The type IV pilus protein PilU functions as a PilT-dependent retraction ATPase.
ABSTRACT: Type IV pili are dynamic cell surface appendages found throughout the bacteria. The ability of these structures to undergo repetitive cycles of extension and retraction underpins their crucial roles in adhesion, motility and natural competence for transformation. In the best-studied systems a dedicated retraction ATPase PilT powers pilus retraction. Curiously, a second presumed retraction ATPase PilU is often encoded immediately downstream of pilT. However, despite the presence of two potential retraction ATPases, pilT deletions lead to a total loss of pilus function, raising the question of why PilU fails to take over. Here, using the DNA-uptake pilus and mannose-sensitive haemagglutinin (MSHA) pilus of Vibrio cholerae as model systems, we show that inactivated PilT variants, defective for either ATP-binding or hydrolysis, have unexpected intermediate phenotypes that are PilU-dependent. In addition to demonstrating that PilU can function as a bona fide retraction ATPase, we go on to make the surprising discovery that PilU functions exclusively in a PilT-dependent manner and identify a naturally occurring pandemic V. cholerae PilT variant that renders PilU essential for pilus function. Finally, we show that Pseudomonas aeruginosa PilU also functions as a PilT-dependent retraction ATPase, providing evidence that the functional coupling between PilT and PilU could be a widespread mechanism for optimal pilus retraction.
Project description:Bacterial type IV pili are critical for diverse biological processes including horizontal gene transfer, surface sensing, biofilm formation, adherence, motility, and virulence. These dynamic appendages extend and retract from the cell surface. In many type IVa pilus systems, extension occurs through the action of an extension ATPase, often called PilB, while optimal retraction requires the action of a retraction ATPase, PilT. Many type IVa systems also encode a homolog of PilT called PilU. However, the function of this protein has remained unclear because pilU mutants exhibit inconsistent phenotypes among type IV pilus systems and because it is relatively understudied compared to PilT. Here, we study the type IVa competence pilus of Vibrio cholerae as a model system to define the role of PilU. We show that the ATPase activity of PilU is critical for pilus retraction in PilT Walker A and/or Walker B mutants. PilU does not, however, contribute to pilus retraction in ?pilT strains. Thus, these data suggest that PilU is a bona fide retraction ATPase that supports pilus retraction in a PilT-dependent manner. We also found that a ?pilU mutant exhibited a reduction in the force of retraction suggesting that PilU is important for generating maximal retraction forces. Additional in vitro and in vivo data show that PilT and PilU act as independent homo-hexamers that may form a complex to facilitate pilus retraction. Finally, we demonstrate that the role of PilU as a PilT-dependent retraction ATPase is conserved in Acinetobacter baylyi, suggesting that the role of PilU described here may be broadly applicable to other type IVa pilus systems.
Project description:Biofilm formation by Vibrio cholerae facilitates environmental persistence, and hyperinfectivity within the host. Biofilm formation is regulated by 3',5'-cyclic diguanylate (c-di-GMP) and requires production of the type IV mannose-sensitive hemagglutinin (MSHA) pilus. Here, we show that the MSHA pilus is a dynamic extendable and retractable system, and its activity is directly controlled by c-di-GMP. The interaction between c-di-GMP and the ATPase MshE promotes pilus extension, whereas low levels of c-di-GMP correlate with enhanced retraction. Loss of retraction facilitated by the ATPase PilT increases near-surface roaming motility, and impairs initial surface attachment. However, prolonged retraction upon surface attachment results in reduced MSHA-mediated surface anchoring and increased levels of detachment. Our results indicate that c-di-GMP directly controls MshE activity, thus regulating MSHA pilus extension and retraction dynamics, and modulating V. cholerae surface attachment and colonization.
Project description:Post-translational acetylation is a common protein modification in bacteria. It was recently reported that Neisseria gonorrhoeae acetylates the Type IV pilus retraction motor, PilT. Here, we show recombinant PilT can be acetylated in vitro and acetylation does not affect PilT ultrastructure. To investigate the function of PilT acetylation, we mutated an acetylated lysine, K117, to mimic its acetylated or unacetylated forms. These mutations were not tolerated by wild-type N. gonorrhoeae, but they were tolerated by N. gonorrhoeae carrying an inducible pilE when grown without inducer. We identified additional mutations in pilT and pilU that suppress the lethality of K117 mutations. To investigate the link between PilE and PilT acetylation, we found the lack of PilE decreases PilT acetylation levels and increases the amount of PilT associated with the inner membrane. Finally, we found no difference between wild-type and mutant cells in transformation efficiency, suggesting neither mutation inhibits Type IV pilus retraction. Mutant cells, however, form microcolonies morphologically distinct from wt cells. We conclude that interfering with the acetylation status of PilTK117 greatly reduces N. gonorrhoeae viability, and mutations in pilT, pilU and pilE can overcome this lethality. We discuss the implications of these findings in the context of Type IV pilus retraction regulation.
