Distinct classes and subclasses of antibodies to hemolysin co-regulated protein 1 and O-polysaccharide and correlation with clinical characteristics of melioidosis patients.
ABSTRACT: Melioidosis is a tropical infectious disease caused by Burkholderia pseudomallei that results in high mortality. Hemolysin co-regulated protein 1 (Hcp1) and O-polysaccharide (OPS) are vaccine candidates and potential diagnostic antigens. The correlation of classes/subclasses of antibodies against these antigens with clinical characteristics of melioidosis patients is unknown. Antibodies in plasma samples from melioidosis patients and healthy donors were quantified by ELISA and compared with clinical features. In melioidosis patients, Hcp1 induced high IgG levels. OPS induced high IgG and IgA levels. The area under receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROCC) to discriminate melioidosis cases from healthy donors was highest for anti-Hcp1 IgG (0.92) compared to anti-Hcp1 IgA or IgM. In contrast, AUROCC for anti-OPS for IgG (0.91) and IgA (0.92) were comparable. Anti-Hcp1 IgG1 and anti-OPS IgG2 had the greatest AUROCCs (0.87 and 0.95, respectively) compared to other IgG subclasses for each antigen. Survivors had significantly higher anti-Hcp1 IgG3 levels than non-survivors. Male melioidosis patients with diabetes had higher anti-OPS IgA levels than males without diabetes. Thus, diverse and specific antibody responses are associated with distinct clinical characteristics in melioidosis, confirming the diagnostic utility of these responses and providing new insights into immune mechanisms.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Melioidosis is a severe disease caused by Burkholderia pseudomallei. Clinical manifestations are diverse and acute infections require immediate treatment with effective antibiotics. While culture is the current diagnostic standard, it is time-consuming and has low sensitivity. In endemic areas, inaccessibility to biosafety level 3 facilities and a lack of good serodiagnostic tools can impede diagnosis and disease surveillance. Recent studies have suggested that O-polysaccharide (OPS) and hemolysin co-regulated protein 1 (Hcp1) are promising target antigens for serodiagnosis of melioidosis.<h4>Methodology/principle findings</h4>We evaluated rapid ELISAs using crude antigens, purified OPS and Hcp1 to measure antibody levels in three sets of sera: (i) 419 serum samples from melioidosis patients, Thai and U.S. healthy donors, (ii) 120 serum samples from patients with other bacterial infections, and (iii) 423 serum samples from 200 melioidosis patients obtained upon admission and at 12 and 52 weeks post-recovery. We observed significantly higher antibody levels using the crude antigen prepared from wild type B. pseudomallei K96243 compared to that of an OPS-mutant. The areas under receiver operator characteristics (AUROCCs) for diagnosis were compared for individual Hcp1-ELISA or OPS-ELISA or combined Hcp1/OPS-ELISA. For Thai donors, AUROCCs were highest and comparable between the Hcp1-ELISA and the combined Hcp1/OPS-ELISA (0.95 versus 0.94). For U.S. donors, the AUROCC was highest for the combined Hcp1/OPS-ELISA (0.96). Significantly higher seropositivity was observed in diabetic patients compared to those without diabetes for both the Hcp1-ELISA (87.3% versus 69.7%) and OPS-ELISA (88.1% versus 60.6%). Although antibody levels for Hcp1 were highest upon admission, the titers declined by week 52 post-recovery.<h4>Conclusions/significance</h4>Hcp1 and OPS are promising candidates for serodiagnosis of melioidosis in different groups of patients. The Hcp1-ELISA performed better than the OPS-ELISA in endemic areas, thus, Hcp1 represents a promising target antigen for the development of POC tests for acute melioidosis.
