High-Molecular-Weight Polyphenol-Rich Fraction of Black Tea Does Not Prevent Atrophy by Unloading, But Promotes Soleus Muscle Mass Recovery from Atrophy in Mice.
ABSTRACT: Previously, we reported that polyphenol-rich fraction (named E80) promotes skeletal muscle hypertrophy induced by functional overload in mice. This study indicates that E80 has potential for affecting skeletal muscle mass. Then, we evaluate the effect of E80 on atrophic and recovery conditions of skeletal muscle in mice. Hindlimb suspension (unloading) and relanding (reloading) are used extensively to observe disuse muscle atrophy and subsequent muscle mass recovery from atrophy. Eight-week old C57BL/6 mice were fed either a normal diet or a diet containing 0.5% E80 for two weeks under conditions of hindlimb suspension and a subsequent 5 or 10 days of reloading. We found that E80 administration did not prevent atrophy during hindlimb suspension, but promoted recovery of slow-twitch (soleus) muscle mass from atrophy induced by hindlimb suspension. After five days of reloading, we discovered that phosphorylation of the Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway proteins, such as Akt and P70 ribosomal protein S6 kinase (S6K), was activated in the muscle. Therefore, E80 administration accelerated mTOR signal and increased protein synthesis in the reloaded soleus muscle.
Project description:Aging is associated with poor skeletal muscle regenerative ability following extended periods of hospitalization and other forms of muscular disuse. Resveratrol (3,5,4'-trihydroxystilbene) is a natural phytoalexin which has been shown in skeletal muscle to improve oxidative stress levels in muscles of aged rats. As muscle disuse and reloading after disuse increases oxidative stress, we hypothesized that resveratrol supplementation would improve muscle regeneration after disuse. A total of thirty-six male Fisher 344 × Brown Norway rats (32 mo.) were treated with either a water vehicle or resveratrol via oral gavage. The animals received hindlimb suspension for 14 days. Thereafter, they were either sacrificed or allowed an additional 14 day period of cage ambulation during reloading. A total of six rats from the vehicle and the resveratrol treated groups were used for the hindlimb suspension and recovery protocols. Furthermore, two groups of 6 vehicle treated animals maintained normal ambulation throughout the experiment, and were used as control animals for the hindlimb suspension and reloading groups. The data show that resveratrol supplementation was unable to attenuate the decreases in plantaris muscle wet weight during hindlimb suspension but it improved muscle mass during reloading after hindlimb suspension. Although resveratrol did not prevent fiber atrophy during the period of disuse, it increased the fiber cross sectional area of type IIA and IIB fibers in response to reloading after hindlimb suspension. There was a modest enhancement of myogenic precursor cell proliferation in resveratrol-treated muscles after reloading, but this failed to reach statistical significance. The resveratrol-associated improvement in type II fiber size and muscle mass recovery after disuse may have been due to decreases in the abundance of pro-apoptotic proteins Bax, cleaved caspase 3 and cleaved caspase 9 in reloaded muscles. Resveratrol appears to have modest therapeutic benefits for improving muscle mass after disuse in aging.
