Activity and mRNA expression levels of selected cytochromes P450 in various sections of the human small intestine.
ABSTRACT: AIMS:To characterize mRNA expression levels (17 cytochromes P450) and activity (9 isoforms) of major cytochromes P450 expressed throughout the human small intestine. METHODS:Tissue samples were obtained from 9 deceased subjects and intestinal sections (n = 10) were isolated for each subject. Relative mRNA expression levels were determined using quantitative real-time PCR. Intestinal microsomes were prepared from 5 subsections: duodenum, jejunum (proximal and mid-jejunum) and ileum (proximal and mid-ileum) regions. In vitro incubations were performed with various cytochrome P450 probe substrates: bupropion (CYP2B6), repaglinide (CYP2C8), tolbutamide (CYP2C9), S-mephenytoin (CYP2C19), bufuralol (CYP2D6), chlorzoxazone (CYP2E1), ebastine (CYP2J2), midazolam (CYP3A4/5) and lauric acid (CYP4A11). Metabolite formation was assessed using validated liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry assays. RESULTS:Cytochrome P450 mRNA levels ranked as follows: CYP3A4 > CYP2C9 > CYP2C19 > CYP2J2 > CYP4F2. Cytochrome P450 mRNA transcripts showed different patterns in their relative expression from 1 region to the other but CYP3A4, CYP2C9, CYP2C19 and CYP2J2 displayed the highest levels of mRNA expression (>5%) in all intestinal sections. Cytochrome P450 activities were greater in proximal part of the small intestine with the jejunum showing the greatest drug-metabolism activity. Spearman's correlation analyses indicated that cytochrome P450 mRNA expressions and corresponding cytochrome P450 activities in the human intestine were moderately associated for CYP2C19, CYP2D6 and CYP4A11 (rs = 0.44-0.56). CONCLUSIONS:Our study provides new and additional information on the expression and activities of selected cytochromes P450 in various sections of the human small intestine.
Project description:Human liver gene regulatory (Bayesian) network analysis was previously used to identify a cytochrome P450 (P450) gene subnetwork with Aldo-keto reductase 1D1 (AKR1D1) as a key regulatory driver of this subnetwork. This study assessed the biologic importance of AKR1D1 [a key enzyme in the synthesis of bile acids, ligand activators of farnesoid X receptor (FXR), pregnane X receptor (PXR), and constitutive androstane receptor (CAR), known transcriptional regulators of P450s] to hepatic P450 expression. Overexpression of AKR1D1 in primary human hepatocytes led to increased expression of CYP3A4, CYP2C8, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, and CYP2B6. Conversely, AKR1D1 knockdown decreased expression of these P450s. We resequenced AKR1D1 from 98 donor livers and identified a 3'-untranslated region (UTR) (rs1872930) single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) significantly associated with higher AKR1D1 mRNA expression. AKR1D1 3'-UTR-luciferase reporter studies showed that the variant allele resulted in higher luciferase activity, suggesting that the SNP increases AKR1D1 mRNA stability and/or translation efficiency. Consistent with AKR1D1's putative role as a driver of the P450 subnetwork, the AKR1D1 3'-UTR SNP was significantly associated with increased hepatic mRNA expression of multiple P450s (CYP3A4, CYP2C8, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, and CYP2B6) and CYP3A4, CYP2C8, CYP2C19, and CYP2B6 activities. After adjusting for multiple testing, the association remained significant for AKR1D1, CYP2C9, and CYP2C8 mRNA expression and CYP2C8 activity. These results provide new insights into the variation in expression and activity of P450s that can account for interindividual differences in drug metabolism/efficacy and adverse drug events. In conclusion, we provide the first experimental evidence supporting a role for AKR1D1 as a key genetic regulator of the P450 network.
