Isothioureas, Ureas, and Their N-Methyl Amides from 2-Aminobenzothiazole and Chiral Amino Acids.
ABSTRACT: In this investigation, the reaction of 2-dithiomethylcarboimidatebenzothiazole with a series of six chiral amino-acids was studied. The reaction proceeds through the isolable sodium salt of SMe-isothiourea carboxylates as intermediates, whose reaction with methyl iodide in stirring DMF as solvent affords SMe-isothiourea methyl esters. The presence of water in the reaction leads to the corresponding urea carboxylates as isolable intermediates, whose methyl esters were obtained. Finally, the urea N-methyl amide derivatives were isolated when SMe-isothiourea or urea methyl esters were reacted with methylamine in the presence of water. The structures of synthesized compounds were established by 1H and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance and the structures of SMe-isothiourea methyl esters derived from (l)-glycine, (l)-alanine, (l)-phenylglycine, and (l)-leucine, by X-ray diffraction analysis. This methodology allows to functionalize 2-aminobenzothiazole with SMe-isothiourea, urea, and methylamide groups derived from chiral amino acids to get benzothiazole derivatives containing coordination sites and hydrogen bonding groups. Further research on the biological activities of some of these derivatives is ongoing.
Project description:Intramolecular nucleophilic and electrophilic cyclization of N-alkyne-substituted pyrrole esters is described. Efficient routes towards the synthesis of pyrrolopyrazinone, pyrrolotriazinone and pyrrolooxazinone have been developed. First, N-alkyne-substituted pyrrole ester derivatives were synthesized. Introduction of various substituents into the alkyne functionality was accomplished by a copper-catalyzed cross-coupling reaction. Nucleophilic cyclization of N-alkyne-substituted methyl 1H-pyrrole-2-carboxylates with hydrazine afforded the 6-exo-dig/6-endo-dig cyclization products depending on the electronic nature of the substituents attached to the alkyne. On the other hand, cyclization of N-alkyne-substituted methyl 1H-pyrrole-2-carboxylates with iodine only resulted in the formation of the 6-endo-dig cyclization product regardless of the substitution of the alkyne functionality.
Project description:Fiesselmann thiophene synthesis was applied for the convenient construction of thieno[3,2-b]thiophene derivatives. Thus, new 5- or 6-aryl-3-hydroxythieno[3,2-b]thiophene-2-carboxylates were obtained by condensation of 5- or 4-aryl-3-chlorothiophene-2-carboxylates, respectively, with methyl thioglycolate in the presence of potassium tert-butoxide. The saponification of the resulting esters, with decarboxylation of the intermediating acids, gave the corresponding thieno[3,2-b]thiophen-3(2H)-ones. The latter ketones were used to synthesize new N,S-heterotetracenes, namely 9H-thieno[2',3':4,5]thieno[3,2-b]indoles by their treatment with arylhydrazines in accordance with the Fischer indolization reaction.
Project description:A tandem relay catalytic protocol using both Pd and isothiourea catalysis has been developed for the enantioselective synthesis of ?-amino acid derivatives containing two stereogenic centers from readily accessible N,N-disubstituted glycine aryl esters and allylic phosphates. The optimized process uses a bench-stable succinimide-based Pd precatalyst (FurCat) to promote Pd-catalyzed allylic ammonium salt generation from the allylic phosphate and the glycine aryl ester. Subsequent in situ enantioselective [2,3]-sigmatropic rearrangement catalyzed by the isothiourea benzotetramisole forms syn-?-amino acid derivatives with high diastereo- and enantioselectivity. This methodology is most effective using 4-nitrophenylglycine esters and tolerates a variety of substituted cinnamic and styrenyl allylic ethyl phosphates. The use of challenging unsymmetrical N-allyl-N-methylglycine esters is also tolerated under the catalytic relay conditions without compromising stereoselectivity.
Project description:A unique method to affect intramolecular aminooxygenation and dioxygenation of allenols and allenylsulfonamides is described. These operationally simple reactions occur under neutral or basic conditions where copper(II) carboxylates serve as reaction promoter, oxidant, and carboxylate source. Moderate to high yields of heterocycle-functionalized vinyl carboxylate esters are formed with moderate to high levels of diastereoselectivity. Such vinyl carboxylate esters could serve as precursors to ?-amino and ?-oxy ketones and derivatives thereof.
Project description:Precise control of alloying sites has long been a challenging pursuit, yet little has been achieved for the atomic-level manipulation of metallic nanomaterials. Here we describe utilization of a surface motif exchange (SME) reaction to selectively replace the surface motifs of parent [Ag<sub>44</sub>(SR)<sub>30</sub>]<sup>4-</sup> (SR?=?thiolate) nanoparticles (NPs), leading to bimetallic NPs with well-defined molecular formula and atomically-controlled alloying sites in protecting shell. A systematic mass (and tandem mass) spectrometry analysis suggests that the SME reaction is an atomically precise displacement of SR-Ag(I)-SR-protecting modules of Ag NPs by the incoming SR-Au(I)-SR modules, giving rise to a core-shell [Ag<sub>32</sub>@Au<sub>12</sub>(SR)<sub>30</sub>]<sup>4-</sup>. Theoretical calculation suggests that the thermodynamically less favorable core-shell Ag@Au nanostructure is kinetically stabilized by the intermediate Ag<sub>20</sub> shell, preventing inward diffusion of the surface Au atoms. The delicate SME reaction opens a door to precisely control the alloying sites in the protecting shell of bimetallic NPs with broad utility.