Project description:Examination of effect of mechanical loading induced by hindlimb suspension, and subsequent reloading, in soleus muscle in 14 day old female pathogen–free Wistar rats. Keywords = skeletal muscle Keywords = atrophy
Project description:Skeletal muscle regrowth after atrophy is impaired in the aged and in this study we hypothesized that this can be explained by a blunted response of signaling pathways and cellular processes during reloading after hind limb suspension in muscles from old rats. Male Brown Norway Fisher 344 rats at 6 (young) and 32 (old) months of age were subjected to normal ambulatory conditions (amb), hind limb suspension for 14 days (HS), and HS followed by reloading through normal ambulation for 14 days (RE); soleus muscles were used for analysis of intracellular signaling pathways and cellular processes. Soleus muscle regrowth was blunted in old compared to young rats which coincided with a recovery of serum IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 levels in young but not old. However, the response to reloading for p-Akt, p-p70s6k and p-GSK3? protein abundance was similar between muscles from young and old rats, even though main effects for age indicate an increase in activation of this protein synthesis pathway in the aged. Similarly, MAFbx mRNA levels in soleus muscle from old rats recovered to the same extent as in the young, while Murf-1 was unchanged. mRNA abundance of autophagy markers Atg5 and Atg7 showed an identical response in muscle from old compared to young rats, but beclin did not. Autophagic flux was not changed at either age at the measured time point. Apoptosis was elevated in soleus muscle from old rats particularly with HS, but recovered in HSRE and these changes were not associated with differences in caspase-3, -8 or -9 activity in any group. Protein abundance of apoptosis repressor with caspase-recruitment domain (ARC), cytosolic EndoG, as well as cytosolic and nuclear apoptosis inducing factor (AIF) were lower in muscle from old rats, and there was no age-related difference in the response to atrophy or regrowth. Soleus muscles from old rats had a higher number of ED2 positive macrophages in all groups and these decreased with HS, but recovered in HSRE in the old, while no changes were observed in the young. Pro-inflammatory cytokines in serum did not show a differential response with age to different loading conditions. Results indicate that at the measured time point the impaired skeletal muscle regrowth after atrophy in aged animals is not associated with a general lack of responsiveness to changes in loading conditions.
Project description:?-Hydroxy-?-methylbutyrate (HMB) is a leucine metabolite shown to reduce protein catabolism in disease states and promote skeletal muscle hypertrophy in response to loading exercise. In this study, we evaluated the efficacy of HMB to reduce muscle wasting and promote muscle recovery following disuse in aged animals. Fisher 344×Brown Norway rats, 34 mo of age, were randomly assigned to receive either Ca-HMB (340 mg/kg body wt) or the water vehicle by gavage (n = 32/group). The animals received either 14 days of hindlimb suspension (HS, n = 8/diet group) or 14 days of unloading followed by 14 days of reloading (R; n = 8/diet group). Nonsuspended control animals were compared with suspended animals after 14 days of HS (n = 8) or after R (n = 8). HMB treatment prevented the decline in maximal in vivo isometric force output after 2 wk of recovery from hindlimb unloading. The HMB-treated animals had significantly greater plantaris and soleus fiber cross-sectional area compared with the vehicle-treated animals. HMB decreased the amount of TUNEL-positive nuclei in reloaded plantaris muscles (5.1% vs. 1.6%, P < 0.05) and soleus muscles (3.9% vs. 1.8%, P < 0.05). Although HMB did not significantly alter Bcl-2 protein abundance compared with vehicle treatment, HMB decreased Bax protein abundance following R, by 40% and 14% (P < 0.05) in plantaris and soleus muscles, respectively. Cleaved caspase-3 was reduced by 12% and 9% (P < 0.05) in HMB-treated reloaded plantaris and soleus muscles, compared with vehicle-treated animals. HMB reduced cleaved caspase-9 by 14% and 30% (P < 0.05) in reloaded plantaris and soleus muscles, respectively, compared with vehicle-treated animals. Although, HMB was unable to prevent unloading-induced atrophy, it attenuated the decrease in fiber area in fast and slow muscles after HS and R. HMB's ability to protect against muscle loss may be due in part to putative inhibition of myonuclear apoptosis via regulation of mitochondrial-associated caspase signaling.