Project description:Melioidosis, caused by the Gram-negative bacterium <i>Burkholderia pseudomallei</i>, is a serious infectious disease with diverse clinical manifestations. The morbidity and mortality of melioidosis is high in Southeast Asia and no licensed vaccines currently exist. This study was aimed at evaluating human cellular and humoral immune responses in Thai adults against four melioidosis vaccine candidate antigens. Blood samples from 91 melioidosis patients and 100 healthy donors from northeast Thailand were examined for immune responses against <i>B. pseudomallei</i> Hcp1, AhpC, TssM and LolC using a variety of cellular and humoral immune assays including IFN-γ ELISpot assays, flow cytometry and ELISA. PHA and a CPI peptide pool were also used as control stimuli in the ELISpot assays. Hcp1 and TssM stimulated strong IFN-γ secreting T cell responses in acute melioidosis patients which correlated with survival. High IFN-γ secreting CD4<sup>+</sup> T cell responses were observed during acute melioidosis. Interestingly, while T cell responses of melioidosis patients against the CPI peptide pool were low at the time of enrollment, the levels increased to the same as in healthy donors by day 28. Although high IgG levels against Hcp1 and AhpC were detected in acute melioidosis patients, no significant differences between survivors and non-survivors were observed. Collectively, these studies help to further our understanding of immunity against disease following natural exposure of humans to <i>B. pseudomallei</i> as well as provide important insights for the selection of candidate antigens for use in the development of safe and effective melioidosis subunit vaccines.
Project description:Burkholderia pseudomallei, the causative agent of melioidosis, is an environmental bacillus found in northeast Thailand. The mortality rate of melioidosis is ?40%. An indirect hemagglutination assay (IHA) is used as a reference serodiagnostic test; however, it has low specificity in areas where the background seropositivity of healthy people is high. To improve assay specificity and reduce the time for diagnosis, four rapid enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) were developed using two purified polysaccharide antigens (O-polysaccharide [OPS] and 6-deoxyheptan capsular polysaccharide [CPS]) and two crude antigens (whole-cell [WC] antigen and culture filtrate [CF] antigen) of B. pseudomallei The ELISAs were evaluated using serum samples from 141 culture-confirmed melioidosis patients from Thailand along with 188 healthy donors from Thailand and 90 healthy donors from the United States as controls. The areas under receiver operator characteristic curves (AUROCC) using Thai controls were high for the OPS-ELISA (0.91), CF-ELISA (0.91), and WC-ELISA (0.90), while those of CPS-ELISA (0.84) and IHA (0.72) were lower. AUROCC values using U.S. controls were comparable to those of the Thai controls for all ELISAs except IHA (0.93). Using a cutoff optical density (OD) of 0.87, the OPS-ELISA had a sensitivity of 71.6% and a specificity of 95.7% for Thai controls; for U.S. controls, specificity was 96.7%. An additional 120 serum samples from tuberculosis, scrub typhus, or leptospirosis patients were evaluated in all ELISAs and resulted in comparable or higher specificities than using Thai healthy donors. Our findings suggest that antigen-specific ELISAs, particularly the OPS-ELISA, may be useful for serodiagnosis of melioidosis in areas where it is endemic and nonendemic.
Project description:Burkholderia pseudomallei, the etiologic agent of melioidosis, causes severe disease in humans and animals. Diagnosis and treatment of melioidosis can be challenging and no licensed vaccines currently exist. Several studies have shown that this pathogen expresses a variety of structurally conserved protective antigens that include cell-surface polysaccharides and cell-associated/-secreted proteins. Based on this, such antigens have become important components of the subunit vaccine candidates that we are currently developing. In the present study, the 6-deoxyheptan capsular polysaccharide (CPS) from B. pseudomallei was purified, chemically activated and covalently linked to recombinant CRM197 diphtheria toxin mutant (CRM197) to produce CPS-CRM197. Additionally, tandem nickel-cobalt affinity chromatography was used to prepare highly purified recombinant B. pseudomallei Hcp1 and TssM proteins. Immunization of C57BL/6 mice with CPS-CRM197 produced high-titer IgG and opsonizing antibody responses against the CPS component of the glycoconjugate while immunization with Hcp1 and TssM produced high titer IgG and robust IFN-? secreting T cell responses against the proteins. Extending upon these studies, we found that when vaccinated with a combination of CPS-CRM197 plus Hcp1, 100% of the mice survived a lethal inhalational challenge of B. pseudomallei Remarkably, 70% of the survivors had no culturable bacteria in their lungs, livers or spleens indicating that the vaccine formulation had generated sterilizing immune responses. Collectively, these studies help to better establish surrogates of antigen-induced immunity against B. pseudomallei as well as provide valuable insights towards the development of a safe, affordable and effective melioidosis vaccine.