Project description:Glycyrrhetinic acid (GA) has been used clinically in the treatment of patients with chronic hepatitis. This study evaluated the effect of GA on the activity of five P450(CYP450) cytochrome enzymes: CYP2A6, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP2D6, and CYP3A4, in human liver microsomes (HLMs) and recombinant cDNA-expressed enzyme systems using a HPLC-MS/MS CYP-specific probe substrate assay. With midazolam as the probe substrate, GA greatly decreased CYP3A4 activity with IC50 values of 8.195 ?M in HLMs and 7.498 ?M in the recombinant cDNA-expressed CYP3A4 enzyme system, respectively. It significantly decreased CYP3A4 activity in a dose- but not time-dependent manner. Results from Lineweaver-Burk plots showed that GA could inhibit CYP3A4 activity competitively, with a Ki value of 1.57 ?M in HLMs. Moreover, CYP2C9 and CYP2C19 could also be inhibited significantly by GA with IC50 of 42.89 and 40.26 ?M in HLMs, respectively. Other CYP450 isoforms were not markedly affected by GA. The inhibition was also confirmed by an in vivo study of mice. In addition, it was observed that mRNA expressions of the Cyps2c and 3a family decreased significantly in the livers of mice treated with GA. In conclusion, this study indicates that GA may exert herb-drug interactions by competitively inhibiting CYP3A4.
Project description:25B-NBF, 2-(4-bromo-2,5-dimethoxyphenyl)-N-(2-fluorobenzyl)ethanamine, is a new psychoactive substance classified as a phenethylamine. It is a potent agonist of the 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor, but little is known about its metabolism and elimination properties since it was discovered. To aid 25B-NBF abuse screening, the metabolic characteristics of 25B-NBF were investigated in human hepatocytes and human cDNA-expressed cytochrome P450 (CYP) and UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) enzymes using liquid chromatography?high resolution mass spectrometry. At a hepatic extraction ratio of 0.80, 25B-NBF was extensively metabolized into 33 metabolites via hydroxylation, O-demethylation, bis-O-demethylation, N-debenzylation, glucuronidation, sulfation, and acetylation after incubation with pooled human hepatocytes. The metabolism of 25B-NBF was catalyzed by CYP1A1, CYP1A2, CYP2B6, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP2D6, CYP2J2, CYP3A4, and UGT2B7 enzymes. Based on these results, it is necessary to develop a bioanalytical method for the determination of not only 25B-NBF but also its metabolites in biological samples for the screening of 25B-NBF abuse.
Project description:Members of the cytochrome P450 (P450) enzyme families CYP1, CYP2, and CYP3 are responsible for the metabolism of approximately 75% of all clinically relevant drugs. With the increased prevalence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), it is likely that patients with this disease represent an emerging population at significant risk for alterations in these important drug-metabolizing enzymes. The purpose of this study was to determine whether three progressive stages of human NALFD alter hepatic P450 expression and activity. Microsomes isolated from human liver samples diagnosed as normal, n = 20; steatosis, n = 11; nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) (fatty liver), n = 10; and NASH (no longer fatty), n = 11 were analyzed for P450 mRNA, protein, and enzyme activity. Microsomal CYP1A2, CYP2D6, and CYP2E1 mRNA levels were decreased with NAFLD progression, whereas CYP2A6, CYP2B6, and CYP2C9 mRNA expression increased. Microsomal protein expression of CYP1A2, CYP2C19, CYP2D6, CYP2E1, and CYP3A4 tended to decrease with NAFLD progression. Likewise, functional activity assays revealed decreasing trends in CYP1A2 (p = 0.001) and CYP2C19 (p = 0.05) enzymatic activity with increasing NAFLD severity. In contrast, activity of CYP2A6 (p = 0.001) and CYP2C9 (diclofenac, p = 0.0001; tolbutamide, p = 0.004) was significantly increased with NAFLD progression. Increased expression of proinflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor alpha and interleukin 1beta was observed and may be responsible for observed decreases in respective P450 activity. Furthermore, elevated CYP2C9 activity during NAFLD progression correlated with elevated hypoxia-induced factor 1alpha expression in the later stages of NAFLD. These results suggest that significant and novel changes occur in hepatic P450 activity during progressive stages of NAFLD.
