Relationships of Trait Anxiety and Loss of Control Eating with Serum Leptin Concentrations among Youth.
ABSTRACT: Loss of control (LOC) eating in youth is associated with elevated fasting serum leptin, even after accounting for adiposity. Anxiety is closely linked to, and may exacerbate, LOC eating. Yet, it remains unclear how anxiety relates to leptin, or if the relationship is moderated by the presence of LOC eating. We examined whether self-reported trait anxiety interacted with LOC eating in relation to leptin in a convenience sample of youths (n = 592; 13.1 ± 2.7 years; body mass index z-score (BMIz) = 0.9 ± 1.1; 61.8% girls; 53.5% non-Hispanic White; 36.6% with LOC eating). LOC eating was assessed by interview. Leptin was measured after an overnight fast. Exploratory analyses were conducted to examine anxiety and LOC eating in relation to laboratory intake patterns in three sub-samples. In a generalized linear model adjusting for relevant covariates, anxiety significantly interacted with LOC eating in relation to leptin (p = 0.02), such that greater trait anxiety related to higher concentrations of leptin only among youth with LOC eating. Trait anxiety was not significantly related to fasting serum leptin independently in a generalized linear model adjusting for age, race, height, sex, study type, and fat mass (kg). Exploratory mechanistic analyses of food intake patterns did not identify consistent results for participants with both anxiety and LOC eating. Among youth with LOC eating, anxiety may be associated with higher serum leptin. Prospective data are required to elucidate the directionality and mechanisms of these relationships.
Project description:Objective:Pediatric loss-of-control (LOC) eating is associated with, and predictive of, gains in adiposity and adverse metabolic outcomes. In addition, some preliminary data suggest that anxiety may exacerbate the relationship of LOC eating with weight and metabolic syndrome (MetS)-related measures. We therefore examined whether anxiety moderated the relationship between LOC eating and body mass index z (BMIz), adiposity, and MetS-related measures in youth. Methods:A convenience sample of non-treatment-seeking boys and girls of varying weight strata were interviewed to determine the presence of LOC eating and completed a questionnaire assessing trait anxiety. BMIz and MetS-related measures (blood pressure, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, glucose, and insulin) were measured after an overnight fast. Adiposity was assessed by air displacement plethysmography or dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Analyses adjusted for age, sex, race, height, fat mass, and depressive symptoms, as appropriate. Results:In all, 379 youths (13.0 ± 2.8 years; 53% female; BMIz?=?0.8 ± 1.1; 22% with LOC eating) were studied. Anxiety was not significantly related to BMIz, adiposity, or MetS-related measures. However, anxiety and LOC eating interacted such that only among youth with LOC eating, anxiety was positively associated with fasting insulin (p = .02) and insulin resistance (p = .01). The interaction of anxiety and LOC eating was not significantly related to BMIz, adiposity, or any other MetS-related measure (ps = ns). Conclusions:Only among non-treatment-seeking youth with LOC eating, anxiety may be associated with increased insulin secretion and insulin resistance. Longitudinal studies are required to confirm these findings and explore mechanisms for these relationships.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Both insufficiency and resistance to the actions of the adipocyte-derived hormone leptin promote hunger, increased food intake and greater body weight. Some studies suggest that adults reporting binge eating have increased serum leptin compared with those without binge eating, even after adjusting for the greater adiposity that characterizes binge eaters. Pediatric binge or loss of control (LOC) eating are prospective risk factors for excessive weight gain and may predict development of metabolic abnormalities, but whether LOC eating is associated with higher leptin among children is unknown. We therefore examined leptin and LOC eating in a pediatric cohort. METHODS:A convenience sample of 506 lean and obese youth (7-18 years) was recruited from Washington, DC and its suburbs. Serum leptin was collected after an overnight fast. Adiposity was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry or air displacement plethysmography. LOC eating was assessed by interview methodology. RESULTS:Leptin was strongly associated with fat mass (r=0.79, P<0.001). However, even after adjusting for adiposity and other relevant covariates, youth with LOC eating had higher serum leptin compared with those without LOC episodes (15.42±1.05 vs 12.36±1.04?ng?ml(-1), P<0.001). Neither reported amount of food consumed during a recent LOC episode nor number of LOC episodes in the previous month accounted for differences in leptin (P>0.05). The relationship between LOC eating and leptin appeared to be significant for females only (P=0.002). CONCLUSIONS:Reports of LOC eating were associated with higher fasting leptin in youth, beyond the contributions of body weight. Prospective studies are required to elucidate whether LOC eating promotes greater leptin or whether greater leptin resistance may promote LOC eating.