Project description:Melioidosis is an often lethal tropical disease caused by the Gram-negative bacillus, <i>Burkholderia pseudomallei</i>. The study objective was to characterize transcriptomes in melioidosis patients and identify genes associated with outcome. Whole blood RNA-seq was performed in a discovery set of 29 melioidosis patients and 3 healthy controls. Transcriptomic profiles of patients who did not survive to 28 days were compared with patients who survived and healthy controls, showing 65 genes were significantly up-regulated and 218 were down-regulated in non-survivors compared to survivors. Up-regulated genes were involved in myeloid leukocyte activation, Toll-like receptor cascades and reactive oxygen species metabolic processes. Down-regulated genes were hematopoietic cell lineage, adaptive immune system and lymphocyte activation pathways. RT-qPCR was performed for 28 genes in a validation set of 60 melioidosis patients and 20 healthy controls, confirming differential expression. <i>IL1R2, GAS7, S100A9, IRAK3,</i> and <i>NFKBIA</i> were significantly higher in non-survivors compared with survivors (<i>P</i> < 0.005) and healthy controls (<i>P</i> < 0.0001). The AUROCC of these genes for mortality discrimination ranged from 0.80-0.88. In survivors, expression of <i>IL1R2</i>, <i>S100A9</i> and <i>IRAK3</i> genes decreased significantly over 28 days (<i>P</i> < 0.05). These findings augment our understanding of this severe infection, showing expression levels of specific genes are potential biomarkers to predict melioidosis outcomes.
Project description:Lineage analysis of autoreactive B cells can reveal the origins of autoimmunity. In the autoimmune disease pemphigus vulgaris (PV), desmoglein 3 (DSG3) and DSG1 autoantibodies are predominantly of the IgG4 subclass and less frequently of IgG1 and IgA subclasses, prompting us to investigate whether anti-DSG IgG4 B cells share lineages with IgG1, IgA1, and IgA2. Combining subclass-specific B cell deep sequencing with high-throughput antibody screening, we identified 80 DSG-reactive lineages from 4 PV patients. Most anti-DSG IgG4 B cells lacked clonal relationships to other subclasses and preferentially targeted DSG adhesion domains, whereas anti-DSG IgA frequently evolved from or to other subclasses and recognized a broader range of epitopes. Our findings suggest that anti-DSG IgG4 B cells predominantly evolve independently or diverge early from other subclasses and that IgA is most often not the origin of IgG autoreactivity in PV. These data provide insight into how autoreactivity diversifies across B cell subclasses.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Glanders caused by Burkholderia mallei is a re-emerging zoonotic disease affecting solipeds and humans. Furthermore, B. mallei is genetically related to B. pseudomallei, which is the causative agent of melioidosis. Both facultative intracellular bacteria are classified as tier 1 select biothreat agents. Our previous study with a B. mallei ?tonB ?hcp1 (CLH001) live-attenuated vaccine demonstrated that it is attenuated, safe and protective against B. mallei wild-type strains in the susceptible BALB/c mouse model. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDING:In our current work, we evaluated the protective efficacy of CLH001 against glanders and melioidosis in the more disease-resistant C57BL/6 mouse strain. The humoral as well as cellular immune responses were also examined. We found that CLH001-immunized mice showed 100% survival against intranasal and aerosol challenge with B. mallei ATCC 23344. Moreover, this vaccine also afforded significant cross-protection against B. pseudomallei K96243, with low level bacterial burden detected in organs. Immunization with a prime and boost regimen of CLH001 induced significantly greater levels of total and subclasses of IgG, and generated antigen-specific splenocyte production of IFN-? and IL-17A. Interestingly, protection induced by CLH001 is primarily dependent on humoral immunity, while CD4+ and CD8+ T cells played a less critical protective role. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE:Our data indicate that CLH001 serves as an effective live attenuated vaccine to prevent glanders and melioidosis. The quantity and quality of antibody responses as well as improving cell-mediated immune responses following vaccination need to be further investigated prior to advancement to preclinical studies.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Anti-carbamylated protein (anti-CarP) antibodies have recently been reported to occur in around 45% of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients and to have prognostic and diagnostic properties. At present, the breadth and molecular make-up of the anti-CarP antibody response is ill defined. To understand the anti-CarP antibody immune response and potential immune effector mechanisms it can recruit, we determined the anti-CarP antibody isotype and IgG-subclass usage in RA patients.