Erectile dysfunction in cirrhosis is impacted by liver dysfunction, portal hypertension, diabetes and arterial hypertension.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Although several risk factors for erectile dysfunction may be present in patients with cirrhosis, data on the actual prevalence and cause of erectile dysfunction is limited. The International Index of Erectile Function-5 (IIEF-5) is a well-validated survey to determine the presence and severity of erectile dysfunction in men. We assessed (i) the prevalence and severity of erectile dysfunction, and (ii) risk factors for erectile dysfunction in patients with cirrhosis. METHODS:In this prospective study, erectile dysfunction was defined as: absent (>21 IIEF-5-points), mild (12-21) and severe (5-11). Patients with overt hepatic encephalopathy, active alcohol abuse, extrahepatic malignancy, previous urologic surgery, previous liver transplantation and severe cardiac conditions were excluded. RESULTS:Among n = 151 screened patients, n = 41 met exclusion criteria and n = 30 were sexually inactive. Thus, a final number of n = 80 male patients with cirrhosis were included. Patient characteristics: age: 53 ± 9 years; model for end-stage liver disease score (MELD): 12.7 ± 3.9; Child-Pugh score (CPS) A: 30 (37.5%), B: 35 (43.8%), C: 15 (18.7%); alcohol: 38 (47.5%), viral: 25 (31.3%), alcohol/viral: 7 (8.8%) and others: 10 (12.5%). The presence of erectile dysfunction was found in 51 (63.8%) patients with 44 (55%) and 7 (8.8%) suffering from mild-to-moderate and moderate-to-severe erectile dysfunction. Mean MELD and hepatic venous pressure gradient (HVPG) were significantly higher in patients with erectile dysfunction (P = .021; P = .028). Child-Pugh score C, MELD, creatinine, age, arterial hypertension, diabetes, low libido, low testosterone and high HVPG were associated with the presence of erectile dysfunction. Interestingly, beta-blocker therapy was not associated with an increased risk. In multivariate models, arterial hypertension (OR: 6.36 [1.16-34.85]; P = .033), diabetes (OR: 7.40 [1.31-41.75]; P = .023), MELD (OR: 1.19 [1.03-1.36]; P = .015) and increasing HVPG (n = 48; OR: 1.11 [1.002-1.23]; P = .045) were independent risk factors for the presence of erectile dysfunction. CONCLUSION:About two-thirds of male patients with cirrhosis show erectile dysfunction. Severity of liver dysfunction, portal hypertension, arterial hypertension and diabetes were identified as risk factors for erectile dysfunction.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Sarcopenia has been reported as a prognostic factor. We evaluated the impact of sarcopenia to the conventional prognostic factors [Model for End-Stage Liver Disease (MELD) score, Child-Turcotte-Pugh (CTP) score, hepatic venous pressure gradient (HVPG)] in cirrhosis. METHODS:Overall, 452 patients with cirrhosis were stratified by MELD score (low < 15, high ? 15), CTP class, and HVPG [non-clinically significant portal hypertension (CSPH), 6-9 mmHg; CSPH, 10-19 mmHg; extremely severe PH, ?20 mmHg]. L3 skeletal muscle index as marker of sarcopenia was subdivided into quartiles (47.01-52.25-58.22 cm2 /m2 ). RESULTS:Among the patients, 42% (190/452) presented with sarcopenia. During a median follow-up period of 21.2 months, sarcopenia was associated with mortality (adjusted hazard ratio = 2.253, P < 0.001) and specifically with compensated and early decompensated stages of cirrhosis, but not with advanced decompensated stages; low (P < 0.001) and high (P = 0.095) MELD scores; CTP classes A (P = 0.034), B (P < 0.001), and C (P = 0.205); and non-CSPH (P = 0.018), CSPH (P < 0.001), and extremely severe PH (P = 0.846). In quartiles of sarcopenia, MELD score, CTP class, and HVPG were independent predictors of mortality in non-sarcopenia, but not in severe sarcopenia (MELD, P = 0.182; CTP, P = 0.187; HVPG, P = 0.077). CONCLUSIONS:Sarcopenia is associated with mortality in compensated and early decompensated cirrhosis, and existing conventional prognostic factors had limited value in severe sarcopenia. Therefore, incorporating sarcopenia in the conventional prognostic factors had added value, particularly in compensated and early decompensated cirrhosis. Subclassification of prognostic factors according to sarcopenia may help to better assess the prognosis of cirrhosis.