Project description:A partially purified preparation of an alpha-amino acid ester hydrolase was obtained from Acetobacter turbidans A.T.C.C. 9325, which catalyses synthesis of 7-(d-alpha-amino-alpha-phenylacetamido)-3-cephem-3-methyl-4- carboxylic acid (cephalexin) from methyl d-alpha-aminophenylacetate and 7-amino-3-deacetoxycephalosporanic acid. The enzyme preparation catalysed both cephalosprin synthesis from 7-amino-3-deacetoxycephalosporanic acid and suitable amino acid esters (e.g. methyl d-alpha-aminophenylacetate, l-cysteine methyl ester, glycine ethyl ester, d-alanine methyl ester, methyl dl-alpha-aminoiso-butyrate, l-serine methyl ester, d-leucine methyl ester, l-methionine methyl ester) and the hydrolysis of such esters. The substrate specificity of the enzyme preparation for the hydrolysis closely paralleled the acyl-donor specificity for cephalosporin synthesis, even to the reaction rates. Only alpha-amino acid derivatives could act as acyl donors. The hydrogen atom on the alpha-carbon atom was not always required by acyl donors. The hydrolysis rate was markedly diminished by adding 7-amino-3-deacetoxycephalosporanic acid to reaction mixtures, but no effect on the total reaction rate (the hydrolysis rate plus synthesis rate) was observed with various concentrations of 7-amino-3-deacetoxycephalosporanic acid. Both the hydrolytic and the synthetic activities of the enzyme preparation were inhibited by high concentrations of some acyl donors (e.g. methyl d-alpha-aminophenylacetate, ethyl d-alpha-aminophenylacetate). The enzyme preparation hydrolysed alpha-amino acid esters much more easily than alpha-amino acid derivatives with an acid-amide bond.
Project description:1. The interaction at room temperature of thiols (cysteine and certain of its derivatives, and glutathione) with N-alkyl-N-nitrosourethanes and with diazomethane gave complicated mixtures of products. 2. S-Methylcysteine and S-ethoxycarbonylcysteine, the main products of the reaction between cysteine and N-methyl-N-nitrosourethane, were isolated and unequivocally identified. Paper-chromatographic and other evidence was used for the identification of several other components of the mixtures of products obtained. 3. S-Methyl derivatives and their methyl esters were the common products formed from the thiol compounds with both N-methyl-N-nitrosourethane and with diazomethane. 4. The esters were unstable and hydrolysed readily. 5. S-Ethoxycarbonyl derivatives, the primary products of the reaction of the thiols with N-alkyl-N-nitrosourethanes, isomerized to the respective N-ethoxycarbonyl derivatives when the pH increased above 7.0; the migration of the ethoxycarbonyl group from S to N was particularly easy with cysteine, probably owing to the spatial proximity of the amino group. 6. It is suggested that the non-enzymic reactions in vitro of thiols with both N-methyl-N-nitrosourethane and diazomethane may represent models for events in vivo and might help in the studies of the carcinogenic process.
Project description:?,?-Unsaturated acyl ammoniums generated from the reaction of ?,?-unsaturated 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (TCP) esters bearing a pendent enone with an isothiourea organocatalyst are versatile intermediates in a range of enantioselective nucleophile-dependent domino processes to form complex products of diverse topology with excellent stereoselectivity. Use of either 1,3-dicarbonyls, acyl benzothiazoles, or acyl benzimidazoles as nucleophiles allows three distinct, diastereodivergent domino reaction pathways to be accessed to form various fused polycyclic cores containing multiple contiguous stereocentres.
Project description:Use of a Pictet-Spengler reaction of tryptamine and l-tryptophan methyl ester and subsequent reduction of the nitro group followed by further cyclocondensation with aryl aldehydes and formyl-substituted carboxylic acids, including ferrocene-based components, furnished a series of diastereomeric 6-aryl-substituted 5,6,8,9,14,14b-hexahydroindolo[2',3':3,4]pyrido[1-<i>c</i>]-quinazolines and 5,5b,17,18-tetrahydroindolo[2',3':3,4]pyrido[1,2-<i>c</i>]isoindolo[2,1-<i>a</i>]quinazolin-11-(15b<i>H</i>)-ones with the elements of central-, planar and conformational chirality. The relative configuration and the conformations of the novel polycyclic indole derivatives were determined by <sup>1</sup>H- and <sup>13</sup>C-NMR methods supplemented by comparative DFT analysis of the possible diastereomers. The structure of one of the pentacyclic methyl esters with defined absolute configuration "<i>S</i>" was also confirmed by single crystal X-ray diffraction measurement. Accounting for the characteristic substituent-dependent diastereoselective formation of the products multistep mechanisms were proposed on the basis of the results of DFT modeling. Preliminary in vitro cytotoxic assays of the products revealed moderate-to-significant antiproliferative effects against PANC-1-, COLO-205-, A-2058 and EBC-1 cell lines that proved to be highly dependent on the stereostructure and on the substitution pattern of the pending aryl substituent.
Project description:A readily accessible iridium(iii) phenyl-tetrazole complex ([Ir(ptrz)2(tBu-bpy)]+, 2; Hptrz = 2-methyl-5-phenyl-tetrazole; tBu-bpy = 4,4'-di-tert-butyl-2,2'-bipyridine) is shown to be a versatile catalyst for a new photocatalytic Michael reaction. Under light irradiation in the presence of 2, a dithiane 2-carboxylic acid, obtained by simple hydrolysis of a commercially available ethyl ester, generates a 1,3-dithiane radical capable of performing addition to a variety of Michael acceptors (e.g., unsaturated ketones, esters, amides and malonates). This broad scope reaction with high yields is a formal photo-redox addition of the elusive methyl radical and the adducts obtained can be starting materials for a variety of functionalized products. The excited-state oxidation potential of catalyst 2 allows selective formation of radicals only from ?-heterosubstituted carboxylates. Chemical modification of this metal complex can tune the electrochemical properties, opening a route to new highly selective catalytic photo-oxidation reactions.