Strong Labour Market Inequality of Opportunities at the Workplace for Supporting a Long and Healthy Work-Life: The SeniorWorkingLife Study.
ABSTRACT: Most European countries are gradually increasing the state pension age, but this may run counter to the capabilities and wishes of older workers. The objective of this study is to identify opportunities in the workplace for supporting a prolonged working life in different groups in the labour market. A representative sample of 11,200 employed workers ? 50 years responded to 15 questions in random order about opportunities at their workplace for supporting a prolonged working life. Respondents were stratified based on the Danish version of the International Standard Classification of Occupations (ISCO). Using frequency and logistic regression procedures combined with model-assisted weights based on national registers, results showed that the most common opportunities at the workplace were possibilities for more vacation, reduction of working hours, flexible working hours, access to treatment, further education and physical exercise. However, ISCO groups 5-9 (mainly physical work and shorter education) had in general poorer access to these opportunities than ISCO groups 1-4 (mainly seated work and longer education). Women had poorer access than men, and workers with reduced work ability had poorer access than those with full work ability. Thus, in contrast with actual needs, opportunities at the workplace were lower in occupations characterized by physical work and shorter education, among women and among workers with reduced work ability. This inequality poses a threat to prolonging working life in vulnerable groups in the labour market.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Increasing retirement age is a pivotal issue in labour market reforms. This study analyses factors conditioning retirement intentions. METHODS:In SeniorWorkingLife, 11 444 employed workers ?50 years replied to questions in random order about expected reasons for leaving and potential reasons for staying longer at the labour market. Respondents were stratified based on the Danish version of International Standard Classification of Occupations (ISCO). Representative estimates were produced using the SurveyFreq and SurveyLogistic procedures of SAS combined with model-assisted weights based on national registers. RESULTS:For ISCO groups 1-4 (seated work) main expected reasons for retiring were freedom to choose and desire for more leisure time, but many would consider staying longer if there were better possibilities for additional senior days, longer vacations and flexible working hours. For ISCO groups 5-9 (physical work), poor physical health and not being capable of doing the job were common expected reasons for retiring, but many would consider staying longer if the work were less physically demanding and there were more senior days. Possibility for pension was a general expected reason for retiring. Expected reasons differed to a less extent between genders than between ISCO groups, e.g. economic factors were more important for men and high work demands more important for women. CONCLUSION:Different barriers and opportunities for prolonging working life exist across different occupational groups of the labour market-with most consistent differences between those with seated and physical work. Targeting these specifically seems opportune for policy makers and future interventions.
Project description:Several studies have investigated the relationship between specific occupations and suicide mortality, as suicide rates differ by profession. The aim of this study was to investigate suicide mortality ratios across broad occupational groups in Greece for both sexes in the period 2000-2009.Data of suicide deaths were retrieved from the Hellenic Statistical Authority and comparative mortality ratios were calculated. Occupational classification was based on the International Classification of Occupations (ISCO-88) and the coding for Intentional self-harm (X60-X84) was based on the international classification of diseases (ICD-10).Male dominant occupations, mainly armed forces, skilled farmers and elementary workers, and female high-skilled occupations were seen as high risk groups for suicide in a period of 10 years. The age-productive group of 30-39 years in Greek male elementary workers and the 50-59 age-productive group of Greek professional women proved to have the most elevated number of suicide deaths.Further research is needed into the work-related stressors of occupations with high suicide mortality risk and focused suicide prevention strategies should be applied within vulnerable working age populations.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Work-related health inequalities are determined to some extent by an unequal exposure to chemical and biological risk factors of disease. Although their potential economic burden in the European Union (EU-25) might be substantial, comprehensive reviews focusing on the distribution of these risks across occupational groups are limited. Thus, the main objective of this review is to provide a synopsis of the exposure to chemical and biological hazards across occupational groups. In addition, main industrial applications of hazardous substances are identified and some epidemiological evidence is discussed regarding societal costs and incidence rates of work-related diseases. METHODS:Available lists of carcinogens, sensitisers, mutagens, reprotoxic substances and biological hazards were consulted. For each work-related hazard the main industrial application was identified in order to assess which ISCO occupational groups may be associated with direct exposure. Where available, information on annual tonnage production, risk assessment of the substances and pathogens, and other relevant data were collected and reported. RESULTS:Altogether 308 chemical and biological hazards were identified which may account to at least 693 direct exposures. These hazards concentrate on the following major occupational groups: technicians (ISCO 3), operators (ISCO 8), agricultural workers (ISCO 6) and workers in elementary occupations (ISCO 9). Common industrial applications associated with increased exposure rates relate among others to: (1) production or application of pigments, resins, cutting fluids, adhesives, pesticides and cleaning products, (2) production of rubber, plastics, textiles, pharmaceuticals and cosmetics, and (3) in agriculture, metallurgy and food processing industry, Societal costs of the unequal distribution of chemical and biological hazards across occupations depend on the corresponding work-related diseases and may range from 2900 EUR to 126000 EUR per case/year. CONCLUSIONS:Risk of exposure to chemical and biological risks and work-related disease incidence are highly concentrated on four occupational groups. The unequal burden of exposure across occupations is an important contributing factor leading to health inequalities in society. The bulk of societal costs, however, are actually being borne by the workers themselves. There is an urgent need of taking into account the health impact of production processes and services on workers' health.
