 18-50 years with a non-Western immigrant background were recruited. INTERVENTION:16 weeks of daily oral supplementation with either 10 ?g vitamin D3, 25 ?g vitamin D3, or placebo. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:Difference in change during the 16-week intervention between the intervention groups combined (10 or 25 ?g of vitamin D3/day) and placebo, in serum P1NP and serum CTX. RESULTS:A total of 214 (85%) participants completed the study. S-25-(OH)D increased from 29 nmol/L at baseline to 49 nmol/L in the intervention group with no significant change in the placebo group. However, there was no difference in change of serum P1NP (mean difference: - 1.2 ?g/L (95% CI: - 5.4, 2.9, P = 0.6)) and serum CTX (mean difference: - 0.005 ?g/L (95% CI: - 0.03, 0.02, P = 0.7)) between those receiving vitamin D3 supplementation compared with placebo. The plasma PTH had decreased by a mean of - 1.97 pmol/L (95% CI: - 2.7, - 1.3, P < 0.0001) in the vitamin D3 group compared to placebo. CONCLUSIONS:Supplementation with 10 or 25 ?g oral vitamin D3 during winter and spring for 16 weeks did not significantly affect serum P1NP and serum CTX, despite increasing s-25(OH)D and decreasing PTH in a healthy immigrant population with low baseline vitamin D status. Trial registration number: NCT01263288.
Project description:The Maternal Vitamin D Osteoporosis (MAVIDOS) trial reported higher total body bone mineral content in winter-born infants of mothers receiving vitamin D supplementation [1000 IU/day cholecalciferol] compared with placebo from 14 weeks gestation until delivery. This sub-study aimed to determine whether antenatal vitamin D supplementation altered postnatal bone formation in response to mechanical stimulation. Thirty-one children born to MAVIDOS participants randomised to either placebo (n=19) or cholecalciferol (n=12) were recruited at age 4-5 years. Children received whole body vibration (WBV) for 10 minutes on 5 consecutive days. Fasting blood samples for bone homeostasis, 25 hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD), parathyroid hormone (PTH), and bone turnover markers (Pro-collagen Type 1 N-terminal propeptide, P1NP; Cross-linked C-telopeptide of Type I Collagen, CTX) were collected pre-WBV and on day 8 (D8). Mean changes (D) in P1NP (ng/ml) between baseline and D8 in the vitamin-D intervention and placebo groups were 40.6 and -92.6 respectively and mean changes (?) in CTX (ng/ml) were 0.034 (intervention) and -0.084 (placebo) respectively. Between-group DP1NP difference was 133.2ng/ml [95% CI 0.4, 266.0; p=0.049] and ?CTX 0.05ng/ml (95% CI -0.159, 0.26ng/mL; p=0.62). Antenatal vitamin-D supplementation resulted in increased P1NP in response to WBV, suggesting early life vitamin D supplementation increases the anabolic response of bone to mechanical loading in children.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:Collagen peptides (CPs) seem to exert beneficial effects on bone and may have a role as a treatment option. In the present randomized prospective study, we aimed to examine the efficacy, as expressed by changes in P1NP and CTX, and the tolerability of 3-month supplementation of calcium, vitamin D with or without bioactive CPs in postmenopausal women with osteopenia. METHODS:Fifty-one female, postmenopausal women with osteopenia were allocated to two groups: Group A received a sachet containing 5 g CPs, 3.6 g calcium lactate (equivalent to 500 mg of elemental calcium) and 400 IU vitamin D3 and group B received a chewable tablet containing 1.25 g calcium carbonate (equivalent to 500 mg of elemental calcium) and 400 IU vitamin D3 daily. RESULTS:In group A, the P1NP levels significantly decreased by 13.1% (p<0.001) and CTX levels decreased by 11.4% (p=0.058) within 3 months of supplementation. In group B, P1NP and CTX did not change. Group A presented better compliance in comparison to group B and no adverse events contrary to group B. CONCLUSIONS:These findings may reflect the reduction of the increased bone turnover in postmenopausal women with the use of calcium, vitamin D and CPs supplements. The addition of CPs in a calcium and vitamin D supplement may enhance its already known positive effect on bone metabolism. Clinical Trial ID: NCT03999775.