Project description:<h4>Background and aims</h4>Portal hypertensive gastropathy (PHG) is common in patients with cirrhosis and may cause bleeding. This study systematically explored the independent impact of patient characteristics, portal hypertension and hepatic dysfunction on PHG severity and associated anemia.<h4>Methods</h4>Patients with cirrhosis undergoing endoscopy were included in this retrospective analysis and PHG was endoscopically graded as absent, mild or severe. Clinical and laboratory parameters and hepatic venous pressure gradient (HVPG) were assessed with respect to an association with severity of PHG.<h4>Results</h4>A total of 110 patients (mean age: 57 years, 69% male) with mostly alcoholic liver disease (49%) or viral hepatitis (30%) were included: 15 (13.6%) patients had no PHG, 59 (53.6%) had mild PHG, and 36 (32.7%) had severe PHG. Severe PHG was significantly associated with male sex (83.3% vs. 62.2% in no or mild PHG; p?=?0.024) and higher Child-Turcotte-Pugh (CTP) stage (CTP-C: 38.9% vs. 27.0% in no or mild PHG; p?=?0.030), while MELD was similar (p?=?0.253). Patients with severe PHG had significantly lower hemoglobin values (11.2?±?0.4?g/dL vs. 12.4?±?0.2?g/dL; p?=?0.008) and a higher prevalence of iron-deficiency anemia (IDA: 48.5% vs. 26.9%; p?=?0.032). Interestingly, HVPG was not significantly higher in severe PHG (median 20?mm?Hg) vs. mild PHG (19?mm?Hg) and no PHG (18?mm?Hg; p?=?0.252). On multivariate analysis, CTP score (odds ratio, OR: 1.25, 95% confidence interval, CI 1.02-1.53; p?=?0.033) was independently associated with severe PHG, while only a trend towards an independent association with IDA was observed (OR: 2.28, 95% CI 0.91-5.72; p?=?0.078).<h4>Conclusion</h4>The CTP score but not HVPG or MELD were risk factors for severe PHG. Importantly, anemia and especially IDA are significantly more common in patients with severe PHG.
Project description:Liver cirrhosis is the terminal stage of most chronic liver conditions, with a high risk of mortality. Careful evaluation of the prognosis of cirrhotic patients and providing precise management are crucial to reduce the risk of mortality. Although the liver biopsy and hepatic venous pressure gradient (HVPG) can efficiently evaluate the prognosis of cirrhotic patients, their application is limited due to the invasion procedures. Child-Pugh score and the model for end-stage liver disease (MELD) score had been widely used in the assessment of cirrhotic prognosis, but the defects of subjective variable application in Child-Pugh score and unsuitability to all phases of liver cirrhosis in MELD score limit their prognostic values. In recent years, continuous efforts have been made to investigate the prognostic value of body fluid biomarkers for cirrhotic patients, and promising results have been reported. Since the collection of fluid specimens is easy, noninvasive, and repeatable, fluid biomarkers can be ideal indicators to predict the prognosis of cirrhosis. Here, we reviewed noninvasive fluid biomarkers in different prognostic functions, including the prediction of survival and complication development.
