Body mass index variation over time and associated factors among HIV-positive adults on second-line ART in north-west Ethiopia: a retrospective follow-up study.
ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES:This study aimed to assess the evolution of body mass index (BMI) of HIV-positive adults on second-line antiretroviral therapy (ART) over time and factors affecting it in north-west Ethiopia. DESIGN:An institution-based retrospective follow-up study was conducted using data extracted from 1016 patient cards from February 2008 to February 2016. SETTING:Eight referral hospitals from Amhara region, Ethiopia were included. PARTICIPANTS:HIV patients who started second-line ART. OUTCOME MEASURES:Change in BMI since starting second-line ART. RESULTS:Five hundred and thirty-eight (52.95%) participants were males and the median age of the participants was 33 years (IQR: 28; 39). The median follow-up time was 18 months (IQR: 5.2; 32.2). The average change of BMI showed linear increase over time. The amount of BMI increment or decrement according to each variable was shown as ? coefficients. Treatment duration (?=0.013, 95%?CI 0.004 to 0.022), isoniazid prophylaxis (?=0.87, 95%?CI 0.32 to 1.42), cotrimoxazole prophylaxis (?=0.63, 95%?CI 0.08 to 1.19), ambulatory functional status (?=-1.16, 95%?CI -1.95 to 1.31), bedridden functional status (?=-1.83, 95%?CI -2.47 to 1.21), WHO stage III (?=-0.42, 95%?CI -0.65 to 0.20), WHO stage IV (?=-0.62, 95%?CI -1.02 to 0.22), CD4 count (?=0.001, 95%?CI 0.0008 to 0.0015), and time interaction of variables like tertiary educational status (?=0.02, 95%?CI 0.01 to 0.04), ambulatory functional status (?=0.03, 95%?CI 0.01 to 0.05) and WHO stages III (?=0.01, 95%?CI 0.007 to 0.02) were found to be significant predictors. CONCLUSION:The BMI of patients has shown linear increment over the treatment time. Factors affecting it have been identified but its effect on cardiovascular disease needs further study.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Malnutrition especially undernutrition is the main problem that is seen over people living with HIV/AIDS and can occur at any age. Multiple factors contributed to undernutrition of HIV/AIDS patients and it need immediate identification and prompt action. The objective of this study was to assess the nutritional status of patients and identify factors associated with undernutrition among HIV/AIDS patients on follow-up care in Jimma medical center, Southwest Ethiopia. METHODS:A cross-sectional study design was conducted from March-April 2016. Data were collected retrospectively from clinical records of HIV/AIDS patients enrolled for follow up care in ART clinic from June 2010 to January 2016. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis were performed to identify independent predictor of undernutrition. RESULTS:Data of 1062 patients were included in the study. The prevalence of undernutrition (BMI<18.5 kg/m2) and overweight or obesity were 34% and 9%, respectively. Out of undernourished patients, severely malnourished patients (BMI<16 kg/m2) accounted of 9%. Undernutrition was more likely among widowed patients (AOR = 1.7, 95% CI, 1.03-2.79), patients with no access to water supply (AOR = 1.69, 95% CI, 1.16-2.47) and patients in the WHO clinical stage of three (AOR = 2.0, 95% CI, 1.33-2.97) and four (AOR = 3.0, 95% CI, 1.74-5.07). Moreover, the odds of undernutrition was more likely among patients with CD4 cell count of <200 cells/mm3 (AOR = 2.0, 95% CI, 1.38-2.47) and patients with a functional status of bedridden (AOR = 3.6, 95% CI, 1.55-8.35) and ambulatory (AOR = 2.4, 95% CI, 1.66-3.51), respectively. CONCLUSION:Both undernutrition and overweight or obesity were prevalent among HIV/AIDS patients in Jimma Medical Center, Ethiopia. Undernutrition was significantly associated with clinical outcome of patients. Hence, nutritional assessment, care and support should be strengthened. Critical identification of malnourished patients and prompt interventions should be undertaken.