Project description:Bone turnover markers (BTMs) are used to evaluate bone health together with bone mineral density and fracture assessment. Vitamin D supplementation is widely used to prevent and treat musculoskeletal diseases but existing data on vitamin D effects on markers of bone resorption and formation are inconsistent. We therefore examined the effects of vitamin D supplementation on bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (bALP), osteocalcin (OC), C-terminal telopeptide (CTX), and procollagen type 1 N-terminal propeptide (P1NP). This is a post-hoc analysis of the Styrian Vitamin D Hypertension Trial, a single-center, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial (RCT) performed at the Medical University of Graz, Austria (2011-2014). Two hundred individuals with arterial hypertension and 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) levels <75 nmol/L were randomized to 2800 IU of vitamin D daily or placebo for eight weeks. One hundred ninety-seven participants (60.2 ± 11.1 years; 47% women) were included in this analysis. Vitamin D had no significant effect on bALP (mean treatment effect (MTE) 0.013, 95% CI -0.029 to 0.056 µg/L; p = 0.533), CTX (MTE 0.024, 95% CI -0.163 to 0.210 ng/mL, p = 0.802), OC (MTE 0.020, 95% CI -0.062 to 0.103 ng/mL, p = 0.626), or P1NP (MTE -0.021, 95% CI -0.099 to 0.057 ng/mL, p = 0.597). Analyzing patients with 25(OH)D levels <50 nmol/L separately (n = 74) left results largely unchanged. In hypertensive patients with low 25(OH)D levels, we observed no significant effect of vitamin D supplementation for eight weeks on BTMs.
Project description:This analysis was performed in Zambian children who had a high prevalence of hypervitaminosis A, defined as >?1.0 ?mol retinol/g liver. Bone parameters included markers of bone formation (P1NP), bone resorption (CTX), parathyroid hormone, calcium, vitamin A, and vitamin D. Low dietary vitamin A intake increased P1NP. PURPOSE:Vitamin A (VA) interacts with bone health, but mechanisms require clarification. In countries where multiple interventions exist to eradicate VA deficiency, some groups are consuming excessive VA. Bone metabolism and inflammatory parameters were measured in Zambian children who had high prevalence of hypervitaminosis A determined by 13C-retinol isotope dilution. METHODS:Children (n?=?143), 5 to 7 years, were recruited into a placebo-controlled biofortified orange maize feeding study for 90 days. Bone turnover (P1NP and CTX) and inflammatory (C-reactive protein (CRP) and alpha-1-acid glycoprotein) biomarkers were measured in fasting blood samples before and/or after intervention with the following: (1) VA at the recommended dietary allowance (400 ?g retinol activity equivalents/day (as retinyl palmitate)), (2) maize enhanced with the provitamin A carotenoid ?-carotene (2.86 mg/day), or (3) a placebo. Parathyroid hormone, calcium, and 25(OH)-vitamin D were measured at end line. RESULTS:Bone formation, as measured by P1NP, increased (P?<?0.0001) in the placebo group who consumed low preformed VA during the intervention. Bone resorption, measured by CTX, was not affected. P1NP and CTX were negatively associated with inflammation, most strongly with CRP. Serum calcium did not differ among groups and was low (7.29?±?0.87 ?g/dL). Serum 25(OH) D did not differ among groups (54.5?±?15 nmol/L), with 91% <?75 nmol/L and 38% <?50 nmol/L. CONCLUSIONS:Reduction of dietary preformed VA in Zambian children for 4 months improved bone formation. Chronic consumption of preformed VA caused hypervitaminosis A and may impair bone formation. In children, this could be associated with failure to accrue optimal peak bone mass. TRIAL REGISTRATION:The NIH Clinical Trial registry number is NCT01814891; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01814891 .