Project description:There is a growing recognition that noncoding RNAs (ncRNA) play an important role in the regulation of gene expression. A class of small (19-22 nt) ncRNAs, known as microRNAs (miRs), have received a great deal of attention lately because of their ability to repress gene expression through a unique posttranscriptional 3'-untranslated region (UTR) mechanism. The objectives of the current study were to identify miRs expressed in the rat soleus muscle and determine if their expression was changed in response to hindlimb suspension. Comprehensive profiling revealed 151 miRs were expressed in the soleus muscle and expression of 18 miRs were significantly (P < 0.01) changed after 2 and/or 7 days of hindlimb suspension. The significant decrease (16%) in expression of muscle-specific miR-499 in response to hindlimb suspension was confirmed by RT-PCR and suggested activation of the recently proposed miR encoded by myosin gene (MyomiR) network during atrophy. Further analysis of soleus muscle subjected to hindlimb suspension for 28 days provided evidence consistent with MyomiR network repression of beta-myosin heavy chain gene (beta-MHC) expression. The significant downregulation of network components miR-499 and miR-208b by 40 and 60%, respectively, was associated with increased expression of Sox6 (2.2-fold) and Purbeta (23%), predicted target genes of miR-499 and known repressors of beta-MHC expression. A Sox6 3'-UTR reporter gene confirmed Sox6 is a target gene of miR-499. These results further expand the role of miRs in adult skeletal muscle and are consistent with a model in which the MyomiR network regulates slow myosin expression during muscle atrophy.
Project description:The consequences of two-week hindlimb suspension (HS) on skeletal muscle atrophy were investigated in balanced diet-fed Fat-1 transgenic and C57BL/6 wild-type mice. Body composition and gastrocnemius fatty acid composition were measured. Skeletal muscle force, cross-sectional area (CSA), and signaling pathways associated with protein synthesis (protein kinase B, Akt; ribosomal protein S6, S6, eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E-binding protein 1, 4EBP1; glycogen synthase kinase3-beta, GSK3-beta; and extracellular-signal-regulated kinases 1/2, ERK 1/2) and protein degradation (atrophy gene-1/muscle atrophy F-box, atrogin-1/MAFbx and muscle RING finger 1, MuRF1) were evaluated in the soleus muscle. HS decreased soleus muscle wet and dry weights (by 43% and 26%, respectively), muscle isotonic and tetanic force (by 29% and 18%, respectively), CSA of the soleus muscle (by 36%), and soleus muscle fibers (by 45%). Fat-1 transgenic mice had a decrease in the ?-6/?-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) ratio as compared with C57BL/6 wild-type mice (56%, <i>p <</i> 0.001). Fat-1 mice had lower soleus muscle dry mass loss (by 10%) and preserved absolute isotonic force (by 17%) and CSA of the soleus muscle (by 28%) after HS as compared with C57BL/6 wild-type mice. p-GSK3B/GSK3B ratio was increased (by 70%) and MuRF-1 content decreased (by 50%) in the soleus muscle of Fat-1 mice after HS. Balanced diet-fed Fat-1 mice are able to preserve in part the soleus muscle mass, absolute isotonic force and CSA of the soleus muscle in a disuse condition.
Project description:Analysis of effect of hindlimb suspension and reloading on C57Bl/6 mouse soleus muscle. Experimental groups examined: -Control mice, 14 days -Hindlimb suspension for 7 days -Hindlimb suspension for 7 days, and subsequent reloading for 1 day -Hindlimb suspension for 7 days, and subsequent reloading for 7 days
Project description:Mutations in CAPN3 cause autosomal recessive limb girdle muscular dystrophy 2A. Calpain 3 (CAPN3) is a calcium dependent protease residing in the myofibrillar, cytosolic and triad fractions of skeletal muscle. At the triad, it colocalizes with calcium calmodulin kinase II? (CaMKII?). CAPN3 knock out mice (C3KO) show reduced triad integrity and blunted CaMKII? signaling, which correlates with impaired transcriptional activation of myofibrillar and oxidative metabolism genes in response to running exercise. These data suggest a role for CAPN3 and CaMKII? in gene regulation that takes place during adaptation to endurance exercise. To assess whether CAPN3- CaMKII? signaling influences skeletal muscle remodeling in other contexts, we subjected C3KO and wild type mice to hindlimb unloading and reloading and assessed CaMKII? signaling and gene expression by RNA-sequencing. After induced atrophy followed by 4 days of reloading, both CaMKII? activation and expression of inflammatory and cellular stress genes were increased. C3KO muscles failed to activate CaMKII? signaling, did not activate the same pattern of gene expression and demonstrated impaired growth at 4 days of reloading. Moreover, C3KO muscles failed to activate inducible HSP70, which was previously shown to be indispensible for the inflammatory response needed to promote muscle recovery. Likewise, C3KO showed diminished immune cell infiltration and decreased expression of pro-myogenic genes. These data support a role for CaMKII? signaling in induction of HSP70 and promotion of the inflammatory response during muscle growth and remodeling that occurs after atrophy, suggesting that CaMKII? regulates remodeling in multiple contexts: endurance exercise and growth after atrophy.