Project description:Hepatic macrophages (Kupffer cells) are involved in the immunopathology of alcoholic liver disease (ALD). The mannose receptor (MR, CD206), expressed primarily by macrophages, mediates endocytosis, antigen presentation and T-cell activation. A soluble form, sMR, has recently been identified in humans. We aimed to study plasma sMR levels and its correlation with disease severity and survival in ALD patients.We included 50 patients with alcoholic hepatitis (AH), 68 alcoholic cirrhosis (AC) patients (Child-Pugh A (23), B (24), C (21)), and 21 healthy controls (HC). Liver status was described by the Glasgow Alcoholic Hepatitis Score (GAHS), Child-Pugh (CP) and MELD-scores, and in AC patients the hepatic venous pressure gradient (HVPG) was measured by liver vein catheterisation. We used Kaplan-Meier statistics for short-term survival (84-days) in AH patients and long-term (4 years) in AC patients. We measured plasma sMR by ELISA.Median sMR concentrations were significantly elevated in AH 1.32(IQR:0.69) and AC 0.46(0.5) compared to HC 0.2(0.06) mg/L; p<0.001 and increased in a stepwise manner with the CP-score (p<0.001). In AC sMR predicted portal hypertension (HVPG ?10 mmHg) with an area under the Receiver Operator Characteristics curve of 0.86 and a high sMR cut-off (>0.43 mg/l) was associated with increased mortality (p = 0.005).The soluble mannose receptor is elevated in alcoholic liver disease, especially in patients with AH. Its blood level predicts portal hypertension and long-term mortality in AC patients.
Project description:<b>Background & aims: </b>Liver resection (LR) in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and clinically significant portal hypertension (CSPH) defined as a hepatic venous pressure gradient (HVPG) ?10 mmHg is not encouraged. Here, we reappraised the outcomes of patients with cirrhosis and CSPH who underwent LR for HCC in highly specialised liver centres.<br><br><b>Methods: </b>This was a retrospective multicentre study from 1999 to 2019. Predictors for postoperative liver decompensation and textbook outcomes were identified.<br><br><b>Results: </b>In total, 79 patients with a median age of 65 years were included. The Child-Pugh grade was A in 99% of patients, and the median model for end-stage liver disease (MELD) score was 8. The median HVPG was 12 mmHg. Major hepatectomies and laparoscopies were performed in 28% and 34% of patients, respectively. Ninety-day mortality and severe morbidity rates were 6% and 27%, respectively. Postoperative and persistent liver decompensation occurred in 35% and 10% of patients at 3 months. Predictors of liver decompensation included increased preoperative HVPG (<i>p</i> = 0.004), increased serum total bilirubin (<i>p</i> = 0.02), and open approach (<i>p</i> = 0.03). Of the patients, 34% achieved a textbook outcome, of which the laparoscopic approach was the sole predictor (<i>p</i> = 0.004). The 5-year overall survival and recurrence-free survival rates were 55% and 43%, respectively.<br><br><b>Conclusions: </b>Patients with cirrhosis, HCC and HVPG ?10 mmHg can undergo LR with acceptable mortality, morbidity, and liver decompensation rates. The laparoscopic approach was the sole predictor of a textbook outcome.<br><br><b>Lay summary: </b>Patients with cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma, and clinically significant portal hypertension (defined as a hepatic venous pressure gradient ?10 mmHg) can undergo resection with acceptable mortality, morbidity, liver decompensation rates, and a textbook outcome. These results can be achieved in selected patients with preserved liver function, good general status, and sufficient remnant liver volume.
