Polyphenol-Rich Extracts Obtained from Winemaking Waste Streams as Natural Ingredients with Cosmeceutical Potential.
ABSTRACT: Phenolics present in grapes have been explored as cosmeceutical principles, due to their antioxidant activity and ability to inhibit enzymes relevant for skin ageing. The winemaking process generates large amounts of waste, and the recovery of bioactive compounds from residues and their further incorporation in cosmetics represents a promising market opportunity for wine producers and may contribute to a sustainable development of the sector. The extracts obtained from grape marc and wine lees, using solid-liquid (SL) extraction with and without microwave (MW) pretreatment of the raw material, were characterized in terms of antioxidant activity through chemical (ORAC/HOSC/HORAC) and cell-based (keratinocytes-HaCaT; fibroblasts-HFF) assays. Furthermore, their inhibitory capacity towards specific enzymes involved in skin ageing (elastase; MMP-1; tyrosinase) was evaluated. The total phenolic and anthocyanin contents were determined by colorimetric assays, and HPLC-DAD-MS/MS was performed to identify the main compounds. The MW pretreatment prior to conventional SL extraction led to overall better outcomes. The red wine lees extracts presented the highest phenolic content (3 to 6-fold higher than grape marc extracts) and exhibited the highest antioxidant capacity, being also the most effective inhibitors of elastase, MMP-1 and tyrosinase. The results support that winemaking waste streams are valuable sources of natural ingredients with the potential for cosmeceutical applications.
Project description:Phenolic compounds present in common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) have been reported to possess antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory and ultraviolet radiation (UVR) protective properties. UVR from sunlight, which consists of UV-B and UV-A radiations, induces reactive oxygen species (ROS) and free radical formation, consequently activating proteinases and enzymes such as elastase and tyrosinase, leading to premature skin aging. The objective of this work was to extract, characterize and evaluate the antioxidant and antiaging potential of polyphenols from a black bean endemic variety. The polyphenolic extract was obtained from black beans by supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) using CO2 with a mixture of water–ethanol as a cosolvent and conventional leaching with a mixture of water–ethanol as solvent. The polyphenolic extracts were purified and characterized, and antioxidant potential, tyrosinase and elastase inhibitory potentials were measured. The extract obtained using the SFE method using CO2 and H2O–Ethanol (50:50 v/v) as a cosolvent showed the highest total phenolic compounds yield, with 66.60 ± 7.41 mg GAE/g coat (p > 0.05) and 7.30 ± 0.64 mg C3GE/g coat (p < 0.05) of anthocyanins compared to conventional leaching. Nineteen tentative phenolic compounds were identified in leaching crude extract using ESI-QTOF. Quercetin-3-D-galactoside was identified in crude and purified extracts. The purified SFC extract showed IC50 0.05 ± 0.002 and IC50 0.21 ± 0.008 mg/mL for DPPH and ABTS, respectively. The lowest IC50 value of tyrosinase inhibition was 0.143 ± 0.02 mg/mL and 0.005 ± 0.003 mg/mL of elastase inhibition for leaching purified extract. Phenolic compounds presented theoretical free energy values ranging from −5.3 to −7.8 kcal/mol for tyrosinase and −2.5 to −6.8 kcal/mol for elastase in molecular docking (in silico) studies. The results suggest that the purified extracts obtained by SFE or conventional leaching extraction could act as antioxidant and antiaging ingredients for cosmeceutical applications.
Project description:The impact of oxygen exposure during winemaking on metal ion concentrations in wine were investigated throughout the winemaking process in a Chardonnay wine. The concentrations of Al, Ca, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, Sn, and Zn were determined using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. Oxygen exposure significantly impacted 13 metal ions at different phases of winemaking. However, only the concentrations of Cr, Cu, and Fe were impacted by early oxygen exposure during pressing, with lower Cr and Cu concentrations in wines that were aerobically pressed and lower concentrations of Fe in wines that were inertly pressed. The sequestering of Al, Cu, Ni, and Zn by wine lees was significantly affected by oxygen treatment, with lees collected from wines that were treated oxidatively sequestering significantly greater amounts of Cu and Zn and removing these metals from the wine supernatant. The metal ion that was most affected by oxygen exposure during pressing and handling was Cu, with significantly lower Cu measured in wines that were produced under oxidative conditions. It is known that elevated Cu concentrations have negative implications for wine aroma and flavour. This study demonstrated that oxygen management during winemaking significantly impacts metal ion concentrations in lees and wine, which may decrease the risk of developing taints and faults.