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Treatment failure defined as progression of disease after initiation of ART or when the anti-HIV medications can't control the infection. One of the major concerns over the rapid scaling up of ART is the emergence and transmission of HIV drug resistant strains at the population level due to treatment failure. This could lead to the failure of basic ART programs. Thus this study aimed to investigate the predictors of treatment failure among adult ART clients in Bale Zone Hospitals, South east Ethiopia. METHODS:Retrospective cohort study was employed in four hospitals of Bale zone named Goba, Robe, Ginir and Delomena. A total of 4,809 adult ART clients were included in the analysis from these four hospitals. Adherence was measured by pill count method. The Kaplan Meier (KM) curve was used to describe the survival time of ART patients without treatment failure. Bivariate and multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression models were used for identifying associated factors of treatment failure. RESULT:The incidence rate of treatment failure was found 9.38 (95% CI 7.79-11.30) per 1000 person years. Male ART clients were more likely to experience treatment failure as compared to females [AHR = 4.49; 95% CI: (2.61-7.73)].Similarly, lower CD4 count (<100 m3/dl) at initiation of ART was found significantly associated with higher odds of treatment failure [AHR = 3.79; 95% CI: (2.46-5.84).Bedridden [AHR = 5.02; 95% CI: (1.98-12.73)] and ambulatory [AHR = 2.12; 95% CI: (1.08-4.07)] patients were more likely to experience treatment failure as compared to patients with working functional status. TB co-infected clients had also higher odds to experience treatment failure [AHR = 3.06; 95% CI: (1.72-5.44)]. Those patients who had developed TB after ART initiation had higher odds to experience treatment failure as compared to their counter parts [AHR = 4.35; 95% CI: (1.99-9.54]. Having other opportunistic infection during ART initiation was also associated with higher odds of experiencing treatment failure [AHR = 7.0, 95% CI: (3.19-15.37)]. Similarly having fair [AHR = 4.99 95% CI: (1.90-13.13)] and poor drug adherence [AHR = 2.56; 95% CI: (1.12-5.86)]were significantly associated with higher odds of treatment failure as compared to clients with good adherence. CONCLUSION:The rate of treatment failure in Bale zone hospitals needs attention. Prevention and control of TB and other opportunistic infections, promotion of ART initiation at higher CD4 level, and better functional status, improving drug adherence are important interventions to reduce treatment failure among ART clients in Southeastern Ethiopia.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:Loss to follow up after the initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART) is common in Africa, particularly in Ethiopia and it is a considerable obstacle for the effectiveness of the ART program. Mortality is a competing risk of loss to follow up but it is often overlooked and there is limited evidence about the incidence and predictors of loss to follow up in the presence of competing events. OBJECTIVE:To assess the Incidence and predictors of loss to follow up among adult HIV patients on ART in University of Gondar Comprehensive Specialized Hospital between January 1, 2015, and December 31, 2018. METHODS:Institution based retrospective follow up study was conducted in University of Gondar Comprehensive Specialized Hospital. A Gray's test and cumulative incidence curve were used to compare the cumulative incidence function of loss to follow up. Bivariable and multivariable competing risk regression models were fitted to identify the predictors of lost to follow up and those variables with p-value <0.05 in the multivariable analysis was considered as significant predictors of lost to follow up. RESULT:A total of 531 adult HIV patients on ART were included in the analysis. The incidence rate of loss to follow up in this study was 10.90 (95% CI: 8.9-13.2) per 100 person years. Being age group 15-30 years (aSHR = 2.01; 95%CI;1.11-3.63), being daily laborer(aSHR = 2.60; 95%CI;1.45-4.66), not receiving cotrimoxazole preventive therapy (aSHR = 2.66; 95%CI;1.68-4.21), not receiving isoniazid preventive therapy(aSHR = 4.57; 95% CI;1.60-13.08), ambulatory functional status (aSHR = 1.61; 95% CI; 1.02-2.51) and taking AZT-3TC-NVP medication at start of ART(aSHR = 2.01; 95% CI; 1.16-3.78) were significant predictors of lost to follow up. CONCLUSION:In this study the incidence of lost to follow up was high. Young people, daily laborer, ambulatory patients and those taking AZT-3TC-NVP as well as those who did not take opportunistic prophylaxis were at higher risk of loss to follow up. Therefore, giving special attention to the high-risk groups for lost to follow up highlighted in this study could decrease the rate of LTFU.