Project description:Microgravity exposure is associated with loss of muscle mass and strength. The E3 ubiquitin ligase MuRF1 plays an integral role in degrading the contractile apparatus of skeletal muscle; MuRF1 null (KO) mice have shown protection in ground-based models of muscle atrophy. In contrast, MuRF1 KO mice subjected to 21 days of microgravity on the International Space Station (ISS) were not protected from muscle atrophy. In a time course experiment microgravity-induced muscle loss on the ISS showed MuRF1 gene expression was not upregulated. A comparison of the soleus transcriptome profiles between spaceflight and a publicly available data set for hindlimb suspension, a claimed surrogate model of microgravity, showed only marginal commonalities between the models. These findings demonstrate spaceflight induced atrophy is unique, and that understanding of effects of space requires study situated beyond the Earth's mesosphere.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Successful strategies to halt or reverse sarcopenia require a basic understanding of the factors that cause muscle loss with age. Acute periods of muscle loss in older individuals have an incomplete recovery of muscle mass and strength, thus accelerating sarcopenic progression. The purpose of the current study was to further understand the mechanisms underlying the failure of old animals to completely recover muscle mass and function after a period of hindlimb unloading.<h4>Methods</h4>Hindlimb unloading was used to induce muscle atrophy in Fischer 344-Brown Norway (F344BN F1) rats at 24, 28, and 30 months of age. Rats were hindlimb unloaded for 14 days and then reloaded at 24 months (Reloaded 24), 28 months (Reloaded 28), and 24 and 28 months (Reloaded 24/28) of age. Isometric torque was determined at 24 months of age (24 months), at 28 months of age (28 months), immediately after 14 days of reloading, and at 30 months of age (30 months). During control or reloaded conditions, rats were labelled with deuterium oxide (D<sub>2</sub> O) to determine rates of muscle protein synthesis and RNA synthesis.<h4>Results</h4>After 14 days of reloading, in vivo isometric torque returned to baseline in Reloaded 24, but not Reloaded 28 and Reloaded 24/28. Despite the failure of Reloaded 28 and Reloaded 24/28 to regain peak force, all groups were equally depressed in peak force generation at 30 months. Increased age did not decrease muscle protein synthesis rates, and in fact, increased resting rates of protein synthesis were measured in the myofibrillar fraction (Fractional synthesis rate (FSR): %/day) of the plantaris (24 months: 2.53 ± 0.17; 30 months: 3.29 ± 0.17), and in the myofibrillar (24 months: 2.29 ± 0.07; 30 months: 3.34 ± 0.11), collagen (24 months: 1.11 ± 0.07; 30 months: 1.55 ± 0.14), and mitochondrial (24 months: 2.38 ± 0.16; 30 months: 3.20 ± 0.10) fractions of the tibialis anterior (TA). All muscles increased myofibrillar protein synthesis (%/day) in Reloaded 24 (soleus: 3.36 ± 0.11, 5.23 ± 0.19; plantaris: 2.53 ± 0.17, 3.66 ± 0.07; TA: 2.29 ± 0.14, 3.15 ± 0.12); however, in Reloaded 28, only the soleus had myofibrillar protein synthesis rates (%/day) >28 months (28 months: 3.80 ± 0.10; Reloaded 28: 4.86 ± 0.19). Across the muscles, rates of protein synthesis were correlated with RNA synthesis (all muscles combined, R<sup>2</sup> = 0.807, P < 0.0001).<h4>Conclusions</h4>These data add to the growing body of literature that indicate that changes with age, including following disuse atrophy, differ by muscle. In addition, our findings lead to additional questions of the underlying mechanisms by which some muscles are maintained with age while others are not.