Jasmonic Acid Methyl Ester Induces Xylogenesis and Modulates Auxin-Induced Xylary Cell Identity with NO Involvement.
ABSTRACT: In Arabidopsis basal hypocotyls of dark-grown seedlings, xylary cells may form from the pericycle as an alternative to adventitious roots. Several hormones may induce xylogenesis, as Jasmonic acid (JA), as well as indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) auxins, which also affect xylary identity. Studies with the ethylene (ET)-perception mutant ein3eil1 and the ET-precursor 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC), also demonstrate ET involvement in IBA-induced ectopic metaxylem. Moreover, nitric oxide (NO), produced after IBA/IAA-treatments, may affect JA signalling and interact positively/negatively with ET. To date, NO-involvement in ET/JA-mediated xylogenesis has never been investigated. To study this, and unravel JA-effects on xylary identity, xylogenesis was investigated in hypocotyls of seedlings treated with JA methyl-ester (JAMe) with/without ACC, IBA, IAA. Wild-type (wt) and ein3eil1 responses to hormonal treatments were compared, and the NO signal was quantified and its role evaluated by using NO-donors/scavengers. Ectopic-protoxylem increased in the wt only after treatment with JAMe(10 ?M), whereas in ein3eil1 with any JAMe concentration. NO was detected in cells leading to either xylogenesis or adventitious rooting, and increased after treatment with JAMe(10 ?M) combined or not with IBA(10 ?M). Xylary identity changed when JAMe was applied with each auxin. Altogether, the results show that xylogenesis is induced by JA and NO positively regulates this process. In addition, NO also negatively interacts with ET-signalling and modulates auxin-induced xylary identity.
Project description:Adventitious roots (ARs) are often necessary for plant survival, and essential for successful micropropagation. In Arabidopsis thaliana dark-grown seedlings AR-formation occurs from the hypocotyl and is enhanced by application of indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) combined with kinetin (Kin). The same IBA?+?Kin-treatment induces AR-formation in thin cell layers (TCLs). Auxin is the main inducer of AR-formation and xylogenesis in numerous species and experimental systems. Xylogenesis is competitive to AR-formation in Arabidopsis hypocotyls and TCLs. Jasmonates (JAs) negatively affect AR-formation in de-etiolated Arabidopsis seedlings, but positively affect both AR-formation and xylogenesis in tobacco dark-grown IBA?+?Kin TCLs. In Arabidopsis the interplay between JAs and auxin in AR-formation vs xylogenesis needs investigation. In de-etiolated Arabidopsis seedlings, the Auxin Response Factors ARF6 and ARF8 positively regulate AR-formation and ARF17 negatively affects the process, but their role in xylogenesis is unknown. The cross-talk between auxin and ethylene (ET) is also important for AR-formation and xylogenesis, occurring through EIN3/EIL1 signalling pathway. EIN3/EIL1 is the direct link for JA and ET-signalling. The research investigated JA role on AR-formation and xylogenesis in Arabidopsis dark-grown seedlings and TCLs, and the relationship with ET and auxin. The JA-donor methyl-jasmonate (MeJA), and/or the ET precursor 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid were applied, and the response of mutants in JA-synthesis and -signalling, and ET-signalling investigated. Endogenous levels of auxin, JA and JA-related compounds, and ARF6, ARF8 and ARF17 expression were monitored.MeJA, at 0.01 ?M, enhances AR-formation, when combined with IBA?+?Kin, and the response of the early-JA-biosynthesis mutant dde2-2 and the JA-signalling mutant coi1-16 confirmed this result. JA levels early change during TCL-culture, and JA/JA-Ile is immunolocalized in AR-tips and xylogenic cells. The high AR-response of the late JA-biosynthesis mutant opr3 suggests a positive action also of 12-oxophytodienoic acid on AR-formation. The crosstalk between JA and ET-signalling by EIN3/EIL1 is critical for AR-formation, and involves a competitive modulation of xylogenesis. Xylogenesis is enhanced by a MeJA concentration repressing AR-formation, and is positively related to ARF17 expression.The JA concentration-dependent role on AR-formation and xylogenesis, and the interaction with ET opens the way to applications in the micropropagation of recalcitrant species.