Project description:Portal hypertension is a direct consequence of hepatic fibrosis, and several hepatic fibrosis markers have been evaluated as a noninvasive alternative to the detection of portal hypertension and esophageal varices. In the present study, we compared the diagnostic and prognostic values of the noninvasive fibrosis markers in patients with alcoholic cirrhosis. A total of 219 consecutive alcoholic cirrhosis patients were included. Biochemical scores and liver stiffness (LS) were compared with hepatic venous pressure gradient (HVPG). For the detection of clinically significant portal hypertension (CSPH; HVPG?10 mmHg) in compensated patients, LS and LS-spleen diameter to platelet ratio score (LSPS) showed significantly better performance with area under the curves (AUCs) of 0.85 and 0.82, respectively, than aspartate aminotransferase-to-platelet ratio index, FIB-4, Forns' index, Lok index, (platelet count)2/[monocyte fraction (%) × segmented neutrophil fraction (%)], and platelet count-to-spleen diameter ratio (all P<0.001). However, for the detection of high-risk varices, none of the non-invasive tests showed reliable performance (AUCs of all investigated tests < 0.70). During a median follow-up period of 42.6 months, 46 patients with decompensated cirrhosis died. Lok index (hazard ratio [HR], 1.13; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.05-1.22; P = 0.001) and FIB-4 (HR, 1.06; 95% CI, 1.01-1.10; P = 0.009) were independently associated with all-cause death in decompensated patients. Among the tested noninvasive markers, only Lok index significantly improved discrimination function of MELD score in predicting overall survival. In conclusion, LS and LSPS most accurately predict CSPH in patients with compensated alcoholic cirrhosis. In the prediction of overall survival in decompensated patients, however, Lok index is an independent prognostic factor and improves the predictive performance of MELD score.
Project description:Men with erectile dysfunction often have concurrent medical conditions. Conversely, men with these conditions may also have underlying erectile dysfunction. The prevalence of unrecognized erectile dysfunction in men with comorbidities commonly associated with erectile dysfunction was determined in men invited to participate in a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial of sildenafil citrate.Men ?30 years old presenting with ?1 erectile dysfunction risk factor (controlled hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, smoking, metabolic syndrome, stable coronary artery disease, diabetes, depression, lower urinary tract symptoms, obesity [body mass index ?30 kg/m2] or waist circumference ?40 inches), and not previously diagnosed with erectile dysfunction were evaluated. The screening question, "Do you have erectile dysfunction?," with responses of "no," "yes," and "unsure," and the Erectile Function domain of the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF-EF) were administered.Of 1084 men screened, 1053 answered the screening question and also had IIEF-EF scores. IIEF-EF scores indicating erectile dysfunction occurred in 71% (744/1053), of whom 54% (399/744) had moderate or severe erectile dysfunction. Of 139 answering "yes," 526 answering "unsure," and 388 answering "no," 96%, 90%, and 36%, respectively, had some degree of erectile dysfunction. The mean±SD (range) number of risk factors was 2.9 ± 1.7 (3-8) in the "yes" group, 3.2 ± 1.7 (3-9) in the "unsure" group, and 2.6 ± 1.5 (2-8) in the "no" group.Although awareness of having erectile dysfunction was low, most men with risk factors had IIEF-EF scores indicating erectile dysfunction. Erectile dysfunction should be suspected and assessed in men with risk factors, regardless of their apparent level of awareness of erectile dysfunction.ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier NCT00343200.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:To evaluate the predictive role of the Model for End-Stage Liver Disease (MELD) score concerning changes in testosterone levels following living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) and the effects of LDLT on total testosterone and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) levels, the free androgen index (FAI) and erectile function in LDLT recipients. PARTICIPANTS:41 adult male recipients of LDLT were evaluated before transplantation and six months after LDLT. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:We evaluated the effects of LDLT on total testosterone and SHBG levels, the FAI and erectile function in LDLT recipients. In this prospective study, MELD score, serum total testosterone, SHBG levels and FAI were measured in the morning of the operation day and 1 month, 3 months and 6 months after LDLT. The 5-item version of the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF-5) questionnaire was administered before LDLT and six months after LDLT to evaluate erectile function. RESULTS:The main outcome measure was dynamic parameter changes of total testosterone, SHBG, FAI and erectile dysfunction. The mean FAI value before LDLT was 16.75±10.10. The mean FAI was significantly higher 1 month (32.75±15.56; p < 0.01), 3 months (25.23±10.26; p < 0.01) and 6 months (29.16±11.05; p < 0.01) after LDLT. Mean IIEF-5 scores significantly increased after LDLT (from 11.7±7.7 before LDLT to 14.7±7.5, p< 0.01). CONCLUSIONS:MELD score correlates with severity of hypogonadism in men with end-stage liver disease. LDLT results in a reduction in serum levels of SHBG, an increase in FAI and improvement in erectile function.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The role of noninvasive liver fibrosis markers which were developed to evaluate the severity of chronic liver disease remains unclear in cirrhosis. AIMS:To evaluate the correlation between noninvasive markers and hemodynamic parameters and their prognostic performance in cirrhotic patients. METHODS:A total of 242 cirrhotic patients undergoing hemodynamic study were analyzed. The correlations between noninvasive models, including FIB-4, aspartate aminotransferase to platelet ratio index, cirrhosis discriminant score, Lok index, Goteborg University Cirrhosis Index, and albumin-bilirubin (ALBI) score and hemodynamic parameters were investigated, along with their predictive accuracy for short- and long-term survival. RESULTS:There was a significant correlation between all noninvasive markers and hepatic venous pressure gradient (HVPG), and ALBI score had the best correlation (r = 0.307, p<0.001). For the prediction of 3-month and 6-month mortality, serum sodium (sNa) levels had the highest area under curve (AUC; 0.799 and 0.818, respectively) among all parameters, and ALBI score showed the best performance (AUC = 0.691 and 0.740, respectively) compared with other 5 noninvasive models. Of 159 patients with low MELD scores (<14), high ALBI score (>-1.4) and low sNa (<135 mmol/L) predicted early mortality. In the Cox multivariate model, ALBI, MELD, HVPG and sNa were independent predictors of long-term survival. CONCLUSIONS:Among noninvasive markers, ALBI score is best correlated with HVPG and associated with short-term outcome in cirrhotic patients. A high ALBI score and low sNa identify high-risk patients with low MELD scores. High MELD, HVPG, ALBI and low sNa levels are independent predictors of survival. Independent studies are required to confirm our findings.
Project description:To investigate the relationship between osteopontin plasma concentrations and the severity of portal hypertension and to assess osteopontin prognostic value.A cohort of 154 patients with confirmed liver cirrhosis (112 ethylic, 108 men, age 34-72 years) were enrolled in the study. Hepatic venous pressure gradient (HVPG) measurement and laboratory and ultrasound examinations were carried out for all patients. HVPG was measured using a standard catheterization method with the balloon wedge technique. Osteopontin was measured using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method in plasma. Patients were followed up with a specific focus on mortality. The control group consisted of 137 healthy age- and sex- matched individuals.The mean value of HVPG was 16.18 ± 5.6 mmHg. Compared to controls, the plasma levels of osteopontin in cirrhotic patients were significantly higher (P < 0.001). The plasma levels of osteopontin were positively related to HVPG (P = 0.0022, r = 0.25) and differed among the individual Child-Pugh groups of patients. The cut-off value of 80 ng/mL osteopontin distinguished patients with significant portal hypertension (HVPG above 10 mmHg) at 75% sensitivity and 63% specificity. The mean follow-up of patients was 3.7 ± 2.6 years. The probability of cumulative survival was 39% for patients with HVPG > 10 mmHg and 65% for those with HVPG ? 10 mmHg (P = 0.0086, odds ratio (OR), 2.92, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.09-7.76). Osteopontin showed a similar prognostic value to HVPG. Patients with osteopontin values above 80 ng/mL had significantly lower cumulative survival compared to those with osteopontin ? 80 ng/mL (37% vs 56%, P = 0.00035; OR = 2.23, 95%CI: 1.06-4.68).Osteopontin is a non-invasive parameter of portal hypertension that distinguishes patients with clinically significant portal hypertension. It is a strong prognostic factor for survival.