<h4>Methods</h4>Anti-CarP antibody IgM, IgA, and IgG or IgG subclasses were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in sera from 373 unselected RA patients and 196 healthy controls. An additional 114 anti-citrullinated protein antibody (ACPA) and anti-CarP IgG double-positive patients were selected to study the concomitant presence of both antibody systems.<h4>Results</h4>Anti-CarP IgG was present in around 45% of the patients and comprised all anti-CarP IgG subclasses. The presence of anti-CarP IgG1 particularly associates with radiological damage. Anti-CarP IgM was detected in 16% of RA patients, even in anti-CarP IgG-positive individuals, and is indicative of an actively ongoing immune response. Around 45% of the patients were positive for IgA which included ACPA-positive cases but also 24% of the ACPA-negative cases. In ACPA and anti-CarP double-positive patients, the distribution and number of isotypes and IgG subclasses was similar for both autoantibodies at the group level, but substantial variation was observed within individual patient samples.<h4>Conclusions</h4>In RA, the anti-CarP antibody response uses a broad spectrum of isotypes and seems to be an actively ongoing immune reaction. Furthermore, the anti-CarP and ACPA autoantibody responses seems to be differentially regulated.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Melioidosis, caused by Burkholderia pseudomallei, is a severe infectious disease with high mortality rates, but is under-recognized worldwide. In endemic areas, there is a great need for simple, low-cost and rapid diagnostic tools. In a previous study we showed, that a protein multiplex array with 20 B. pseudomallei-specific antigens detects antibodies in melioidosis patients with high sensitivity and specificity. In a subsequent study the high potential of anti-B. pseudomallei antibody detection was confirmed using a rapid Hcp1 single protein-based assay. Our protein array also showed that the antibody profile varies between patients, possibly due to a combination of host factors but also antigen variations in the infecting B. pseudomallei strains. The aim of this study was to develop a rapid test, combining Hcp1 and the best performing antigens BPSL2096, BPSL2697 and BPSS0477 from our previous study, to take advantage of simultaneous antibody detection. METHODS AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS:The 4-plex dipstick was validated with sera from 75 patients on admission plus control groups, achieving 92% sensitivity and 97-100% specificity. We then re-evaluated melioidosis sera with the 4-plex assay that were previously misclassified by the monoplex Hcp1 rapid test. 12 out of 55 (21.8%) false-negative samples were positive in our new dipstick assay. Among those, 4 sera (7.3%) were Hcp1 positive, whereas 8 (14.5%) sera remained Hcp1 negative but gave a positive reaction with our additional antigens. CONCLUSIONS:Our dipstick rapid test represents an inexpensive, standardized and simple diagnostic tool with an improved serodiagnostic performance due to multiplex detection. Each additional band on the test strip makes a false-positive result more unlikely, contributing to its reliability. Future prospective studies will seek to validate the gain in sensitivity and specificity of our multiplex rapid test approach in different melioidosis patient cohorts.
Project description:Detection of IgA antibody against Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) glycopeptidolipid (GPL) has recently been shown to improve the diagnosis of MAC pulmonary disease but has yet to be tested in disseminated Non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) infection. In this study, we address the diagnostic efficacies of an anti-GPL-core ELISA kit in disseminated lymphadenopathy patients positive for NTM culture and anti-IFN-? autoantibodies. The study was conducted in a tertiary referral center in northeastern Thailand and patients with NTM, tuberculosis, melioidosis, and control subjects were enrolled. Plasma immunoglobulin A (IgA) and G (IgG) antibodies against GPL-core were detected in the subjects and the specificity and sensitivity of the assay was assessed. Anti-GPL-core IgA and IgG levels were significantly higher in NTM patients than other groups (p < 0.0001). Diagnostic efficacy for NTM patients using anti-GPL-core IgA cut-off value of 0.352 U/ml showed good sensitivity (91.18%) and intermediate specificity (70.15%). Using a cut-off value of 4.140 AU/ml for anti-GPL-core IgG showed the same sensitivity (91.18%) with increased specificity (89.55%) and an 81.58% positive predictive value. Most patients with moderate levels (4.140-7.955 AU/ml) of anti-GPL-core IgG had rapidly growing mycobacteria (RGM) infection. Taken together, the detection of anti-GPL-core antibodies could provide a novel option for the diagnosis and management of disseminated NTM infected patients.