Project description:<h4>Objective</h4>Momentary negative affect (NA) has been shown to predict eating patterns in the laboratory, yet, more stable mood states have not been studied in relation to eating patterns in the laboratory among youth at high risk for binge-eating disorder and obesity.<h4>Method</h4>One-hundred-eight adolescent girls (14.5 ± 1.7 years) with BMI between the 75th-97th percentile who reported loss-of-control (LOC)-eating completed measures of trait anxiety and depressive symptoms. Food-intake patterns were measured from a laboratory test meal (9,385 kcal). Latent factor analysis of depressive symptoms and trait anxiety was used to compute latent trait NA. Multivariate general linear models predicted total energy, snacks, and macronutrient intake from trait NA, adjusting for age, race, height, lean-mass, and percentage fat-mass.<h4>Results</h4>Trait NA was significantly positively related to total energy-intake, and, specifically, snacks, sweet snacks, and percentage sweet fats (ps ≤ .03), and negatively related to percentage protein consumed (p = .04).<h4>Discussion</h4>Expanding on affect theory, trait NA may relate to palatable food-intake among girls with LOC-eating. Further data are needed to determine whether those with LOC-eating and trait NA are at heightened risk for the development of binge-eating disorder and obesity.
Project description:The interpersonal model of loss of control (LOC) eating proposes that socially distressing situations lead to anxious states that trigger excessive food consumption. Self-reports support these links, but the neurobiological underpinnings of these relationships remain unclear. We therefore examined brain regions associated with anxiety in relation to LOC eating and energy intake in the laboratory. Twenty-two overweight and obese (BMIz: 1.9±0.4) adolescent (15.8±1.6y) girls with LOC eating (LOC+, n=10) and without LOC eating (LOC-, n=12) underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during a simulated peer interaction chatroom paradigm. Immediately after the fMRI scan, girls consumed lunch ad libitum from a 10,934-kcal laboratory buffet meal with the instruction to "let yourself go and eat as much as you want." Pre-specified hypotheses regarding activation of five regions of interest were tested. Analysis of fMRI data revealed a significant group by peer feedback interaction in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC), such that LOC+ had less activity following peer rejection (vs. acceptance), while LOC- had increased activity (p<.005). Moreover, functional coupling between vmPFC and striatum for peer rejection (vs. acceptance) interacted with LOC status: coupling was positive for LOC+, but negative in LOC- (p<.005). Activity of fusiform face area (FFA) during negative peer feedback from high-value peers also interacted with LOC status (p<.005). A positive association between FFA activation and intake during the meal was observed among only those with LOC eating. In conclusion, overweight and obese girls with LOC eating may be distinguished by a failure to engage regions of prefrontal cortex implicated in emotion regulation in response to social distress. The relationship between FFA activation and food intake supports the notion that heightened sensitivity to incoming interpersonal cues and perturbations in socio-emotional neural circuits may lead to overeating in order to cope with negative affect elicited by social discomfort in susceptible youth.
Project description:Loss of control (LOC) eating in youth is associated with excess body weight and adiposity. After adjusting for fat mass, youth with LOC eating have higher blood pressure and higher low-density lipoprotein cholesterol compared to youth without LOC eating. Increased inflammation may account for this relationship, although few data have examined this hypothesis. Therefore, this study explored the association between LOC eating and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), a marker of inflammation.We investigated hsCRP concentrations in relation to LOC eating in a convenience sample of 194 youth (age 14.3?±?2.1 years; 63.9% female; BMI-z 1.64?±?1.06). The presence of LOC eating in the past month was assessed by the Eating Disorder Examination interview. Serum hsCRP was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Adiposity was measured by air displacement plethysmography or dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. We compared hsCRP in those with and without LOC eating in analyses accounting for sex, adiposity, height, depressive symptoms, and eating psychopathology.Youth with LOC eating had significantly greater hsCRP than youth without LOC eating (p?=?0.02), after accounting for all covariates. The number of LOC eating episodes in the past month was positively associated with hsCRP (p?=?0.01). The relationship between LOC eating and hsCRP was not mediated by depressive symptoms or eating psychopathology (ps?>?0.05).Youth with disinhibited eating may manifest increased chronic inflammation. Those with LOC eating may be an important subgroup at risk for adverse health outcomes associated with both chronic inflammation and obesity. Future research should examine whether hsCRP concentrations mediate the relationship between LOC eating and its association with cardiometabolic risk.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:The subjective experience of loss of control (LOC) during eating, independent of overeating, may be a salient marker of disordered eating and risk for overweight in youth. However, few studies have directly tested this notion in an adequately powered sample. METHOD:Three-hundred-sixty-seven youth (M ± SD age = 12.7 ± 2.8 y) were categorized as reporting objective binge eating (OBE; 12.5%), subjective binge eating (SBE; 11.4%), objective overeating without LOC (OO; 18.5%), or no episodes (NE; 57.5%). Disordered eating attitudes, general psychopathology, and adiposity were assessed. RESULTS:Children with OBE and SBE generally did not differ in their disordered eating attitudes, emotional eating, eating in the absence of hunger, depressive and anxiety symptoms, or adiposity. However, both OBE and SBE youth had significantly greater disordered eating attitudes, emotional eating, eating in the absence of hunger, depressive and anxiety symptoms, and adiposity compared to those with OO or NE (ps < .05). DISCUSSION:For non-treatment-seeking youth, LOC during eating episodes, rather than episode size, appears to be the most salient marker of eating and weight problems.