Project description:To characterize effects of type 2 diabetes (T2D) on mRNA expression levels for 10 Cytochromes P450 (CYP450s), two carboxylesterases, and three drug transporters (ABCB1, ABCG2, SLCO2B1) in human duodenal biopsies. To compare drug metabolizing enzyme activities of four CYP450 isoenzymes in duodenal biopsies from patients with or without T2D. mRNA levels were quantified (RT-qPCR) in human duodenal biopsies obtained from patients with (n = 20) or without (n = 16) T2D undergoing a scheduled gastro-intestinal endoscopy. CYP450 activities were determined following incubation of biopsy homogenates with probe substrates for CYP2B6 (bupropion), CYP2C9 (tolbutamide), CYP2J2 (ebastine), and CYP3A4/5 (midazolam). Covariables related to inflammation, T2D, demographic, and genetics were investigated. T2D had no major effects on mRNA levels of all enzymes and transporters assessed. Formation rates of metabolites (pmoles mg protein-1 min-1) determined by LC-MS/MS for CYP2C9 (0.48 ± 0.26 vs. 0.41 ± 0.12), CYP2J2 (2.16 ± 1.70 vs. 1.69 ± 0.93), and CYP3A (5.25 ± 3.72 vs. 5.02 ± 4.76) were not different between biopsies obtained from individuals with or without T2D (p > 0.05). No CYP2B6 specific activity was measured. TNF-α levels were higher in T2D patients but did not correlate with any changes in mRNA expression levels for drug metabolizing enzymes or transporters in the duodenum. T2D did not modulate expression or activity of tested drug metabolizing enzymes and transporters in the human duodenum. Previously reported changes in drug oral clearances in patients with T2D could be due to a tissue-specific disease modulation occurring in the liver and/or in other parts of the intestines.
Project description:In a one-way cross-over study, we investigated the effect of Khat, a natural amphetamine-like psychostimulant plant, on catalytic activities of five major drug-metabolizing cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes. After a one-week Khat abstinence, 63 Ethiopian male volunteers were phenotyped using cocktail probe drugs (caffeine, losartan, dextromethorphan, omeprazole). Phenotyping was repeated after a one-week daily use of 400?g fresh Khat leaves. Genotyping for CYP1A2, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP2D6, CYP3A5 were done. Urinary cathinone and phenylpropanolamine, and plasma probe drugs and metabolites concentrations were quantified using LC-MS/MS. Effect of Khat on enzyme activities was evaluated by comparing caffeine/paraxanthine (CYP1A2), losartan/losartan carboxylic acid (CYP2C9), omeprazole/5-hydroxyomeprazole (CYP2C19), dextromethorphan/dextrorphan (CYP2D6) and dextromethorphan/3-methoxymorphinan (CYP3A4) metabolic ratios (MR) before and after Khat use. Wilcoxon-matched-pair-test indicated a significant increase in median CYP2D6 MR (41%, p?<?0.0001), and a marginal increase in CYP3A4 and CYP2C19 MR by Khat. Repeated measure ANOVA indicated the impact of CYP1A2 and CYP2C19 genotype on Khat-CYP enzyme interactions. The median MR increased by 35% in CYP1A2*1/*1 (p?=?0.07) and by 40% in carriers of defective CYP2C19 alleles (p?=?0.03). Urinary log cathinone/phenylpropanolamine ratios significantly correlated with CYP2D6 genotype (p?=?0.004) and CYP2D6 MR (P?=?0.025). Khat significantly inhibits CYP2D6, marginally inhibits CYP3A4, and genotype-dependently inhibit CYP2C19 and CYP1A2 enzyme activities.
Project description:CYP2J2, an arachidonic acid epoxygenase, is recognized for its role in the first-pass metabolism of astemizole and ebastine. To fully assess the role of CYP2J2 in drug metabolism, a selective substrate and potent specific chemical inhibitor are essential. In this study, we report amiodarone 4-hydoxylation as a specific CYP2J2-catalyzed reaction with no CYP3A4, or other drug-metabolizing enzyme, involvement. Amiodarone 4-hydroxylation enabled the determination of liver relative activity factor and intersystem extrapolation factor for CYP2J2. Amiodarone 4-hydroxylation correlated with astemizole O-demethylation but not with CYP2J2 protein content in a sample of human liver microsomes. To identify a specific CYP2J2 inhibitor, 138 drugs were screened using terfenadine and astemizole as probe substrates with recombinant CYP2J2. Forty-two drugs inhibited CYP2J2 activity by ?50% at 30 ?M, but inhibition was substrate-dependent. Of these, danazol was a potent inhibitor of both hydroxylation of terfenadine (IC(50) = 77 nM) and O-demethylation of astemizole (K(i) = 20 nM), and inhibition was mostly competitive. Danazol inhibited CYP2C9, CYP2C8, and CYP2D6 with IC(50) values of 1.44, 1.95, and 2.74 ?M, respectively. Amiodarone or astemizole were included in a seven-probe cocktail for cytochrome P450 (P450) drug-interaction screening potential, and astemizole demonstrated a better profile because it did not appreciably interact with other P450 probes. Thus, danazol, amiodarone, and astemizole will facilitate the ability to determine the metabolic role of CYP2J2 in hepatic and extrahepatic tissues.