Project description:In winemaking, clarification and stabilization are the processes by which insoluble matter suspended in the wine (called lees) is removed before bottling. The light lees represent 2-4% of the total wine volume. Under certain circumstances, resuspension of lees may occur. The resuspension of lees has been attributed to temperature variations between the wine stored in tanks and the environment of the cellar. From in situ, laboratory-scale studies involving laser tomography techniques, it was shown that low (positive or negative) thermal gradients between a wine tank containing light lees and its external environment induce mass transfer by natural convection. To extrapolate these findings to full-scale tanks, an Eulerian-Eulerian multiphase CFD model was applied to simulate the two-phase flow behavior as a function of temperature variations on a 24-h cycle. Numerical temperature and time-dependent flow patterns of both wine and lees confirm that low thermal gradients induce sufficient fluid energy to resuspend the lees, thus showing that the laboratory results can be extrapolated to full-scale tanks.
Project description:This study presents the results of conventional aqueous (CE) and non-conventional ultrasound-assisted (UAE) extractions of polyphenolic compounds from lees extracts of red wine varieties (Merlot and Vranac). The effect of ultrasound extraction time (t, s), and amplitude (A,%) from a 400 W ultrasound processor with different ultrasonic probes diameters (Ds, mm) on the amount and profile of polyphenolic compounds in the obtained extracts was investigated and compared to CE. The optimal conditions resulting in maximum extraction of phenolic compounds were: Probe diameter of 22 mm, amplitude 90% and extraction time for Vranac wine lees 1500 s and for Merlot wine lees extraction time of 1361 s. UAE proved to be significantly more effective in enhancing the extraction capacity of trans-resveratrol glucoside (30.57% to 300%), trans-resveratrol (36.36% to 45.75%), quercetin (39.94% to 43.83%), kaempferol (65.13% to 72.73%), petunidin-3-glucoside (41.53% to 64.95%), malvidin-3-glucoside (47.63% to 89.17%), malvidin-3-(6-O-acetyl) glucoside (23.84% to 49.74%), and malvidin-3-(6-O-p-coumaroyl) glucoside (26.77% to 34.93%) as compared to CE. Ultrasound reduced the extraction time (2.5-fold) and showed an increase of antioxidant potential by 76.39% (DPPH) and 125.83% (FRAP) compared to CE.
Project description:The cosmetic industry is in a constant search for natural compounds or extracts with relevant bioactive properties, which became valuable ingredients to design cosmeceutical formulations. Mushrooms have been markedly studied in terms of nutritional value and medicinal properties. However, there is still slow progress in the biotechnological application of mushroom extracts in cosmetic formulations, either as antioxidants, anti-aging, antimicrobial, and anti-inflammatory agents or as hyperpigmentation correctors. In the present work, the cosmeceutical potential of ethanolic extracts prepared from <i>Agaricus bisporus</i>, <i>Pleurotus ostreatus</i>, and <i>Lentinula edodes</i> was analyzed in terms of anti-inflammatory, anti-tyrosinase, antioxidant, and antibacterial activities. The extracts were characterized in terms of phenolic acids and ergosterol composition, and further incorporated in a base cosmetic cream to achieve the same bioactive purposes. From the results obtained, the final cosmeceutical formulations presented 85%-100% of the phenolic acids and ergosterol levels found in the mushroom extracts, suggesting that there was no significant loss of bioactive compounds. The final cosmeceutical formulation also displayed all the ascribed bioactivities and as such, mushrooms can further be exploited as natural cosmeceutical ingredients.
Project description:Wine industry generates a large amount of biowaste, such as grape marc and wine lees, which is considered in the Directive (EU) 2018/2001 as an adequate feedstock to produce advanced biofuels. Grapeseed oil fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs) can be obtained from oil extracted from grape marc and bioethanol distilled from wine lees or wine surplus. Although FAEE still has no specific standard, grapeseed oil FAEE would fulfill all of the properties set by the standard EN 14214, except oxidation stability. This work analyzes the effect of natural antioxidants on the oxidation stability of grapeseed oil FAEE, using grapeseed oil fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) as a reference for comparison. On the one hand, the biofuel, produced with conventional transesterification, was mixed with FAME and FAEE produced via in situ transesterification. On the other hand, antioxidants extracted from grapeseed or defatted grapeseed flour were added to the biofuel. The results show that (1) FAEE has worse oxidation stability than FAME, (2) in situ transesterification improves the oxidation stability, and (3) addition of natural antioxidants is hindered by their low solubility in alkyl esters. Finally, the concentration of antioxidants, measured by UV-vis spectroscopy, showed a correlation between the absorbance at 285 nm (characteristic of phenolic compounds) and the induction time (IT) of the samples.