Project description:Adventitious roots (ARs) are post-embryonic roots essential for plant survival and propagation. Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) is the auxin that controls AR formation; however, its precursor indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) is known to enhance it. Ethylene affects many auxin-dependent processes by affecting IAA synthesis, transport and/or signaling, but its role in AR formation has not been elucidated. This research investigated the role of ethylene in AR formation in dark-grown Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings, and its interaction with IAA/IBA. A number of mutants/transgenic lines were exposed to various treatments, and mRNA in situ hybridizations were carried out and hormones were quantified In the wild-type, the ethylene precursor 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) at 0.1 ?M enhanced AR formation when combined with IBA (10 ?M), but reduced it when applied alone; this effect did not occur in the ein3eil1 ethylene-insensitive mutant. ACC inhibited the expression of the IAA-biosynthetic genes WEI2, WEI7, and YUC6, but enhanced IBA-to-IAA conversion, as shown by the response of the ech2ibr10 mutant and an increase in the endogenous levels of IAA. The ethylene effect was independent of auxin-signaling by TIR1-AFB2 and IBA-efflux by ABCG carriers, but it was dependent on IAA-influx by AUX1/LAX3.Taken together, the results demonstrate that a crosstalk involving ethylene signaling, IAA-influx, and IBA-to-IAA conversion exists between ethylene and IAA in the control of AR formation.
Project description:Various phytohormones control plant growth and development and mediate biotic and abiotic stress responses. Gretchen Hagen 3 (GH3) acyl acid amido synthetases are plant enzymes that typically conjugate amino acids to indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) or jasmonic acid (JA) to inactivate or activate these phytohormones, respectively; however, the physiological and biological roles of many of these enzymes remain unclear. Using a biochemical approach, we found that the Arabidopsis thaliana GH3.15 (AtGH3.15) preferentially uses indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) and glutamine as substrates. The X-ray crystal structure of the AtGH3.15·AMP complex, modeling of IBA in the active site, and biochemical analysis of site-directed mutants provide insight on active site features that lead to AtGH3.15's preference for IBA. Assay-based in planta analysis of AtGH3.15-overexpressing lines indicated that their root elongation and lateral root density were resistant to IBA treatment but not to treatment with either IAA or JA. These findings suggest that AtGH3.15 may play a role in auxin homeostasis by modulating the levels of IBA for peroxisomal conversion to IAA. Analysis of AtGH3.15 promoter-driven yellow fluorescent protein reporter lines revealed that AtGH3.15 is expressed at significant levels in seedlings, roots, and parts of the siliques. We conclude that AtGH3.15 is unique in the GH3 protein family for its role in modifying IBA in auxin homeostasis and that it is the first GH3 protein shown to primarily modify a plant growth regulator other than IAA and JA.
Project description:An efficient protocol providing a dual regeneration pathway via direct shoot organogenesis and somatic embryogenesis for an endangered species, Metabriggsia ovalifolia W. T. Wang, was established from leaf explants. When applied at 2.5 μM, the cytokinins 6-benzyladenine (BA) or thidiazuron (TDZ) and the auxins indole-3-butyric acid (IBA), α-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) and indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) could induce shoots when on basal Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium. BA and TDZ could induce more adventitious shoots (19.1 and 31.2/explant, respectively) than NAA (4.6/explant), IBA (5.7/explant) or IAA (6.4/explant). BA and TDZ at 5-10 μM could induce both shoots and somatic embryos. A higher concentration of TDZ (25 μM) induced only somatic embryos (39.8/explant). The same concentration of BA induced both adventitious shoots (23.6/explant) and somatic embryos (9.7/explant). Thus, somatic embryogenesis in this plant needs a high cytokinin concentration (BA; TDZ), as evidenced by histology. Somatic embryos germinated easily when left on the same media, but formed adventitious roots in two weeks on MS supplemented with 0.5 μM NAA, 0.5 μM IBA and 0.1% activated charcoal. Over 93% of plantlets survived following acclimatization and transfer to a mixture of sand and vermiculite (1:1, v/v) in trays.