Project description:Our recent studies have shown that chronic kidney disease (CKD) affects the pharmacokinetics (PKs) of cytochrome P450 (CYP)2D6-metabolized drugs, whereas effects were less evident on CYP3A4/5. Therefore, the effect of CKD on the disposition of CYP1A2-metabolized, CYP2C8-metabolized, CYP2C9-metabolized, CYP2C19-metabolized, and organic anion-transporting polypeptide (OATP)-transported drugs was investigated. We identified dedicated CKD studies with 6, 5, 6, 4, and 12 "model" substrates for CYP1A2, CYP2C8, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, and OATP, respectively. Our analyses suggest that clearance of OATP substrates decreases as kidney function declines. Similar trends were seen for CYP2C8; but overlap between some CYP2C8 and OATP substrates highlights that their interplay needs further investigation. In contrast, the effect of CKD on CYP1A2, CYP2C9, and CYP2C19 was variable and modest compared to CYP2C8 and OATP. This improved understanding of elimination-pathway-dependency in CKD is important to inform the need and conduct of PK studies in these patients for nonrenally eliminated drugs.
Project description:Cytochrome P450 (P450) protein-protein interactions have been shown to alter their catalytic activity. Furthermore, these interactions are isoform specific and can elicit activation, inhibition, or no effect on enzymatic activity. Studies show that these effects are also dependent on the protein partner cytochrome P450 reductase (CPR) and the order of protein addition to purified reconstituted enzyme systems. In this study, we use controlled immobilization of P450s to a gold surface to gain a better understanding of P450-P450 interactions between three key drug-metabolizing isoforms (CYP2C9, CYP3A4, and CYP2D6). Molecular modeling was used to assess the favorability of homomeric/heteromeric P450 complex formation. P450 complex formation in vitro was analyzed in real time utilizing surface plasmon resonance. Finally, the effects of P450 complex formation were investigated utilizing our immobilized platform and reconstituted enzyme systems. Molecular modeling shows favorable binding of CYP2C9-CPR, CYP2C9-CYP2D6, CYP2C9-CYP2C9, and CYP2C9-CYP3A4, in rank order.KDvalues obtained via surface plasmon resonance show strong binding, in the nanomolar range, for the above pairs, with CYP2C9-CYP2D6 yielding the lowestKD, followed by CYP2C9-CYP2C9, CYP2C9-CPR, and CYP2C9-CYP3A4. Metabolic incubations show that immobilized CYP2C9 metabolism was activated by homomeric complex formation. CYP2C9 metabolism was not affected by the presence of CYP3A4 with saturating CPR concentrations. CYP2C9 metabolism was activated by CYP2D6 at saturating CPR concentrations in solution but was inhibited when CYP2C9 was immobilized. The order of addition of proteins (CYP2C9, CYP2D6, CYP3A4, and CPR) influenced the magnitude of inhibition for CYP3A4 and CYP2D6. These results indicate isoform-specific P450 interactions and effects on P450-mediated metabolism.
Project description:We aimed to assess the association between the most common polymorphisms of cytochrome P450 (CYP) epoxygenases on the plasma levels of inflammatory markers in a population of healthy subjects. We also sought to determine whether CYP2C19 2 polymorphism is associated with the anti-inflammatory response to clopidogrel. In a population of 49 healthy young males, the baseline plasma levels of inflammatory markers including C-reactive protein, haptoglobin, orosomucoid acid, CD-40 were compared in carriers vs. non-carriers of the most frequent CYP epoxygenase polymorphisms: CYP2C9 2, CYP2C9 3, CYP2C19 2, CYP2C8 2 and CYP2J2 7. Also, the variation of inflammatory markers from baseline to 7 days after administration of 75 mg per day of clopidogrel were compared in carriers vs. non-carriers of CYP2C19 allele and also in responders vs. hypo-responders to clopidogrel, determined by platelet reactivity tests. There was no significant association between epoxygenase polymorphisms and the baseline levels of inflammatory markers. Likewise, CYP2C19 allele was not associated with anti-inflammatory response to clopidogrel. Our findings did not support the notion that the genetic variations of CYP epoxygenases are associated with the level of inflammatory markers. Moreover, our results did not support the hypothesis that CYP2C19 2 polymorphism is associated with the variability in response to the anti-inflammatory properties of clopidogrel.