Extent of Myocardial Ischemia on Positron Emission Tomography and Survival Benefit With Early Revascularization.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Prior studies with single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) have shown a survival benefit with early revascularization in patients with >10% to 12.5% ischemic myocardium. The relationship among positron emission tomography (PET)-derived extent of ischemia, early revascularization, and survival is unknown. OBJECTIVES:The purpose of this study was to evaluate the association among percent ischemia on PET MPI, revascularization, and survival. METHODS:A total of 16,029 unique consecutive patients who were undergoing Rubidium-82 rest-stress PET MPI from 2010 to 2016 were included. Patients with known cardiomyopathy and nondiagnostic perfusion results were excluded. Percent ischemic myocardium was estimated from a 17-segment model. Propensity scoring was used to account for nonrandomized referral to early revascularization (90 days of PET). A Cox model was developed, adjusting for propensity scores for early revascularization and percent ischemia, and an interaction between ischemia and early revascularization was tested. RESULTS:Median follow-up was 3.7 years. Overall, 1,277 (8%) patients underwent early revascularization and 2,493 (15.6%) died (738 cardiac). Nearly 37% of patients (n = 5,902) had ischemia, with 13.5% (n = 2,160) having ?10%. In propensity-adjusted analyses, there was a significant interaction between ischemia and early revascularization (p < 0.001 for all-cause and cardiac death), such that patients with greater ischemia had improved survival with early revascularization, with a potential ischemia threshold at 5% (upper limit 95% confidence interval at 10%). There was no differential association between ischemia and early revascularization on death based on history of known coronary artery disease (interaction p = 0.72). CONCLUSIONS:In a contemporary cohort of patients undergoing PET MPI, patients with greater ischemia had a survival benefit from early revascularization. On exploratory analyses, this threshold was lower than that previously reported for SPECT. These findings require future validation in prospective cohorts or trials.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:This study compared the clinical effectiveness of pharmacologic stress myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) plus positron emission tomography (PET) with single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) in patients with known coronary artery disease (CAD) presenting with symptoms suggestive of ischemia. BACKGROUND:Although PET MPI has been shown to have higher diagnostic accuracy in detecting hemodynamically significant CAD than SPECT MPI, whether this impacts downstream management has not been formally evaluated in randomized trials. METHODS:This study consisted of a single-center trial in which patients with known CAD and suspected ischemia were randomized to undergo PET or attenuation-corrected SPECT MPI between June 2009 and September 2013. Post-test management was at the discretion of the referring physician, and patients were followed for 12 months. The primary endpoint was diagnostic failure, defined as unnecessary angiography (absence of ?50% stenosis in ?1 vessel) or additional noninvasive testing within 60 days of the MPI. Secondary endpoints were post-test escalation of antianginal therapy, referral for angiography, coronary revascularization, and health status at 3, 6, and 12 months. RESULTS:A total of 322 patients with an evaluable MPI were randomized (n = 161 in each group). At baseline, 88.8% of patients were receiving aspirin therapy, 76.7% were taking beta-blockers, and 77.3% were taking statin therapy. Diagnostic failure within 60 days occurred in only 7 patients (2.2%) (3 [1.9%] in the PET group and 4 [2.5%] in the SPECT group; p = 0.70). There were no significant differences between the 2 groups in subsequent rates of coronary angiography, coronary revascularization, or health status at 3, 6, and 12 months of follow-up (all p values ?0.20); however, when subjects were stratified by findings on MPI in a post hoc analysis, those with high-risk MPI on PET testing had higher rates of angiography and revascularization on follow-up than those who had SPECT MPI, whereas those undergoing low-risk PET studies had lower rates of both procedures than those undergoing SPECT (interaction between randomized modality ?high-risk MPI for 12-month catheterization [p = 0.001] and 12-month revascularization [p = 0.09]). CONCLUSIONS:In this contemporary cohort of symptomatic CAD patients who were optimally medically managed, there were no discernible differences in rates of diagnostic failure at 60 days, subsequent coronary angiography, revascularization, or patient health status at 1 year between patients evaluated by pharmacologic PET compared with those evaluated by SPECT MPI. Downstream invasive testing rates with PET MPI were more consistent with high-risk features than those with SPECT MPI. (Effectiveness Study of Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography [SPECT] Versus Positron Emission Tomography [PET] Myocardial Perfusion Imaging; NCT00976053).
