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The Triple Mechanisms of Atenolol Adsorption on Ca-Montmorillonite: Implication in Pharmaceutical Wastewater Treatment.


ABSTRACT: The adsorption of atenolol (AT) from aqueous solutions by Ca-montmorillonite (SAz-2) was investigated in batch studies under different physicochemical conditions. The AT existed in neutral un-dissociated form at pH 10, and was adsorbed on dioctahedral smectite (SAz-2) obeying the Langmuir isotherm with a maximum adsorption capacity of 330 mmol/kg. The kinetic adsorption suggested that both strong and weak adsorption sites existed on SAz-2 and participated in the adsorption mechanisms. The amount of exchangeable cations desorbed from SAz-2 during AT adsorption was linearly correlated with the amounts of adsorbed AT having slopes of 0.43, which implied that a cation exchange based adsorption mechanism was also in place. A comprehensive basal spacing change of SAz-2 was observed after AT adsorption on the clay mineral when tested with or without AT recrystallization. The intercalation of AT into the SAz-2 interlayers did not result in swelling due to the low adsorption capacity of the drug. Prominent interactions between the pharmaceutical molecule and SAz-2 were evidenced by apparent shifts of the infrared absorption bands after adsorption. The interlayer configurations and hydrogen bonding of AT on SAz-2 were also supported by infrared, X-ray diffraction and thermogravimetric analyses. This study suggested that SAz-2 is an excellent material to remove not only AT from pharmaceutical wastewater, but can potentially remove many other β-receptor blocker drugs. The results helped us to understand the possible interlayer configurations and adsorption mechanisms of the drugs on natural clay mineral based adsorbents.

SUBMITTER: Chang PH 

PROVIDER: S-EPMC6765981 | BioStudies | 2019-01-01

REPOSITORIES: biostudies

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