Project description:Several epidemiological studies demonstrate that moderate (red) wine consumption may afford protection against cardiovascular diseases. Protection is ascribed to the biological activity of wine components, many of which, however, are discarded during winemaking. In vitro rat thoracic aorta rings contracted with phenylephrine or KCl were used to assess the vasorelaxant activity of extracts from wine pomaces (seeds and skins) of the Calabrian autochthonous grape variety Magliocco dolce (Arvino). NMR spectroscopy was used to ascertain their chemical composition. Data demonstrate that seed and skin, but not must, extracts are capable of relaxing vascular preparations in an endothelium-dependent manner, similarly to the red wine extract, due to the presence of comparable amounts of bioactive constituents. In rings pre-contracted with 20-30 mM KCl, only seed extracts showed a moderate relaxation. The most efficacious vasodilating extract (wine) showed a good antioxidant profile in both [(2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl)acid] radical (DPPH) and [2,2'-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid)] radical (ABTS) assays. In conclusion, winemaking from Magliocco dolce grape can provide potentially health-promoting by-products useful in cardiovascular disease management.
Project description:Grape pomace is commonly considered a waste product of monovarietal red wine production. Methods: HPLC-DAD analysis was performed to determine the polyphenol and flavonoid contents of all the extracts obtained from Montepulciano d'Abruzzo red wine and grape skins whereas, GC-MS was applied to the determination of fatty acid composition in grape seeds oil. Biological characterization involves antioxidant and antimicrobial assays for all the extracts and seeds oil; Their ability to inhibit α-glucosidase, α-amylase, α-tyrosinase, and ChE enzymes was also detected, together with anti-inflammatory activity on wine, grape skin extracts, and seeds oil by lipoxygenase (5-LOX) and LPS-stimulated macrophage release assays. Data indicate significative polyphenols content (199.31 ± 7.21 mgGAE/g), antioxidant (CUPRAC assay (1036.98 mgTE/g)), enzymatic inhibition (α-tyrosinase: 151.30 ± 1.20 mgKAE/g) and anti-inflammatory activities for wine-organic extract 2, while the antimicrobial activity of grape skin decoction is higher than those reported by wine extracts on three bacterial strains. Interestingly only dealcoholized wine and wine-aqueous extract exerts inhibitory effects on α-glucosidase (20.62 ± 0.23 mmolACAE/g and 19.81 ± 0.03 mmolACAE/g, respectively), while seeds oil is rich in oleic and linoleic acids. These results confirm the strong antioxidant properties of Montepulciano d'Abruzzo grape pomace, suggesting the potential use of this waste product as functional food supplements in the human diet and in cosmeceutics.
Project description:Unripe grapes (UGs) are a waste product of vine cultivation rich in natural antioxidants. These antioxidants could be used in winemaking as alternatives to SO<sub>2</sub>. Three extracts were obtained by maceration from Viognier, Merlot and Sangiovese UGs. The composition and antioxidant activity of the UG extracts were studied in model solutions at different pH levels. The capacity of the UG extracts to protect wine colour was evaluated in accelerated oxidation tests and small-scale trials on both red and white wines during ageing in comparison with sulphur dioxide, ascorbic acid and commercial tannins. The Viognier and Merlot extracts were rich in phenolic acids while the Sangiovese extract was rich in flavonoids. The antioxidant activity of the extracts and commercial tannins was influenced by the pH. In the oxidation tests, the extracts and commercial products showed different wine colour protection capacities in function of the type of wine. During ageing, the white wine with the added Viognier UG extract showed the lowest level of colour oxidation. The colour of the red wine with the UG extract evolved similarly to wine with SO<sub>2</sub> and commercial tannins. The obtained results indicated that natural and healthy UG extracts could be an interesting substitute for SO<sub>2</sub> during wine ageing.
Project description:Wine lees from two grape varieties (Vitis vinifera L. Cv. "verdejo" and "palomino") were studied as natural preservatives in deer burgers compared with the traditional additive sodium ascorbate. Burgers packed in modified atmosphere packaging and stored in refrigeration were analyzed at 0, 4, 8, and 12 days. The addition of lees (2.5% and 5%) produced a reduction of pH and variations in color (L* and a*), higher antioxidant capacity and phenolic content, lower lipid and protein oxidation, and the inhibition of psychotrophic aerobic bacteria and enterobacteria during the storage time. Likewise, burgers with lees kept the aldehydes concentration (volatile compounds indicators of lipid oxidation) over storage time, while esters, acids, and other compounds, previously present in lees, increased. These changes provided new odor and taste attributes like wine, bakery, and raisin notes. Therefore, the addition of wine lees had an antioxidant and antimicrobial effect and produced new sensory attributes in deer burgers.