Project description:<h4>Aims</h4>To examine whether test utilization and prevalence of ischemia with positron emission tomography (PET) myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) follow the previously described trends with single photon computed tomography (SPECT).<h4>Methods and results</h4>MPI studies performed between January 2003 and December 2017 were identified. Number of PET and SPECT MPI studies performed per year was determined. Trends in the proportion of studies showing any ischaemia (>0%) with both modalities were compared before and after adjusting for baseline differences in patient characteristics using propensity scores. Interaction between imaging modality and year of testing was examined using modified Poisson regression. A total of 156 244 MPI studies were performed (30% PET and 70% SPECT). Between 2003 and 2017, the number of PET studies increased from 18 to 61 studies/1000 patient encounters, while SPECT volumes declined from 169 to 34/1000 patient encounters (P?<?0.001 for within-group comparisons). The prevalence of any ischaemia in SPECT-tested patients declined from 53.9% to 28.3% between 2003 and 2017, whereas ischaemia prevalence in PET-tested patients declined from 57.2% to 38.2% (P?<?0.001 for within-modality comparisons), with more PET studies showing ischaemia compared to SPECT [relative risk (RR) 1.44, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.42-1.47; P?<?0.001]. After propensity score matching of 26 066 patients tested with SPECT with 26 066 patients tested with PET, the between-modality difference in ischaemia prevalence was significantly attenuated, with a slightly higher overall likelihood of detecting ischaemia with PET compared to SPECT (RR 1.08, 95% CI 1.05-1.11; P?<?0.001).<h4>Conclusions</h4>Utilization of PET MPI at a large-volume referral centre increased significantly between 2003 and 2017. Despite a significant decrease in the prevalence of ischaemia with SPECT and PET during the same period, the decline was less with PET, perhaps related to baseline risk of tested patients.
Project description:Cardiac positron emission testing (PET) is more accurate than single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) at identifying coronary artery disease (CAD); however, the 2 modalities have not been thoroughly compared in a real-world setting. We conducted a retrospective analysis of 60-day catheterization outcomes and 1-year major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) after the transition from a SPECT- to a PET-based myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) program.MPI patients at Intermountain Medical Center from January 2011-December 2012 (the SPECT era, n = 6,777) and January 2014-December 2015 (the PET era, n = 7,817) were studied. Outcomes studied were 60-day coronary angiography, high-grade obstructive CAD, left main/severe 3-vessel disease, revascularization, and 1-year MACE-revascularization (MACE-revasc; death, myocardial infarction [MI], or revascularization >60 days).Patients were 64 ± 13 years old; 54% were male and 90% were of European descent; and 57% represented a screening population (no prior MI, revascularization, or CAD). During the PET era, compared with the SPECT era, a higher percentage of patients underwent coronary angiography (13.2% vs. 9.7%, P < 0.0001), had high-grade obstructive CAD (10.5% vs. 6.9%, P < 0.0001), had left main or severe 3-vessel disease (3.0% vs. 2.3%, P = 0.012), and had coronary revascularization (56.7% vs. 47.1%, P = 0.0001). Similar catheterization outcomes were seen when restricted to the screening population. There was no difference in 1-year MACE-revasc (PET [5.8%] vs. SPECT [5.3%], P = 0.31).The PET-based MPI program resulted in improved identification of patients with high-grade obstructive CAD, as well as a larger percentage of revascularization, thus resulting in fewer patients undergoing coronary angiography without revascularization.This observational study was funded using internal departmental funds.
Project description:<h4>Aims</h4>Positron emission tomography (PET) myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) can non-invasively measure myocardial blood flow reserve (MBFR). We aimed to examine whether MBFR identifies patients with a survival benefit after revascularization, helping to guide post-test management.<h4>Methods and results</h4>We examined all-cause mortality in 12?594 consecutive patients undergoing Rb82 rest/stress PET MPI from January 2010 to December 2016, after excluding those with cardiomyopathy, prior coronary artery bypass surgery (CABG), and missing MBFR. Myocardial blood flow reserve was calculated as the ratio of stress to rest absolute myocardial blood flow. A Cox model adjusted for patient and test characteristics, early revascularization (percutaneous coronary intervention or CABG ?90?days of MPI), and the interaction between MBFR and early revascularization was developed to identify predictors of all-cause mortality. After a median follow-up of 3.2?years, 897 patients (7.1%) underwent early revascularization and 1699 patients (13.5%) died. Ischaemia was present in 4051 (32.3%) patients, with 1413 (11.2%) having ?10% ischaemia. Mean MBFR was 2.0?±?1.3, with MBFR <1.8 in 4836 (38.5%). After multivariable adjustment, every 0.1 unit decrease in MBFR was associated with 9% greater hazard of all-cause death (hazard ratio 1.09, 95% confidence interval 1.08-1.10; P?<?0.001). There was a significant interaction between MBFR and early revascularization (P?<?0.001); such that patients with MBFR ?1.8 had a survival benefit with early revascularization, regardless of type of revascularization or level of ischaemia.<h4>Conclusion</h4>Myocardial blood flow reserve on PET MPI is associated with all-cause mortality and can identify patients who receive a survival benefit with early revascularization compared to medical therapy. This may be used to guide revascularization, and prospective validation is needed.