Project description:<h4>Introduction</h4>Following global efforts to increase antiretroviral therapy (ART) access and coverage, Ethiopia has made significant achievement with a 6.3% annual decline in the HIV/AIDS incidence rate between 1990 and 2016. Such success depends not only on access to ART but also on attaining optimum treatment adherence. Emerging studies in Ethiopia has shown the increasing prevalence of poor adherence and lack of the desired viral suppression, but the extent and factors associated with non-adherence to ART are not well known, especially in the current study setup. In this study, we examined the magnitude and factors associated with treatment and non-adherence to ART among people living with HIV in Benishangul-Gumuz Regional State, northwest Ethiopia.<h4>Methods</h4>An institutional facility based cross-sectional descriptive study was carried out among adult people living with HIV/AIDS from mid-December 2016 to February 2017 with only 98.9% response rate. Sociodemographic factors (age, gender, marital status and residential area), economic factors (educational status, income, asset possession, employment status, dietary diversity, nutritional status and food security), and clinical characteristics (CD4 count, duration on ART and history of opportunistic infections) were explanatory variables. ART non-adherence was measured using a visual analogue scale (VAS). We used binary logistic regression and subsequent multivariate logistic regression analysis to determine the factors associated with ART non-adherence.<h4>Result</h4>Overall, 39.7% of the participants were found non-adherent to ART. Strong association was found between non-adherence to ART and young age below 25 years (AOR: 4.30, 95% CI [1.39-3.35]; <i>p</i> = 0.011), urban residential area (AOR: 2.78, CI [1.23-7.09], <i>p</i> = 0.043), lack of employment (AOR: 1.75, 95% CI [1.05-2.91], <i>p</i> = 0.032), food insecurity (AOR: 2.67, 95% CI [7.59-8.97]; <i>p</i> < 0.0001), malnutrition (AOR: 1.55, 95% CI [1.94-2.56]; <i>p</i> = 0.027) and opportunistic infections (AOR: 1.81, 95% CI [1.11-2.97]; <i>p</i> = 0.018).<h4>Conclusion</h4>The prevalence of non-adherence to ART in this study was high. Sociodemographic and economic factors such as young age of below 25 years, urban residential area, lack of employment, food insecurity, malnutrition and opportunistic infections were among the factors associated with non-adherence to ART.
Project description:Background:People living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are facing an increased burden of noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) comorbidity. There is, however, paucity of information on the magnitude of HIV-NCDs comorbidity, its associated factors, and how the health system is responding to the double burden in Ethiopia. Objective:To determine the magnitude of comorbidity between HIV and hypertension or diabetes and associated factors among HIV-positive adults receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) in Bahir Dar city, Ethiopia. Methods:A facility-based cross-sectional study was conducted among 560 randomly selected HIV-positive adults taking ART. Data were collected using a structured questionnaire and analyzed using SPSS version 23. Descriptive statistics were used to describe the data. A logistic regression model was fit to identify associated factors with comorbidity of HIV and NCDs. Results:The magnitude of comorbidity was 19.6% (95% confidence interval (CI): 16.0-23.0). Being older (55 and above years) adjusted odds ratio (AOR: 8.5; 95% CI: 3.2-15.1), taking second-line ART regimen containing tenofovir (AOR: 2.7; 95% CI: 1.3-5.6), and increased body mass index (BMI) ?25 (AOR: 2.7; 95% CI: 1.2-6.5) were the factors associated with comorbidity. Participants reported that they were not managed in an integrated and coordinated manner. Conclusions:The magnitude of comorbidity among adults was high in the study area. Being older, second-line ART regimen and high BMI ?25 increased the odds of having NCDs among HIV-positive adults. Targeted screening for the incidences of NCDs, addressing modifiable risk factors, and providing integrated care would help to improve the quality of life comorbid patients.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Discontinuation of antiretroviral therapy (ART) reduces the immunological benefit of treatment and increases complications related to human immune-deficiency virus (HIV). However, the risk factors for ART discontinuation are poorly understood in developing countries particularly in Ethiopia. This review aimed to assess the best available evidence regarding risk factors for ART discontinuation in Ethiopia.<h4>Methods</h4>Quantitative studies conducted in Ethiopia between 2002 and 2015 that evaluated factors associated with ART discontinuation were sought across six major databases. Only English language articles were included. This review considered studies that included the following outcome: ART treatment discontinuation, i.e. 