Small-Molecule Inhibitors of the Proteasome's Regulatory Particle.
ABSTRACT: Cells need to synthesize and degrade proteins consistently. Maintaining a balanced level of protein in the cell requires a carefully controlled system and significant energy. Degradation of unwanted or damaged proteins into smaller peptide units can be accomplished by the proteasome. The proteasome is composed of two main subunits. The first is the core particle (20S?CP), and within this core particle are three types of threonine proteases. The second is the regulatory complex (19S?RP), which has a myriad of activities including recognizing proteins marked for degradation and shuttling the protein into the 20S?CP to be degraded. Small-molecule inhibitors of the 20S?CP have been developed and are exceptional treatments for multiple myeloma (MM). 20S?CP inhibitors disrupt the protein balance, leading to cellular stress and eventually to cell death. Unfortunately, the 20S?CP inhibitors currently available have dose-limiting off-target effects and resistance can be acquired rapidly. Herein, we discuss small molecules that have been discovered to interact with the 19S?RP subunit or with a protein closely associated with 19S?RP activity. These molecules still elicit their toxicity by preventing the proteasome from degrading proteins, but do so through different mechanisms of action.
Project description:The 26S proteasome is the most downstream element of the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway of protein degradation. It is composed of the 20S core particle (CP) and the 19S regulatory particle (RP). The RP consists of 6 AAA-ATPases and at least 13 non-ATPase subunits. Based on a cryo-EM map of the 26S proteasome, structures of homologs, and physical protein-protein interactions we derive an atomic model of the AAA-ATPase-CP sub-complex. The ATPase order in our model (Rpt1/Rpt2/Rpt6/Rpt3/Rpt4/Rpt5) is in excellent agreement with the recently identified base-precursor complexes formed during the assembly of the RP. Furthermore, the atomic CP-AAA-ATPase model suggests that the assembly chaperone Nas6 facilitates CP-RP association by enhancing the shape complementarity between Rpt3 and its binding CP alpha subunits partners.
Project description:The 26S proteasome is the end point of the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway and degrades ubiquitylated substrates. It is composed of the 20S core particle (CP), where degradation occurs, and the 19S regulatory particle (RP), which ensures substrate specificity of degradation. Whereas the CP is resolved to atomic resolution, the architecture of the RP is largely unknown. We provide a comprehensive analysis of the current structural knowledge on the RP, including structures of the RP subunits, physical protein-protein interactions, and cryoelectron microscopy data. These data allowed us to compute an atomic model for the CP-AAA-ATPase subcomplex. In addition to this atomic model, further subunits can be mapped approximately, which lets us hypothesize on the substrate path during its degradation.
Project description:In the proteasome, the proteolytic 20S core particle (CP) associates with the 19S regulatory particle (RP) to degrade polyubiquitinated proteins. Six ATPases (Rpt1-Rpt6) of the RP form a hexameric Rpt ring and interact with the heptameric α ring (α1-α7) of the CP via the Rpt C-terminal tails individually binding to the α subunits. Importantly, the Rpt6 tail has been suggested to be crucial for RP assembly. Here, we show that the interaction of the CP and Rpt6 tail promotes a CP-Rpt3 tail interaction, and that they jointly mediate proteasome activation via opening the CP gate for substrate entry. The Rpt6 tail forms a novel relationship with the Nas6 chaperone, which binds to Rpt3 and regulates the CP-Rpt3 tail interaction, critically influencing cell growth and turnover of polyubiquitinated proteins. CP-Rpt6 tail binding promotes the release of Nas6 from the proteasome. Based on disulfide crosslinking that detects cognate α3-Rpt6 tail and α2-Rpt3 tail interactions in the proteasome, decreased α3-Rpt6 tail interaction facilitates robust α2-Rpt3 tail interaction that is also strongly ATP-dependent. Together, our data support the reported role of Rpt6 during proteasome assembly, and suggest that its function switches from anchoring for RP assembly into promoting Rpt3-dependent activation of the mature proteasome.