Project description:To gain insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying hormonal regulation in adventitious roots and during their emergence under waterlogged conditions in wheat, the present study investigated transcriptional regulation of genes related to hormone metabolism and transport in the root and stem node tissues. Waterlogging-induced inhibition of axile root elongation and lateral root formation, and promotion of surface adventitious and axile root emergence and aerenchyma formation are associated with enhanced expression levels of ethylene biosynthesis genes, ACS7 and ACO2, in both tissues. Inhibition of axile root elongation is also related to increased root indole acetic acid (IAA) and jasmonate (JA) levels that are associated with up-regulation of specific IAA biosynthesis/transport (TDC, YUC1, and PIN9) and JA metabolism (LOX8, AOS1, AOC1, and JAR1) genes, and transcriptional alteration of gibberellin (GA) metabolism genes (GA3ox2 and GA2ox8). Adventitious root emergence from waterlogged stem nodes is associated with increased levels of IAA and GA but decreased levels of cytokinin and abscisic acid (ABA), which are regulated through the expression of specific IAA biosynthesis/transport (TDC, YUC1, and PIN9), cytokinin metabolism (IPT5-2, LOG1, CKX5, and ZOG2), ABA biosynthesis (NCED1 and NCED2), and GA metabolism (GA3ox2 and GA2ox8) genes. These results enhance our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying the adaptive response of wheat to waterlogging.
Project description:Propagation of some Olea europaea L. cultivars is strongly limited due to recalcitrant behavior in adventitious root formation by semi-hardwood cuttings. One example is the cultivar "Galega vulgar". The formation of adventitious roots is considered a morphological response to stress. Alternative oxidase (AOX) is the terminal oxidase of the alternative pathway of the plant mitochondrial electron transport chain. This enzyme is well known to be induced in response to several biotic and abiotic stress situations. This work aimed to characterize the alternative oxidase 1 (AOX1)-subfamily in olive and to analyze the expression of transcripts during the indole-3-butyric acid (IBA)-induced in vitro adventitious rooting (AR) process. OeAOX1a (acc. no. MF410318) and OeAOX1d (acc. no. MF410319) were identified, as well as different transcript variants for both genes which resulted from alternative polyadenylation events. A correlation between transcript accumulation of both OeAOX1a and OeAOX1d transcripts and the three distinct phases (induction, initiation, and expression) of the AR process in olive was observed. Olive AOX1 genes seem to be associated with the induction and development of adventitious roots in IBA-treated explants. A better understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying the stimulus needed for the induction of adventitious roots may help to develop more targeted and effective rooting induction protocols in order to improve the rooting ability of difficult-to-root cultivars.
Project description:Oryza sativa L. is a worldwide food-crop frequently growing in cadmium (Cd)/arsenic (As) polluted soils, with its root-system as the first target of the pollutants. Root-system development involves the establishment of optimal indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) levels, also requiring the conversion of the IAA natural precursor indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) into IAA, causing nitric oxide (NO) formation. Nitric oxide is a stress-signaling molecule. In rice, a negative interaction of Cd or As with endogenous auxin has been demonstrated, as some NO protective effects. However, a synergism between the natural auxins (IAA and/or IBA) and NO was not yet determined and might be important for ameliorating rice metal(oid)-tolerance. With this aim, the stress caused by Cd/As toxicity in the root cells and the possible recovery by either NO or auxins (IAA/IBA) were evaluated after Cd or As (arsenate) exposure, combined or not with the NO-donor compound sodium-nitroprusside (SNP). Root fresh weight, membrane electrolyte leakage, and H2O2 production were also measured. Moreover, endogenous IAA/IBA contents, transcription-levels of OsYUCCA1 and OsASA2 IAA-biosynthetic-genes, and expression of the IAA-influx-carrier OsAUX1 and the IAA-responsive DR5::GUS construct were analyzed, and NO-epifluorescence levels were measured. Results showed that membrane injury by enhanced electrolyte leakage occurred under both pollutants and was reduced by the treatment with SNP only in Cd-presence. By contrast, no membrane injury was caused by either exogenous NO or IAA or IBA. Cd- and As-toxicity also resulted into a decreased root fresh weight, mitigated by the combination of each pollutant with either IAA or IBA. Cd and As decreased the endogenous NO-content, increased H2O2 formation, and altered auxin biosynthesis, levels and distribution in both adventitious (ARs) and mainly lateral roots (LRs). The SNP-formed NO counteracted the pollutants' effects on auxin distribution/levels, reduced H2O2 formation in Cd-presence, and enhanced AUX1-expression, mainly in As-presence. Each exogenous auxin, but mainly IBA, combined with Cd or As at 10 µM, mitigated the pollutants' effects by increasing LR-production and by increasing NO-content in the case of Cd. Altogether, results demonstrate that NO and auxin(s) work together in the rice root system to counteract the specific toxic-effects of each pollutant.