'lost to follow up', 'defaulting' and 'stopping medication'. Meta- analysis was performed with Mantel Haenszel method using Revman-5 software. Summary statistics were expressed as pooled odds ratio with 95% confidence intervals at a p-value of <0.05.<h4>Results</h4>Nine (9) studies met the criteria of the search. Five (5) were retrospective studies, 3 were case control studies, and 1 was a prospective cohort study. The total sample size in the included studies was 62,156. Being rural dweller (OR = 2.1, 95%CI: 1.5-2.7, I2 = 60%), being illiterate (OR = 1.5, 95%CI: 1.1-2.1), being not married (OR = 1.4, 95%CI: 1.1-1.8), being alcohol drinker (OR = 2.9, 95%CI: 1.9-4.4, I2 = 39%), being tobacco smoker (OR = 2.6, 95%CI: 1.6-4.3, I2 = 74%), having mental illness (OR = 2.7, 95%CI: 1.6-4.6, I2 = 0%) and being bed ridden functional status (OR = 2.3, 95%CI: 1.5-3.4, I2 = 37%) were risk factors for ART discontinuation. Whereas, having HIV positive partner (OR = 0.4, 95%CI: 0.3-0.6, I2 = 69%) and being co-infected with Tb/HIV (OR = 0.6, 95%CI: 0.4-0.9, I2 = 0%) were protective factors.<h4>Conclusion</h4>Demographic, behavioral and clinical factors influenced ART treatment discontinuation. Hence, we recommend strengthening decentralization of HIV care services in remote areas, strengthening of ART task shifting, application of seek-test-treat-succeed model, and integration of smoking cession strategies and mental health care into the routine HIV care program.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>In Ethiopia, undernutrition among women on antiretroviral therapy has been a major challenge to achieve the full impact of intervention. Twenty seven percent and 17% of reproductive age Ethiopian women are chronically malnourished and anemic, respectively. Most studies to examine risk factors have been limited to the general population and ART-naive HIV-positive women, making it difficult to generalize findings to ART-treated HIV-positive women. The objectives of this study were thus to assess nutritional status and associated factors among adult women (? 20 years) on antiretroviral therapy.<h4>Methods</h4>From August to September we conducted an Institution based cross-sectional survey among 276 women on antiretroviral therapy in Humera Hospital, Tigray, Ethiopia. Data was collected using structured and standard face to face interview, anthropometric measurements, BD FACS (CD4 count machine) and Sysmex-21 (hemoglobin analyzer). Logistic regression was done using SPSS version 16 to identify factors that are associated with nutritional status.<h4>Results</h4>The prevalence of under nutrition (Body mass index < 18.5 kg/m(2)) Was 42.3% (95% CI: 37.4% - 47.3%). Severe, moderate and mild under nutrition was detected on 12%, 10% and 20.3% respondents, respectively. The prevalence of wasting (percentage body weight loss >5%) was 75% (95% CI: 70.4% - 79.2%). Severe wasting was accounted for 26.9% of respondents.In the multivariate analysis, Household food insecurity [AOR = 1.85; 95%CI 1.16, 2.86], inadequate dietary diversity [AOR = 1.19; 95%CI 1.08, 1.75], anemia [AOR = 1.67; 95%CI 1.05, 2.65] and absence of nutritional support [AOR = 0.34 95%CI 0.22, 0.54) were found to be independent predictors of under-nutrition.<h4>Conclusion</h4>HIV/AIDS is associated with an increased burden of undernutrition even among ART treated women in Humera Hospital, Tigray, Ethiopia. In addition to ART among HIV positive women interventions to ameliorate poor nutritional status may be necessary in this and similar settings. Such interventions aimed at improving household food security, dietary diversity, micronutrient supplementation, proper use of therapeutic food, as well as treating oral candidiasis.
Project description:<h4>Aim</h4>To evaluate the prevalence and associated factors of abnormal renal function among Ethiopian HIV-infected patients at baseline prior to initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART) and during follow-up.<h4>Methods</h4>We conducted a retrospective observational cohort study of HIV infected patients who initiated ART at the outpatient ART clinic of Mehal Meda Hospital of North Shewa, Ethiopia from January 2012 to August 2018. Demographic and clinical data were abstracted from the medical records of patients. Renal function was assessed by estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) calculated using the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) equation. Univariate and multivariate analysis were conducted to determine the factors associated with abnormal renal function at baseline and during follow-up.