Project description:The eukaryotic ubiquitin-proteasome system is responsible for most aspects of regulatory and quality-control protein degradation in cells. Its substrates, which are usually modified by polymers of ubiquitin, are ultimately degraded by the 26S proteasome. This 2.6-MDa protein complex is separated into a barrel-shaped proteolytic 20S core particle (CP) of 28 subunits capped on one or both ends by a 19S regulatory particle (RP) comprising at least 19 subunits. The RP coordinates substrate recognition, removal of substrate polyubiquitin chains, and substrate unfolding and translocation into the CP for degradation. Although many atomic structures of the CP have been determined, the RP has resisted high-resolution analysis. Recently, however, a combination of cryo-electron microscopy, biochemical analysis, and crystal structure determination of several RP subunits has yielded a near-atomic-resolution view of much of the complex. Major new insights into chaperone-assisted proteasome assembly have also recently emerged. Here we review these novel findings.
Project description:The central protease of eukaryotes, the 26S proteasome, has a 20S proteolytic core particle (CP) and an attached 19S regulatory particle (RP). The RP is further subdivided into lid and base subcomplexes. Little is known about RP assembly. Here, we show that four conserved assembly factors govern biogenesis of the yeast RP base. Nas2 forms a complex with the Rpt4 and Rpt5 ATPases and enhances 26S proteasome formation in vivo and in vitro. Other RP subcomplexes contain Hsm3, which is related to mammalian proteasome subunit S5b. Hsm3 also contributes to base assembly. Larger Hsm3-containing complexes include two additional proteins, Nas6 and Rpn14, which function as assembly chaperones as well. Specific deletion combinations affecting these four factors cause severe perturbations to RP assembly. Our results demonstrate that proteasomal RP biogenesis requires multiple, functionally overlapping chaperones and suggest a model in which subunits form specific subcomplexes that then assemble into the base.
Project description:The 26S proteasome, a molecular machine responsible for regulated protein degradation, consists of a proteolytic core particle (20S CP) associated with 19S regulatory particles (19S RPs) subdivided into base and lid subcomplexes. The assembly of 19S RP base subcomplex is mediated by multiple dedicated chaperones. Among these, Hsm3 is important for normal growth and directly targets the carboxyl-terminal (C-terminal) domain of Rpt1 of the Rpt1-Rpt2-Rpn1 assembly intermediate. Here, we report crystal structures of the yeast Hsm3 chaperone free and bound to the C-terminal domain of Rpt1. Unexpectedly, the structure of the complex suggests that within the Hsm3-Rpt1-Rpt2 module, Hsm3 also contacts Rpt2. We show that in both yeast and mammals, Hsm3 actually directly binds the AAA domain of Rpt2. The Hsm3 C-terminal region involved in this interaction is required in vivo for base assembly, although it is dispensable for binding Rpt1. Although Rpt1 and Rpt2 exhibit weak affinity for each other, Hsm3 unexpectedly acts as an essential matchmaker for the Rpt1-Rpt2-Rpn1 assembly by bridging both Rpt1 and Rpt2. In addition, we provide structural and biochemical evidence on how Hsm3/S5b may regulate the 19S RP association to the 20S CP proteasome. Our data point out the diverse functions of assembly chaperones.