Project description:The primary objective of this multicenter registry was to study the prognostic value of positron emission tomography (PET) myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) and the improved classification of risk in a large cohort of patients with suspected or known coronary artery disease (CAD).Limited prognostic data are available for MPI with PET.A total of 7,061 patients from 4 centers underwent a clinically indicated rest/stress rubidium-82 PET MPI, with a median follow-up of 2.2 years. The primary outcome of this study was cardiac death (n = 169), and the secondary outcome was all-cause death (n = 570). Net reclassification improvement (NRI) and integrated discrimination analyses were performed.Risk-adjusted hazard of cardiac death increased with each 10% myocardium abnormal with mildly, moderately, or severely abnormal stress PET (hazard ratio [HR]: 2.3 [95% CI: 1.4 to 3.8; p = 0.001], HR: 4.2 [95% CI: 2.3 to 7.5; p < 0.001], and HR: 4.9 [95% CI: 2.5 to 9.6; p < 0.0001], respectively [normal MPI: referent]). Addition of percent myocardium ischemic and percent myocardium scarred to clinical information (age, female sex, body mass index, history of hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidemia, smoking, angina, beta-blocker use, prior revascularization, and resting heart rate) improved the model performance (C-statistic 0.805 [95% CI: 0.772 to 0.838] to 0.839 [95% CI: 0.809 to 0.869]) and risk reclassification for cardiac death (NRI 0.116 [95% CI: 0.021 to 0.210]), with smaller improvements in risk assessment for all-cause death.In patients with known or suspected CAD, the extent and severity of ischemia and scar on PET MPI provided powerful and incremental risk estimates of cardiac death and all-cause death compared with traditional coronary risk factors.
Project description:The heart failure epidemic continues to rise with coronary artery disease as one of its main causes. Novel concepts for risk stratification to guide the referring cardiologist towards revascularization procedures are of significant value. Myocardial perfusion imaging using single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) agents has demonstrated high accuracy for the detection of clinically relevant stenoses. With positron emission tomography (PET) becoming more widely available, mainly due to its diagnostic performance in oncology, perfusion imaging with that modality is more practical than in the past and overcomes existing limitations of SPECT MPI. Advantages of PET include more reliable quantification of absolute myocardial blood flow, the routine use of computed tomography for attenuation correction, a higher spatiotemporal resolution and a higher count sensitivity. Current PET radiotracers such as rubidium-82 (half-life, 76 s), oxygen-15 water (2 min) or nitrogen-13 ammonia (10 min) are labeled with radionuclides with very short half-lives, necessitating that stress imaging is performed under pharmacological vasodilator stress instead of exercise testing. However, with the introduction of novel 18F-labeled MPI PET radiotracers (half-life, 110 min), the intrinsic advantages of PET can be combined with exercise testing. Additional advantages of those radiotracers include, but are not limited to: potentially improved cost-effectiveness due to the use of pre-existing delivery systems and superior imaging qualities, mainly due to the shortest positron range among available PET MPI probes. In the present review, widely used PET MPI radiotracers will be reviewed and potential novel 18F-labeled perfusion radiotracers will be discussed.
Project description:The prevalence of ischemia on nuclear myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) has been decreasing. Recent research has questioned the benefit of invasive revascularization for patients with moderate to severe ischemia. We hypothesized that patients with moderate to severe ischemia could routinely undergo successful revascularization.We analyzed data from 544 patients who underwent an MPI at a single academic Veterans Affairs Medical Center. Patients with moderate to severe ischemia, defined as a summed difference score (SDS) 8 or greater, were compared to the rest of the cohort.Of the total cohort (n?=?544), 39 patients had MPI studies with resultant moderate to severe ischemia. Patients with ischemia were more likely to develop coronary artery disease (74.4% versus 38.8%, P?<?0.0001) and have successful revascularization (38.5% versus 4.0%, P?<?0.0001) during the following year. Revascularization was attempted in 31 patients with moderate to severe ischemia, though only 15 (47%) of these attempts were successful. Ischemia was predictive of myocardial infarction (5.1% versus 0.8%, P?=?0.01) within 1 year.Moderate to severe ischemia is an uncommon finding in a contemporary nuclear laboratory. Among patients with ischemia, revascularization is typically attempted but is frequently unsuccessful.This trial does not appear on a registry as it is neither randomized nor prospective.