Project description:Abdominal adiposity is associated with low BMD and decreased growth hormone (GH) secretion, an important regulator of bone homeostasis. The purpose of our study was to determine the effects of a short course of GH on markers of bone turnover and bone marrow fat in premenopausal women with abdominal adiposity.In a 6-month, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial we studied 79 abdominally obese premenopausal women (21-45 y) who underwent daily sc injections of GH vs. placebo. Main outcome measures were body composition by DXA and CT, bone marrow fat by proton MR spectroscopy, P1NP, CTX, 25(OH)D, hsCRP, undercarboxylated osteocalcin (ucOC), preadipocyte factor 1 (Pref 1), apolipoprotein B (ApoB), and IGF-1.GH increased IGF-1, P1NP, 25(OH)D, ucOC, bone marrow fat and lean mass, and decreased abdominal fat, hsCRP, and ApoB compared with placebo (p<0.05). There was a trend toward an increase in CTX and Pref-1. Among all participants, a 6-month increase in IGF-1 correlated with 6-month increase in P1NP (p=0.0005), suggesting that subjects with the greatest increases in IGF-1 experienced the greatest increases in bone formation. A six-month decrease in abdominal fat, hsCRP, and ApoB inversely predicted 6-month change in P1NP, and 6-month increase in lean mass and 25(OH)D positively predicted 6-month change in P1NP (p?0.05), suggesting that subjects with greatest decreases in abdominal fat, inflammation and ApoB, and the greatest increases in lean mass and 25(OH)D experienced the greatest increases in bone formation. A six-month increase in bone marrow fat correlated with 6-month increase in P1NP (trend), suggesting that subjects with the greatest increases in bone formation experienced the greatest increases in bone marrow fat. Forward stepwise regression analysis indicated that increase in lean mass and decrease in abdominal fat were positive predictors of P1NP. When IGF-1 was added to the model, it became the only predictor of P1NP.GH replacement in abdominally obese premenopausal women for 6 months increased bone turnover and bone marrow fat. Reductions in abdominal fat, and inflammation, and increases in IGF-1, lean mass and vitamin D were associated with increased bone formation. The increase in bone marrow fat may reflect changes in energy demand from increased bone turnover.
Project description:In postmenopausal women with low bone mass and hormone-receptor-positive breast cancer on an aromatase inhibitor, risedronate maintained skeletal health assessed by bone density and turnover markers. Women with the greatest decreases in bone turnover markers at 12 months had the greatest increases in bone density at 24 months.Aromatase inhibitors (AIs), adjuvant endocrine therapy for postmenopausal women with hormone-receptor-positive breast cancer, are associated with bone loss and fractures. Our objectives were to determine if (1) oral bisphosphonate therapy can prevent bone loss in women on an AI and (2) early changes in bone turnover markers (BTM) can predict later changes in bone mineral density (BMD).We conducted a 2-year double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trial in 109 postmenopausal women with low bone mass on an AI (anastrozole, letrozole, or exemestane) for hormone-receptor-positive breast cancer. Participants were randomized to once weekly risedronate 35 mg or placebo, and all received calcium plus vitamin D. The main outcome measures included BMD, BTM [carboxy-terminal collagen crosslinks (CTX) and N-terminal propeptide of type 1 procollagen (P1NP)], and safety.Eighty-seven percent completed 24 months. BMD increased more in the active treatment group compared to placebo with an adjusted difference at 24 months of 3.9?±?0.7 percentage points at the spine and 3.2?±?0.5 percentage points at the hip (both p?<?0.05). The adjusted difference between the active treatment and placebo groups were 0.09?±?0.04 nmol/LBCE for CTX and 23.3?±?4.8 ?g/mL for P1NP (both p?<?0.05). Women with greater 12-month decreases in CTX and P1NP in the active treatment group had a greater 24-month increase in spinal BMD (p?<?0.05). The oral therapy was safe and well tolerated.In postmenopausal women with low bone mass and breast cancer on an AI, the oral bisphosphonate risedronate maintained skeletal health.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:Vitamin D modulates the immune response and blocks induction of an interferon (IFN) signature by systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) sera. This study was undertaken to investigate the effects of vitamin D supplementation on the IFN signature in patients with SLE. METHODS:SLE patients (n?=?57) with stable, inactive disease, a serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) level ?20 ng/ml, an elevated anti-double-stranded DNA antibody level, and an IFN signature (as determined by measuring the expression levels of 3 IFN response genes) were randomized into a 12-week double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of vitamin D3 at doses of 2,000 IU or 4,000 IU. An IFN signature response was defined as a 50% reduction in the expression of 1 of the 3 genes or a 25% reduction in the expression of 2 of the 3 genes. Disease activity, adverse events, and endocrine effects were assessed. RESULTS:Baseline characteristics of the patients in the 3 treatment groups (placebo, low-dose vitamin D3 , or high-dose vitamin D3 ) were similar. Repletion of 25(OH)D (i.e., levels ?30 ng/ml) was not observed in any of the patients who were receiving placebo, while repletion was observed in 16 of 33 patients receiving vitamin D3 . The percentage of patients with an IFN signature response did not differ among the treatment groups. Moreover, there was no difference in the percentage of patients with an IFN signature response between those who remained vitamin D deficient and those who demonstrated repletion of vitamin D. Modular microarray analysis of a subset of patients (n?=?40) did not reveal changes from baseline in any modules (including the IFN-inducible module) in any of the treatment groups, and no differences in expression were found between patients who demonstrated vitamin D repletion and patients who were persistently vitamin D deficient. Vitamin D3 was well tolerated, and there were no safety concerns. CONCLUSION:Vitamin D3 supplementation up to 4,000 IU daily was safe and well-tolerated but failed to diminish the IFN signature in vitamin D-deficient SLE patients. Higher 25(OH)D levels sustained for a longer duration may be required to affect immunologic outcomes.