<h4>Results</h4>Among 353 patients, 70 (19.8%) had baseline eGFR <60 ml/min/1.73m2 and 102 (28.9%) had eGFR = 60-89.9 ml/min/1.73m2. Factors associated with baseline renal impairment (eGFR <60 ml/min/1.73m2) included female sex (AOR = 3.52, CI 1.75-7.09), CD4 count < 200 cells/mm3 (AOR = 2.75, CI 1.40-5.42), BMI < 25 Kg/m2 (AOR = 3.04, CI 1.15-8.92), low hemoglobin (AOR = 2.19, CI 1.16-4.09) and high total cholesterol (AOR = 3.15, CI 1.68-5.92). After a median of 3.0 years of ART, the mean eGFR declined from 112.9 ± 81.2 ml/min/1.73m2 at baseline to 93.9 ± 60.6 ml/min/1.73m2 (P < 0.001). The prevalence of renal impairment increased from 19.8% at baseline to 22.1% during follow-up. Of 181 patients with baseline normal renal function, 49.7% experienced some degree of renal impairment. Older age (AOR = 3.85, 95% CI 2.03-7.31), female sex (AOR = 4.18, 95% CI 2.08-8.40), low baseline CD4 (AOR = 2.41, 95% CI 1.24-4.69), low current CD4 count (AOR = 2.32, 95% CI 1.15-4.68), high BMI (AOR = 2.91, 95% CI 1.49-5.71), and low hemoglobin (AOR = 3.38, 95% CI 2.00-7.46) were the factors associated with renal impairment during follow-up.<h4>Conclusion</h4>Impaired renal function was common in HIV-infected patients initiating ART in an outpatient setting in Ethiopia, and there appears to be a high prevalence of renal impairment after a median ART follow-up of 3 years. There is a need for assessment of renal function at baseline before ART initiation and regular monitoring of renal function for patients with HIV during follow-up.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Treatment resistant hypertension(TRH) is detrimental risk of cardiovascular and premature deaths. Globally, the prevalence of resistant hypertension is inclining from time to time and it is yet to be determined in Ethiopia. OBJECTIVE:To assess the prevalence of apparent TRH and its predictors among ambulatory hypertensive patients on follow up in hypertension clinic of Mekelle Hospital, Northern Ethiopia. METHOD:A hospital based cross sectional study was conducted from Nov 25, 2018 to July 20, 2019, among 338 adult ambulatory hypertensive patients on follow up in Mekelle Hospital hypertension clinic. Hypertensive patient aged ?18 years who were on regular follow up and taking antihypertensive medications for at least 6 months were included in the study. A simple random sampling technique was used to recruit the study patients. RESULTS:A total of 338 adult ambulatory hypertensive patients were analysed. More than half, 182 (53.8%) patients were females and the average age of the patients was 58.9 ±11.5. Three hundred thirty-three (98.5%) patients had no family history of hypertension. Majority, 66.8% of the patients were on monotherapy. The prevalence of apparent TRH was calculated to be 8.6% [Confidence Interval = 0.056-0.116]. Patients with Body Mass Index(BMI) greater than 30[Adjusted Odds Ratio(AOR) = 12.1, 95%CI:2.00-73.19, p = 0.007] and longer duration of hypertension were the predictors of resistant hypertension. CONCLUSION:Even if escalation of antihypertensive medications was not aggressive, apparent TRH was common in the study setting. Obesity (BMI greater than 30) and longer duration of hypertension since diagnosis were the predictors of TRH. Meticulous emphasis should be placed on to detect the prevalence of true hypertension resistance and future studies should discover the impact of aggressive antihypertensive medications scale up on the risks of TRH.
Project description:HIV is usually associated with weight loss. World health Organization (WHO) recommends early antiretroviral (ART) initiation, but data on the progression of body mass index (BMI) in participants initiating early ART in Africa are scarce.The Temprano randomized trial was conducted in Abidjan to assess the effectiveness of early ART and Isoniazid (INH) prophylaxis for tuberculosis in HIV-infected persons with high CD4 counts below 800 cells/mm(3) without any indication for starting ART. Patients initiating early ART before December 2010 were included in this sub-study. BMI was categorized as: underweight (<18.5 kg/m(2)), normal weight (18.5-24.9 kg/m(2)), overweight (25-29.9 kg/m(2)) and obese (≥30 kg/m(2)). At baseline and after 24 months of ART, prevalence of being overweight or obese and factors associated with being overweight or obese were estimated using univariate and multivariate logistic regression.At baseline, 755 participants (78 % women; median CD4 count 442/mm(3), median baseline BMI 22 kg/m(2)) initiated ART. Among them, 19.7 % were overweight, and 7.2 % were obese at baseline. Factors associated with being overweight or obese were: female sex aOR 2.3 (95 % CI 1.4-3.7), age, aOR for 5 years 1.01 (95 % CI 1.0-1.2), high living conditions aOR 2.6 (95 % CI 1.5-4.4), High blood pressure aOR 4.3 (95 % CI 2.0-9.2), WHO stage 2vs1 aOR 0.7 (95 % CI 0.4-1.0) and Hemoglobin ≥95 g/dl aOR 3.0 (95 % CI 1.6-5.8). Among the 597 patients who attended the M24 visit, being overweight or obese increased from 20.4 to 24.8 % (p = 0.01) and 7.2 to 9.2 % (p = 0.03) respectively and factor associated with being overweight or obese was immunological response measured as an increase of CD4 cell count between M0-M24 (for +50 cells/mm(3): aOR 1.01; 95 % CI 1.05-1.13, p = 0.01).The weight categories overweight and obese are highly prevalent in HIV-infected persons with high CD4 cell counts at baseline, and increased over 24 months on ART in this Sub-Saharan African population.