Project description:26S proteasome, a major regulatory protease in eukaryotes, consists of a 20S proteolytic core particle (CP) capped by a 19S regulatory particle (RP). The 19S RP is divisible into base and lid sub-complexes. Even within the lid, subunits have been demarcated into two modules: module 1 (Rpn5, Rpn6, Rpn8, Rpn9 and Rpn11), which interacts with both CP and base sub-complexes and module 2 (Rpn3, Rpn7, Rpn12 and Rpn15) that is attached mainly to module 1. We now show that suppression of RPN11 expression halted lid assembly yet enabled the base and 20S CP to pre-assemble and form a base-CP. A key role for Regulatory particle non-ATPase 11 (Rpn11) in bridging lid module 1 and module 2 subunits together is inferred from observing defective proteasomes in rpn11-m1, a mutant expressing a truncated form of Rpn11 and displaying mitochondrial phenotypes. An incomplete lid made up of five module 1 subunits attached to base-CP was identified in proteasomes isolated from this mutant. Re-introducing the C-terminal portion of Rpn11 enabled recruitment of missing module 2 subunits. In vitro, module 1 was reconstituted stepwise, initiated by Rpn11-Rpn8 heterodimerization. Upon recruitment of Rpn6, the module 1 intermediate was competent to lock into base-CP and reconstitute an incomplete 26S proteasome. Thus, base-CP can serve as a platform for gradual incorporation of lid, along a proteasome assembly pathway. Identification of proteasome intermediates and reconstitution of minimal functional units should clarify aspects of the inner workings of this machine and how multiple catalytic processes are synchronized within the 26S proteasome holoenzymes.
Project description:Proteasomes execute the degradation of most cellular proteins. Although the 20S core particle (CP) has been studied in great detail, the structure of the 19S regulatory particle (RP), which prepares ubiquitylated substrates for degradation, has remained elusive. Here, we report the crystal structure of one of the RP subunits, Rpn6, and we describe its integration into the cryo-EM density map of the 26S holocomplex at 9.1 Å resolution. Rpn6 consists of an α-solenoid-like fold and a proteasome COP9/signalosome eIF3 (PCI) module in a right-handed suprahelical configuration. Highly conserved surface areas of Rpn6 interact with the conserved surfaces of the Pre8 (alpha2) and Rpt6 subunits from the alpha and ATPase rings, respectively. The structure suggests that Rpn6 has a pivotal role in stabilizing the otherwise weak interaction between the CP and the RP.
Project description:The 26S proteasome is at the executive end of the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway for the controlled degradation of intracellular proteins. While the structure of its 20S core particle (CP) has been determined by X-ray crystallography, the structure of the 19S regulatory particle (RP), which recruits substrates, unfolds them, and translocates them to the CP for degradation, has remained elusive. Here, we describe the molecular architecture of the 26S holocomplex determined by an integrative approach based on data from cryoelectron microscopy, X-ray crystallography, residue-specific chemical cross-linking, and several proteomics techniques. The "lid" of the RP (consisting of Rpn3/5/6/7/8/9/11/12) is organized in a modular fashion. Rpn3/5/6/7/9/12 form a horseshoe-shaped heterohexamer, which connects to the CP and roofs the AAA-ATPase module, positioning the Rpn8/Rpn11 heterodimer close to its mouth. Rpn2 is rigid, supporting the lid, while Rpn1 is conformationally variable, positioned at the periphery of the ATPase ring. The ubiquitin receptors Rpn10 and Rpn13 are located in the distal part of the RP, indicating that they were recruited to the complex late in its evolution. The modular structure of the 26S proteasome provides insights into the sequence of events prior to the degradation of ubiquitylated substrates.
Project description:Ubiquitin-like domain-containing C-terminal domain phosphatase 1 (UBLCP1), an FCP/SCP phosphatase family member, was identified as the first proteasome phosphatase. UBLCP1 binds to proteasome subunit Rpn1 and dephosphorylates the proteasome in vitro However, it is still unclear which proteasome subunit(s) are the bona fide substrate(s) of UBLCP1 and the precise mechanism for proteasome regulation remains elusive. Here, we show that UBLCP1 selectively binds to the 19S regulatory particle (RP) through its interaction with Rpn1, but not the 20S core particle (CP) or the 26S proteasome holoenzyme. In the RP, UBLCP1 dephosphorylates the subunit Rpt1, impairs its ATPase activity, and consequently disrupts the 26S proteasome assembly, yet it has no effects on the RP assembly from precursor complexes. The Rpn1-binding and phosphatase activities of UBLCP1 are essential for its function on Rpt1 dephosphorylation and proteasome activity both in vivo and in vitro Our study establishes the essential role of the UBLCP1/Rpn1/Rpt1 complex in regulating proteasome assembly.