Project description:This document from the American Society of Nuclear Cardiology represents an updated consensus statement on the evidence base of stress myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI), emphasizing new developments in single-photon emission tomography (SPECT) and positron emission tomography (PET) in the clinical evaluation of women presenting with symptoms of stable ischemic heart disease (SIHD). The clinical evaluation of symptomatic women is challenging due to their varying clinical presentation, clinical risk factor burden, high degree of comorbidity, and increased risk of major ischemic heart disease events. Evidence is substantial that both SPECT and PET MPI effectively risk stratify women with SIHD. The addition of coronary flow reserve (CFR) with PET improves risk detection, including for women with nonobstructive coronary artery disease and coronary microvascular dysfunction. With the advent of PET with computed tomography (CT), multiparametric imaging approaches may enable integration of MPI and CFR with CT visualization of anatomical atherosclerotic plaque to uniquely identify at-risk women. Radiation dose-reduction strategies, including the use of ultra-low-dose protocols involving stress-only imaging, solid-state detector SPECT, and PET, should be uniformly applied whenever possible to all women undergoing MPI. Appropriate candidate selection for stress MPI and for post-MPI indications for guideline-directed medical therapy and/or invasive coronary angiography are discussed in this statement. The critical need for randomized and comparative trial data in female patients is also emphasized.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Exercise stress electrocardiography (ECG) alone is underutilized in part due to poor diagnostic accuracy. High-frequency QRS analysis (HF-QRS) is a novel tool to supplement ST evaluation during stress ECG. We compared the diagnostic accuracy and net reclassification of HF-QRS analysis compared with ST evaluation for substantial myocardial ischemia by exercise SPECT myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI). METHODS AND RESULTS:Exercise SPECT MPI was performed in 257 consecutive eligible patients (mean age 59?±?12, 67% male). An ischemic HF-QRS pattern was defined as a???1 µV absolute reduction and a???50% relative reduction of the root-mean-square of the 150-250 Hz band signal in???3 leads. Left ventricular ischemia of???10% on SPECT MPI was the diagnostic standard for substantial myocardial ischemia. HF-QRS analysis demonstrated incremental diagnostic value to ST evaluation plus clinical risk factors (AUC 0.804 vs 0.749, P?<?.0001). A HF-QRS?+?ST -analysis strategy identified 92.3% of subjects with substantial ischemia and no abnormality in 59.9% of the cohort. No cardiac events occurred in patients without substantial ischemia identified by HF-QRS analysis. CONCLUSIONS:In this prospective analysis, exercise stress ECG with HF-QRS analysis identified any and substantial ischemia with high diagnostic accuracy and may allow more than half of referred patients to safely avoid imaging.
Project description:Background The optimal treatment for critical limb ischemia remains controversial owing to conflicting conclusions from previous studies. Methods and Results We obtained administrative claims on Medicare beneficiaries with initial critical limb ischemia diagnosis in 2011. Clinical outcomes and healthcare costs over 4 years were estimated among all patients and by first treatment (endovascular revascularization, surgical revascularization, or major amputation) in unmatched and propensity-score-matched samples. Among 72 199 patients with initial primary critical limb ischemia diagnosis in 2011, survival was 46% (median survival, 3.5 years) and freedom from major amputation was 87%. Among 9942 propensity-score-matched patients (8% rest pain, 26% ulcer, and 66% gangrene), survival was 38% with endovascular revascularization (median survival, 2.7 years), 40% with surgical revascularization (median survival, 2.9 years), and 23% with major amputation (median survival, 1.3 years; P<0.001 for each revascularization procedure versus major amputation). Corresponding major amputation rates were 6.5%, 9.6%, and 10.6%, respectively ( P<0.001 for all pair-wise comparisons). The cost per patient year during follow-up was $49 700, $49 200, and $55 700, respectively ( P<0.001 for each revascularization procedure versus major amputation). Conclusions Long-term survival and cost in critical limb ischemia management is comparable between revascularization techniques, with lower major amputation rates following endovascular revascularization. Primary major amputation results in shorter survival, higher risk of subsequent major amputation, and higher healthcare costs versus revascularization. Results from this observational research may be susceptible to bias because of the influence of unmeasured confounders.