Disrupted tubular parathyroid hormone/parathyroid hormone receptor signaling and damaged tubular cell viability possibly trigger postsurgical kidney injury in patients with advanced hyperparathyroidism.
ABSTRACT: Background:Parathyroidectomy (PTX) that alleviates clinical manifestations of advanced hyperparathyroidism, including hypercalcemia and hypophosphatemia, is considered the best protection from calcium overload in the kidney. However, little is known about the relationship between postsurgical robust parathyroid hormone (PTH) reduction and perisurgical renal tubular cell viability. Post-PTX kidney function is still a crucial issue for primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) and tertiary hyperparathyroidism after kidney transplantation (THPT). Methods:As a clinical study, we examined data from 52 consecutive patients (45 with PHPT, 7 with THPT) who underwent PTX in our center between 2015 and 2017 to identify post-PTX kidney injury. Their clinical data, including urinary liver-type fatty acid-binding protein (L-FABP), a tubular biomarker for acute kidney injury (AKI), were obtained from patient charts. An absolute change in serum creatinine level of 0.3?mg/dL (26.5?µmol/L) on Day 2 after PTX defines AKI. Post-PTX calcium supplement dose adjustment was performed to strictly maintain serum calcium at the lower half of the normal range. To mimic post-PTX-related kidney status, a unique parathyroidectomized rat model was produced as follows: 13-week-old rats underwent thyroparathyroidectomy (TPTX) and/or 5/6 subtotal nephrectomy (NX). Indicated TPTX rats were given continuous infusion of a physiological level of 1-34 PTH using a subcutaneously implanted osmotic minipump. Immunofluorescence analyses were performed by polyclonal antibodies against PTH receptor (PTHR) and a possible key modulator of kidney injury, Klotho. Results:Patients' estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) did not have any clinically relevant change (62.5?±?22.0 versus 59.4?±?21.9?mL/min/1.73 m2, NS), whereas serum calcium (2.7?±?0.18 versus 2.2?±?0.16?mmol/L, P?9.8?µg/g creatinine had 100% accuracy in predicting post-PTX-related AKI. Rat kidney PTHR expression was lower in TPTX. PTH infusion (+PTH) restored tubular PTHR expression in rats that underwent TPTX. Rats with TPTX, +PTH and 5/6 NX had decreased PTHR expression compared with those without 5/6 NX. 5/6 NX partially cancelled tubular PTHR upregulation driven by +PTH. Tubular Klotho was modestly expressed in normal rat kidneys, whereas enhanced patchy tubular expression was identified in 5/6 NX rat kidneys. This Klotho and expression and localization pattern was absolutely canceled in TPTX, suggesting that PTH indirectly modulated the Klotho expression pattern. TPTX +PTH recovered tubular Klotho expression and even triggered diffusely abundant Klotho expression. 5/6 NX decreased viable tubular cells and eventually downregulated tubular Klotho expression and localization. Conclusions:Preexisting tubular damage is a potential risk factor for AKI after PTX although, overall patients with hyperparathyroidism are expected to keep favorable kidney function after PTX. Patients with elevated tubular cell biomarker levels may suffer post-PTX kidney impairment even though calcium supplement is meticulously adjusted after PTX. Our unique experimental rat model suggests that blunted tubular PTH/PTHR signaling may damage tubular cell viability and deteriorate kidney function through a Klotho-linked pathway.
PROVIDER: S-EPMC6768296 | BioStudies |