Project description:<h4>Objective</h4>The aim of this study is to evaluate two questionnaires, an updated youth version of the questionnaire on eating and weight patterns (Questionnaire on Eating and Weight Patterns-5 Children/Adolescent [QEWP-C-5]) and the Loss-of-Control (LOC) Eating Disorder Questionnaire (LOC-ED-Q), against the Eating Disorder Examination (EDE) interview to assess the presence of LOC-eating among youth.<h4>Method</h4>Two-hundred and eighteen youths (12.8 ± 2.7 years) completed the QEWP-C-5, LOC-ED-Q, and EDE, depressive and anxiety questionnaires, and adiposity assessment. Sensitivity, specificity, positive-predictive value, negative-predictive value, and diagnostic accuracy were calculated; Cochran's Q and McNemar's tests were used to compare measures. Receiver operating characteristic area under the curve (AUC) analyses were performed. Mood and adiposity based on LOC-eating presence and absence based on each measure were examined.<h4>Results</h4>The QEWP-C-5 and LOC-ED-Q demonstrated poor sensitivity (33%; 30%) and high specificity (95%; 96%) compared with the EDE. The AUCs suggested neither the QEWP-C-5 (0.64) nor the LOC-ED-Q (0.62) demonstrated acceptable diagnostic accuracy. Comparing distributions of LOC-eating presence between assessments, the QEWP-C-5 and EDE did not differ significantly (p = .10), while the LOC-ED-Q and EDE had significantly different distributions (p = .03). LOC-eating presence was associated with higher depressive and anxiety symptoms across all measures (ps < .02). Greater adiposity (ps < .02) was associated with LOC-eating presence on the EDE and LOC-ED-Q, and higher BMI z-score (p = .02) on the LOC-ED-Q.<h4>Discussion</h4>Neither the QEWP-C-5 nor the LOC-ED-Q was sensitive for identifying LOC-eating presence as determined by the EDE, although both were associated with greater mood symptoms. Research is needed to improve self-report questionnaires to better screen for LOC-eating presence among pediatric populations.
Project description:Weight-based teasing (WBT) is commonly reported among youth and is associated with disinhibited and disordered eating. Specifically, youth who experience WBT may engage in disordered eating behaviors to cope with the resultant negative affect. Therefore, we examined associations between WBT and disordered eating behaviors among youth and assessed whether negative affect mediated these relationships. Two hundred one non-treatment seeking youth (8-17y) completed questionnaires assessing WBT, disinhibited eating, depression, and anxiety. Disordered eating and loss-of-control (LOC) eating were assessed via semi-structured interview. Analyses of covariance were conducted to examine relationships between WBT and eating-related variables, and bootstrapping mediation models were used to evaluate negative affect (a composite of depressive and anxiety symptoms) as a mediator of these associations. All models were adjusted for sex, race, age, and adiposity. Among 201 participants (13.1 ± 2.8y; 54.2% female; 30.3% Black; 32.8% with overweight/obesity), WBT was associated with emotional eating, eating in the absence of hunger, and disordered eating attitudes and behaviors (ps ≤ 0.02). These associations were all mediated by negative affect. WBT was also associated with a threefold greater likelihood of reporting a recent LOC eating episode (p = .049). Among boys and girls across weight strata, WBT was associated with multiple aspects of disordered eating and these relationships were mediated by negative affect. Longitudinal studies are needed to clarify the directionality of these associations and to identify subgroups of youth that may be particularly vulnerable to WBT and its sequelae.
Project description:Loss of control (LOC) eating, a disinhibited eating behavior shown to predict excessive weight gain in youth, has been reported by African-American children and adolescents. Yet, little is known about how LOC-eating manifests in this population. To investigate potential racial differences in LOC-eating, the Eating Disorder Examination was administered to 185 non-Hispanic African-American and Caucasian youth ages 8-17 y. Objective eating was assessed at two test meals during which youth ate ad libitum from a multi-item lunchtime food array. African-American and Caucasian youth reported a similar prevalence of LOC episodes (24.2% vs. 28.9%, p=.75). Yet, accounting for sex, age, fat-free mass, percent fat mass, height, and socioeconomic status, African-Americans consumed more total energy at both laboratory meals (1608±57 kcal vs. 1362±44 kcal; p<.001). Furthermore, African-American youth reporting LOC consumed the most total energy across both meals (1855±104 kcal) compared to African-Americans without LOC (1524±60 kcal), Caucasians with LOC (1278±68 kcal), and Caucasians without LOC (1399±46 kcal; p<.001). Future research is required to examine whether LOC-eating contributes to the high rates of obesity in African-American youth.