Project description:The ubiquitous species Pseudomonas stutzeri has type IV pili, and these are essential for the natural transformation of the cells. An absolute transformation-deficient mutant obtained after transposon mutagenesis had an insertion in a gene which was termed pilT. The deduced amino acid sequence has identity with PilT of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (94%), Neisseria gonorrhoeae (67%), and other gram-negative species and it contains a nucleotide-binding motif. The mutant was hyperpiliated but defective for further pilus-associated properties, such as twitching motility and plating of pilus-specific phage PO4. [(3)H]thymidine-labeled DNA was bound by the mutant but not taken up. Downstream of pilT a gene, termed pilU, coding for a putative protein with 88% amino acid identity with PilU of P. aeruginosa was identified. Insertional inactivation did not affect piliation, twitching motility, or PO4 infection but reduced transformation to about 10%. The defect was fully complemented by PilU of nontransformable P. aeruginosa. When the pilAI gene (coding for the type IV pilus prepilin) was manipulated to code for a protein in which the six C-terminal amino acids were replaced by six histidine residues and then expressed from a plasmid, it gave a nonpiliated and twitching motility-defective phenotype in pilAI::Gm(r) cells but allowed transformability. Moreover, the mutant allele suppressed the absolute transformation deficiency caused by the pilT mutation. Considering the hypothesized role of pilT(+) in pilus retraction and the presumed requirement of retraction for DNA uptake, it is proposed that the pilT-independent transformation is promoted by PilA mutant protein either as single molecules or as minimal pilin assembly structures in the periplasm which may resemble depolymerized pili and that these cause the outer membrane pores to open for DNA entry.
Project description:Neisseria meningitidis is a major cause of sepsis and bacterial meningitis worldwide. This bacterium expresses type IV pili (Tfp), which mediate important virulence traits such as the formation of bacterial aggregates, host cell adhesion, twitching motility, and DNA uptake. The meningococcal PilT protein is a hexameric ATPase that mediates pilus retraction. The PilU protein is produced from the pilT-pilU operon and shares a high degree of homology with PilT. The function of PilT in Tfp biology has been studied extensively, whereas the role of PilU remains poorly understood. Here we show that pilU mutants have delayed microcolony formation on host epithelial cells compared to the wild type, indicating that bacterium-bacterium interactions are affected. In normal human serum, the pilU mutant survived at a higher rate than that for wild-type bacteria. However, in a murine model of disease, mice infected with the pilT mutant demonstrated significantly reduced bacterial blood counts and survived at a higher rate than that for mice infected with the wild type. Infection of mice with the pilU mutant resulted in a trend of lower bacteremia, and still a significant increase in survival, than that of the wild type. In conclusion, these data suggest that PilU promotes timely microcolony formation and that both PilU and PilT are required for full bacterial virulence.
Project description:PilT is a hexameric ATPase required for type IV pilus retraction in gram-negative bacteria. Retraction of type IV pili mediates intimate attachment to and signaling in host cells, surface motility, biofilm formation, natural transformation, and phage sensitivity. We investigated the in vivo and in vitro roles of each amino acid of the distinct, highly conserved C-terminal AIRNLIRE motif in PilT. Substitution of amino acids A288, I289, L292, and I293 as well as a double substitution of R290 and R294 abolished Pseudomonas aeruginosa PilT function in vivo, as measured by a loss of surface motility and phage sensitivity. When introduced into purified Aquifex aeolicus PilT, substitutions in the AIRNLIRE motif did not disrupt ATPase activity or oligomerization. In contrast, a K136Q substitution in the broadly conserved nucleotide binding motif prevented PilT function in vivo as well as in vitro. We propose that the AIRNLIRE motif forms an amphipathic alpha helix which transmits signals between a surface-exposed protein interaction site and the ATPase core of PilT, and we recognize a potential functional homology in other type II secretion ATPases.
Project description:PilT is a hexameric ATPase required for bacterial type IV pilus retraction and surface motility. Crystal structures of ADP- and ATP-bound Aquifex aeolicus PilT at 2.8 and 3.2 A resolution show N-terminal PAS-like and C-terminal RecA-like ATPase domains followed by a set of short C-terminal helices. The hexamer is formed by extensive polar subunit interactions between the ATPase core of one monomer and the N-terminal domain of the next. An additional structure captures a nonsymmetric PilT hexamer in which approach of invariant arginines from two subunits to the bound nucleotide forms an enzymatically competent active site. A panel of pilT mutations highlights the importance of the arginines, the PAS-like domain, the polar subunit interface, and the C-terminal helices for retraction. We present a model for ATP binding leading to dramatic PilT domain motions, engagement of the arginine wire, and subunit communication in this hexameric motor. Our conclusions apply to the entire type II/IV secretion ATPase family.