Project description:Gibberellic acid (GA3), indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), salicylic acid (SA), abscidic acid (ABA), jasmonic acid (JA) 1-amino cyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) and aminoethoxyvinylglycine (AVG) are popular growth regulators of plants. However, the effects of their exogenous addition on the biomass production of aquatic plants, including Lemnoideae plants, "duckweeds," are largely unknown. In this study, the growth of Lemna minor was tested for 10 d in Hoagland medium containing each compound at different concentrations of 0-50 ?M. GA3, IAA, and SA were found to have no apparent positive effect on the growth at all concentrations tested. Conversely, ACC and JA moderately and AVG and ABA severely inhibited the growth of L. minor. Among the tested compounds, ascorbic acid had an apparent growth-promoting effect.
Project description:Adventitious root (AR) formation is indispensable for vegetative asexual propagation. Indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) functioned indirectly as precursor of IAA in regulating AR formation. Ethylene affects auxin synthesis, transport, and/or signaling processes. However, the interactions between auxin and ethylene that control AR formation in apple have not been elucidated. In this study, we investigated the effects of IBA and its interaction with ethylene on AR development in apple. The results revealed that IBA stimulated the formation of root primordia, increased the number of ARs, and upregulated expression of genes (MdWOX11, MdLBD16, and MdLBD29) involved in AR formation. Comparison of different periods of IBA application indicated that IBA was necessary for root primordium formation, while long time IBA treatment obviously inhibited root elongation. RNA-seq analysis revealed that many plant hormone metabolism and signal transduction related genes were differentially expressed. IBA stimulated the production of ethylene during AR formation. Auxin inhibiting ARs elongation depended on ethylene. Together, our results suggest that the inhibitory role of auxin on AR elongation in apples is partially mediated by stimulated ethylene production.
Project description:A 17-kilobase (kb) region of the zucchini (Cucurbita pepo) genome has been sequenced and contains two genes, CP-ACC1A and CP-ACC1B, encoding 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate synthase (ACC synthase; S-adenosyl-L-methionine methylthioadenosine-lyase, EC 18.104.22.168). The genes are transcribed convergently and are separated by a 5.7-kb intergenic region. Their coding regions are interrupted by four introns located in identical positions. While the DNA identity in their coding regions is 97%, their 5' and 3' flanking regions are highly divergent. Transcription of CP-ACCIA is rapidly induced by wounding in fruit and etiolated hypocotyls and by indoleacetic acid (IAA)/benzyladenine/LiCl only in fruit tissue. Conditions that induce CP-ACC1B expression have not been found. Protein synthesis inhibition derepresses the expression of CP-ACC1A and other unidentified ACC synthase genes, suggesting that they may be under negative control. The amino acid sequences deduced from the nucleotide sequences of the genes are 493 and 494 residues long with 95% identity. The most notable feature of the amino acid sequence is the presence of 11 of the 12 invariant amino acid residues involved in the binding of the substrate and pyridoxal-5'-phosphate in various aminotransferases. We conclude that ACC synthase is encoded by a multigene family of which certain members are differentially induced by auxin in a tissue-specific manner. Furthermore, ACC synthase, a pyridoxal-containing enzyme, may have an evolutionary relationship with the superfamily of aminotransferases.