Project description:The relationship involving acid-base imbalance, mineral metabolism and bone health status has previously been reported but the efficacy of the alkalizing supplementation in targeting acid overload and preventing bone loss has not yet been fully elucidated. In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, the hypothesis that potassium citrate (K citrate) modifies bone turnover in women with postmenopausal osteopenia was tested. Three hundred and ten women were screened; 40 women met the inclusion criteria and were randomly assigned to the treatment or the placebo group. They were treated with K citrate (30 mEq day-1) or a placebo in addition to calcium carbonate (500 mg day-1) and vitamin D (400 IU day-1). At baseline and time points of 3 and 6 months, serum indicators of renal function, electrolytes, calciotropic hormones, serum bone turnover markers (BTMs), tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase 5b (TRACP5b), carboxy-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen (CTX), bone alkaline phosphatase (BAP), procollagen type 1 N terminal propeptide (PINP)), and urine pH, electrolytes, and citrate were measured. The follow-up was completed by 17/20 patients in the "K citrate" group and 18/20 patients in the "placebo" group. At baseline, 90% of the patients exhibited low potassium excretion in 24 h urine samples, and 85% of cases had at least one urine parameter associated with low-grade acidosis (low pH, low citrate excretion). After treatment, CTX and BAP decreased significantly in both groups, but subjects with evidence of low-grade acidosis gained significant benefits from the treatment compared to the placebo. In patients with low 24h-citrate excretion at baseline, a 30% mean decrease in BAP and CTX was observed at 6 months. A significant reduction was also evident when low citrate (BAP: -25%; CTX: -35%) and a low pH (BAP: -25%; CTX: -30%) were found in fasting-morning urine. In conclusion, our results suggested that K citrate supplementation improved the beneficial effects of calcium and vitamin D in osteopenic women with a documented potassium and citrate deficit, and a metabolic profile consistent with low-grade acidosis.
Project description:This phase 2 study evaluated the efficacy and safety of transitioning to zoledronate following romosozumab treatment in postmenopausal women with low bone mass. A single dose of 5 mg zoledronate generally maintained the robust BMD gains accrued with romosozumab treatment and was well tolerated. INTRODUCTION:Follow-on therapy with an antiresorptive agent is necessary to maintain the skeletal benefits of romosozumab therapy. We evaluated the use of zoledronate following romosozumab treatment. METHODS:This phase 2, dose-finding study enrolled postmenopausal women with low bone mineral density (BMD). Subjects who received various romosozumab doses or placebo from months 0-24 were rerandomized to denosumab (60 mg SC Q6M) or placebo for 12 months, followed by open-label romosozumab (210 mg QM) for 12 months. At month 48, subjects who had received active treatment for 48 months were assigned to no further active treatment and all other subjects were assigned to zoledronate 5 mg IV. Efficacy (BMD, P1NP, and ?-CTX) and safety were evaluated for 24 months, up to month 72. RESULTS:A total of 141 subjects entered the month 48-72 period, with 51 in the no further active treatment group and 90 in the zoledronate group. In subjects receiving no further active treatment, lumbar spine (LS) BMD decreased by 10.8% from months 48-72 but remained 4.2% above the original baseline. In subjects receiving zoledronate, LS BMD was maintained (percentage changes: -?0.8% from months 48-72; 12.8% from months 0-72). Similar patterns were observed for proximal femur BMD in both groups. With no further active treatment, P1NP and ?-CTX decreased but remained above baseline at month 72. Following zoledronate, P1NP and ?-CTX levels initially decreased but approached baseline by month 72. No new safety signals were observed. CONCLUSION:A zoledronate follow-on regimen can maintain robust BMD gains achieved with romosozumab treatment.