Project description:In many bacteria, including Vibrio cholerae, cyclic dimeric guanosine monophosphate (c-di-GMP) controls the motile to biofilm life style switch. Yet, little is known about how this occurs. In this study, we report that changes in c-di-GMP concentration impact the biosynthesis of the MshA pili, resulting in altered motility and biofilm phenotypes in V. cholerae. Previously, we reported that cdgJ encodes a c-di-GMP phosphodiesterase and a ?cdgJ mutant has reduced motility and enhanced biofilm formation. Here we show that loss of the genes required for the mannose-sensitive hemagglutinin (MshA) pilus biogenesis restores motility in the ?cdgJ mutant. Mutations of the predicted ATPase proteins mshE or pilT, responsible for polymerizing and depolymerizing MshA pili, impair near surface motility behavior and initial surface attachment dynamics. A ?cdgJ mutant has enhanced surface attachment, while the ?cdgJmshA mutant phenocopies the high motility and low attachment phenotypes observed in a ?mshA strain. Elevated concentrations of c-di-GMP enhance surface MshA pilus production. MshE, but not PilT binds c-di-GMP directly, establishing a mechanism for c-di-GMP signaling input in MshA pilus production. Collectively, our results suggest that the dynamic nature of the MshA pilus established by the assembly and disassembly of pilin subunits is essential for transition from the motile to sessile lifestyle and that c-di-GMP affects MshA pilus assembly and function through direct interactions with the MshE ATPase.
Project description:The ATPase protein PilT mediates retraction of type IV pili. We performed microarrays comparing the transcription profile of the Neisseria gonorrhoeae wild-type strain MS11 and its isogenic pilT mutant. 63 open reading frames were found to be differentially regulated in the pilT mutant. Most interestingly, a loss of function mutation in pilT leads to an upregulation of pilE, which encodes the pilus subunit protein. Overall design: Ngo arrays were generated as custom 8x15 K microarrays (Agilent Technologies) covering all open reading frames (ORFs) from N. gonorrhoeae strain FA1090 (accession number AE004969) supplemented with all ORFs from the gonoccoccal genetic island of strain MS11 (accession number AY803022) by 6 specific 60-mer oligonucleotides per gene on average. Microarray analysis was performed as dual-color hybridization with dye-reversal color-swaps as technical replicates for Cy-dye specific effect compensation and three independent biological replicates. Microarray features were extracted with the FE 188.8.131.52 software from Agilent Technologies using the GE2-v4_95_Feb07 protocol with default settings. Data were loaded into Resolver (Rosetta Biosoftware) using the MAGE-ML loader and analyzed for differential gene expression. Ratio profiles were combined into ratio experiments and regulated genes were identified with a threshold of 1.75 fold-change and anti-correlation of the color-swapped dye reversals, rendering the analysis highly stringent and robust with P values <0.0001 of the results.
Project description:The ATPase protein PilT mediates retraction of type IV pili. We performed microarrays comparing the transcription profile of the Neisseria gonorrhoeae wild-type strain MS11 and its isogenic pilT mutant. 63 open reading frames were found to be differentially regulated in the pilT mutant. Most interestingly, a loss of function mutation in pilT leads to an upregulation of pilE, which encodes the pilus subunit protein. Ngo arrays were generated as custom 8x15 K microarrays (Agilent Technologies) covering all open reading frames (ORFs) from N. gonorrhoeae strain FA1090 (accession number AE004969) supplemented with all ORFs from the gonoccoccal genetic island of strain MS11 (accession number AY803022) by 6 specific 60-mer oligonucleotides per gene on average. Microarray analysis was performed as dual-color hybridization with dye-reversal color-swaps as technical replicates for Cy-dye specific effect compensation and three independent biological replicates. Microarray features were extracted with the FE 184.108.40.206 software from Agilent Technologies using the GE2-v4_95_Feb07 protocol with default settings. Data were loaded into Resolver (Rosetta Biosoftware) using the MAGE-ML loader and analyzed for differential gene expression. Ratio profiles were combined into ratio experiments and regulated genes were identified with a threshold of 1.75 fold-change and anti-correlation of the color-swapped dye reversals, rendering the analysis highly stringent and robust with P values <0.0001 of the results.