Project description:Labor market participation has a positive impact on social inclusion and is linked to financial security. This study identifies barriers and willingness to accept re-employment among unemployed seniors that could highlight opportunities for societal action. From the first wave of SeniorWorkingLife in 2018 combined with the Danish version of the International Standard Classification of Occupations register (ISCO), +50-year-old unemployed senior workers (n = 1682) were stratified into mainly seated work (ISCO 1-4) and mainly physical work (ISCO 5-9), respectively, in their latest employment. We used SurveyFreq and SurveyLogistics of SAS combined with model-assisted weights based on national registers to estimate representative frequencies and odds ratios (OR) for barriers and willingness to accept re-employment. Higher age was perceived as a general barrier for re-employment in both groups. Health was a more pronounced barrier for seniors with mainly physical work compared to seniors with mainly seated work (OR 2.35; CI95 1.31-4.21). Overall, seniors showed a large degree of flexibility and willingness to re-enter the labor market. Different barriers and willingness to accept re-employment exist among currently unemployed seniors. These results highlight the need for different approaches across occupational groups to help unemployed seniors back into the labor market.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Musculoskeletal disorders are the most frequent occupational diseases in Europe. However, their multifactorial aetiology poses several challenges concerning not only the estimation of relative prevalence rates across occupational groups but also how the co-occurrence of known risk factors might differ between disorders of the upper and lower limbs. Against this background, the following objectives are pursued: (1) to estimate the relative odds and prevalence rates of self-reported disorders of the upper limbs and/or shoulders and neck (upper body) and the lower limbs for major ISCO-88 occupational groups, (2) to evaluate to what extent the associations between known risk factors differ for musculoskeletal disorders of the upper body and the lower limbs. METHODS: Statistical analysis of cross-sectional data from the European Working Conditions Survey 1995-2010. The probability of reporting upper body and lower limbs pain in the survey sample 2010 is estimated by mixed logistic regression models using the Markov chain Monte Carlo Sampler. Independent variables include some known physical and psychosocial risk factors. RESULTS: Concerning the first objective, an excess risk of reporting musculoskeketal disorders of the upper body was observed among craft workers (ISCO 7), machine operators (ISCO 8) and workers in elementary occupations (ISCO 9). Concerning musculoskeletal disorders of the lower limbs, service and sales workers (ISCO 5) and workers in ISCO groups 7, 8 and 9 reported symptoms more frequently. Regarding the second objective, similar association patterns were observed for upper body and lower limbs symptoms. Major physical risk factors associated with both symptom types were very frequent exposure to tiring positions, carrying heavy loads and performing repetitive tasks. Standing appears to be an important risk factor for lower limbs symptoms only. CONCLUSIONS: Results suggest that the unequal burden of exposure has not changed substantially across occupational groups since 1995, and that there is urgent need of delivering and evaluating the effects of specific interventions targeting workers at high risk of developing musculoskeletal disorders.
Project description:BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES:Given their increasing prevalence with age, chronic health conditions (CHCs) are substantially affecting older workers and organizations. An important question is whether and how flexible work arrangements and organizational climates may help to reduce the work limitations experienced by older workers. Grounded on the Job Demand-Resource model, we hypothesize that access to flexible work arrangements (working-time flexibility, workplace flexibility, phased retirement) and supportive organizational climates (healthy ageing climate, psychological safety climate) are vital job resources that are associated with fewer health-related work limitations among older workers experiencing CHCs. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS:Multilevel data were collected among 5,419 older workers (60-65 years) in 624 organizations in the Netherlands. Perceived health-related work limitations of older workers diagnosed with arthritis (N = 2,330), cardiovascular disease (N = 720), and sleep disorders (N = 816) were analyzed. RESULTS:Multilevel ordered logistic regression analyses revealed that perceived access to flexible working hours and a psychologically safe organizational climate was associated with fewer health-related work limitations among older workers with CHCs. DISCUSSION AND IMPLICATIONS:Facilitating longer working lives is a key policy challenge within organizations, in particular if older workers are constraint by CHCs. This study shows that offering flexible working hours and ensuring a psychologically safe climate, where older workers with health issues are inclined to share their work needs and preferences, are likely to contribute to healthy ageing in the workplace.
Project description:Occupational injuries and illnesses lead to significant health care costs and productivity losses for millions of workers each year. This study used national survey data to test for differences between members of minority groups and non-Hispanic white workers in the risk of workplace injuries and the prevalence of work-related disabilities. Non-Hispanic black workers and foreign-born Hispanic workers worked in jobs with the highest injury risk, on average, even after adjustment for education and sex. These elevated levels of workplace injury risk led to a significant increase in the prevalence of work-related disabilities for non-Hispanic black and foreign-born Hispanic workers. These findings suggest that disparities in economic opportunities expose members of minority groups to increased risk of workplace injury and disability.
Project description:Numerous work-related drinking mechanisms have been posited and, oftentimes, examined in isolation. We combined data from over 100 occupational attributes into several factors and tested the association of these factors with measures of alcohol use. We used the NLSY79 2006 wave, a U.S. representative sample of 6426 workers ages 41 to 49 and the 2006 Occupational Information Network database (O*NET), a nationally representative sample of nearly 1000 occupations. We conducted exploratory factor analysis on 119 occupational attributes and found three independent workplace characteristics - physical demands, job autonomy, and social engagement - explained the majority of the variation. We then tested the association of these composite attributes with three drinking measures, before and after adjusting for gender, race/ethnicity, and a measure of human capital using count data models. We then stratified by gender and repeated our analyses. Men working in occupations with a one standard deviation higher level of physical demand (e.g. construction) reported a higher number of heavy drinking occasions (+20%, p < 0.05). Job autonomy was not significantly associated with measures of alcohol use and when the combined association of higher levels of physical demand and lower levels of job autonomy was examined, modest support for job strain as a mechanism for work-related alcohol consumption was found. In our pooled sample, working in occupations with one standard deviation higher levels of social engagement was associated with lower numbers of drinking days (-9%, p < 0.05) after adjustment. Physical demand and social engagement were associated with alcohol consumption measures but these relationships varied by workers' gender. Future areas of research should include confirmatory analyses using other waves of O*Net data and replicating the current analysis in other samples of workers. If our results are validated, they suggest male workers in high physical demand occupations could be targets for intervention.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Consumer peer workers are individuals with lived experience of mental health issues and recovery who are employed to use their lived experience to support others. The consumer peer workforce has expanded substantially in recent years. While some research has explored the workplace experiences of peer workers, no previous studies have explored job satisfaction, burnout or turnover intention for this workforce. METHODS:Consumer peer workers in New South Wales, Australia were invited to complete a survey designed to explore their workplace experiences. The survey included measures of job satisfaction, burnout, turnover intention, job demands and job resources, and satisfaction with supervision, professional development and opportunities for career progression. Questions also explored positive and negative aspects of positions. Analyses included exploration of the relationships between of job satisfaction, burnout, turnover intention, job demands and job resources as well as tabulation of common positive and negative aspects of positions. Results were also compared with findings from a previous study exploring workplace experiences of other mental health workers. RESULTS:A total of 67 peer workers participated in the study. Overall job satisfaction, burnout (disengagement and exhaustion) and turnover intention for peer workers was not significantly different to other mental health workers. Job satisfaction, disengagement, exhaustion and turnover intention were all significantly inter-related. Job resources of social support, job control, feedback, and rewards and recognition were associated with positive workplace experiences and the job demand of "physical environment" was most substantially associated with poorer workplace experiences. The most common positive aspect of positions was "connecting with consumers" and the most common negative aspect of positions was "attitudes of clinicians / workplace culture". Access to supervision from a senior peer worker was associated with more positive workplace experiences. CONCLUSIONS:This research demonstrates that while consumer peer workers do not appear to experience poorer job satisfaction or higher levels of burnout or turnover intention than other mental health workers, a range of challenges do exist. Efforts to further expand the peer workforce (especially senior peer worker roles) and to promote more positive attitudes and workplace cultures are likely to promote better workplace experiences for peer workers.
Project description:<h4>Objectives</h4>This study investigated effects of workers' cultural and personal characteristics on the relationship between workplace mistreatment and health problems in both South Korea and EU Countries.<h4>Methods</h4>Data were obtained from nationally representative interview surveys: the third Korean Working Conditions Survey (KWCS) in 2011 (50,032 participants) and fifth European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) in 2010 (41,302 participants). The Pressure-State-Response model was adapted to explore differences in the relationship between mistreatment and health problems according to country, and logistic regression analysis was used after stratification of moderating factors. Workplace mistreatment, such as discrimination, violence, harassment, and self-reported health problems, were assessed by gender and educational level.<h4>Results</h4>Among KWCS participants, there were 4,321 victims (14.70%) of workplace mistreatment; among EWCS participants, there were 5,927 victims (17.89%). There was a significant positive association between workplace mistreatment and self-reported health problems. A stronger association was found among workers with higher educational levels in Korea (2- to 4-fold higher odds for mental and physical health problems), but there was no significant difference by education level in workers of EU Countries. Female Koreans who worked alone had a higher risk of health problems related to workplace mistreatment than other gender compositions in the workplace (the OR for psychological symptoms reached 6.631). In contrast, the gender composition of the work place did not significantly affect EU workers.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Workplace mistreatment is significantly associated with physical and mental health problems, especially among workers with higher educational levels and females who work alone in Korea.