Barriers to outpatient education for medical students: a narrative review.
ABSTRACT: Objectives:This study surveys medical education literature published over the last 25 years (1993-2018) to identify the factors scholars consider deleterious to outpatient teaching for medical students. Methods:This study conducts a review of medical education literature published between 1993 and 2018 using Medline, Lilacs, Ibecs, Cochrane Library, and Scielo databases. The following search terms were utilized: "Education, Medical, Undergraduate" AND "Ambulatory Care" AND "Teaching/methods" OR "Clinical Clerkship" OR "Preceptorship." This study focuses on papers describing deleterious factors for outpatient teaching with medical students and analyzes their results, discussions, and conclusions sections. Results:Of the 363 articles obtained, this study selected 33 for analysis. These papers identify numerous factors as barriers to outpatient education. For didactic purposes, these factors are categorized into four barrier groups: environment-institution, academic staff, students, and patients. Academic staff-related teaching barrier was the most frequently mentioned obstacle. Intense care schedule with little teaching time was considered the most common and relevant barrier to outpatient medical education, followed by inappropriate teaching environment and inadequate supervision model. Conclusions:There is a lack of recent literature on studies focusing on barriers to effective outpatient medical education. Factors identified as harmful to outpatient education have been pointed out by course directors, academic staff, and students in the literature. However, many of these factors remain overlooked by educators, who can use these factors to modify their academic activities for more effective results.
Project description:Having teaching staff with didactic qualifications in university teaching leads to a measurable improvement in academic skills among students. Previous recommendations on the type and scope of medical didactic qualification measures primarily apply to teaching staff at university and in-patient settings. The situation of primary care medicine, which often employs external lecturers and whose teaching takes place to a considerable extent in decentralized training facilities (teaching practices) is not adequately addressed. Taking into account a survey on the status quo at higher education institutions for General Practice in Germany, recommendations for minimum standards are made, based on national and international recommendations on the content and scope of medical didactic qualification measures. These recommendations include preliminary work by the Personnel and Organizational Development in Teaching (POiL) Committee of the Society for Medical Education (GMA), the MedicalTeachingNetwork (MDN), the Society of University Teaching Staff in General Medicine (GHA) as well as the experiences of the committee members, who hail from the field of general medicine, internal medicine and pediatrics amongst others.
Project description:The increased use of social media, cloud computing, and mobile devices has led to the emergence of guidelines and novel teaching efforts to guide students toward the appropriate use of technology. Despite this, violations of professional conduct are common.We sought to explore professional behaviors specific to appropriate use of technology by looking at changes in third-year medical students' attitudes and behaviors at the beginning and conclusion of their clinical clerkships.After formal teaching about digital professionalism, we administered a survey to medical students that described 35 technology-related behaviors and queried students about professionalism of the behavior (on a 5-point Likert scale), observation of others engaging in the behavior (yes or no), as well as personal participation in the behavior (yes or no). Students were resurveyed at the end of the academic year.Over the year, perceptions of what is considered acceptable behavior regarding privacy, data security, communications, and social media boundaries changed, despite formal teaching sessions to reinforce professional behavior. Furthermore, medical students who observed unprofessional behaviors were more likely to participate in such behaviors.Although technology is a useful tool to enhance teaching and learning, our results reflect an erosion of professionalism related to information security that occurred despite medical school and hospital-based teaching sessions to promote digital professionalism. True alteration of trainee behavior will require a cultural shift that includes continual education, better role models, and frequent reminders for faculty, house staff, students, and staff.
Project description:Introduction: To reflect the ever-growing importance of outpatient care in medical education, MaReCuM - a reformed curriculum, also referred to as a model study programme - was introduced at the Medical Faculty Mannheim in 2006. It divided the final year of medical study into quarters and added a mandatory quarter dedicated to ambulatory medicine. This project report presents our experiences, the costs and the evaluation results connected with making specific changes to the final year of undergraduate medical study. Project description: The final-year quarter in ambulatory medicine, taught at the Medical Faculty's outpatient teaching placements, allows final-year medical students to gather practical experience in one of four elective areas in outpatient care. The parallel coursework encompasses interactive case presentations and practical reviews. Relevant curricular content on ambulatory medicine is then tested in the oral/practical section of the M3 medical examination. Results: Students are very satisfied with the academic quality of the final-year quarter in ambulatory medicine. Restructuring the final year, generating the concept and recruiting teaching placements at outpatient facilities required additional full-time positions in the beginning. Discussion: The processes of reforming MaReCuM have not only contributed to a stronger recognition of ambulatory medicine in the final year and in the clinical phase of study, but have also enabled broader opportunities for focussing individual choices during medical education. A high caliber of academics in the quarter in ambulatory medicine can be achieved with a calculable amount of organisational effort. Conclusion: Anchoring a curriculum on ambulatory medicine in medical education is possible through restructuring the final year and is received positively by students. The success of MaReCuM demonstrates the feasibility of the recommendations made by the German Council of Science and Humanities (Wissenschaftsrat).
Project description:The European Higher Education Area (EHEA) is an opportunity to redesign medical education. Academic training is now focused on acquiring not only knowledge, but also those competencies critical to face complex professional scenarios. Together with re-evaluating traditional teaching methods, EHEA has forced a technological shift in the way we teach. By critically assessing the impact of novel teaching methodologies, we can better define biomedical education demands. Here, we address this question on a sample of medical students instructed in basic subjects along the first two academic courses. Two hundred and one medical students participated in the study (n = 128 first year, n = 73 second year). Quantitative (conventional survey statistics) and qualitative (open coding) approaches were combined to analyze data from surveys, confidential questionnaires, semi-structured interviews and open discussion. First year medical students rated more positively the use of participatory methodologies than second year students. A major drawback is detected in the perceived workload. Active teaching methodologies show a strong reliance on their time of implementation for medical students, a key aspect to be considered in the design of integrative participatory curricula along the first academic courses.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Sierra Leone, a low-income and post-conflict country, has an extreme shortage of qualified medical doctors. Given the complex challenges facing medical education in this country and the need for context-specific knowledge, the aim of this paper is to explore the undergraduate medical education experience in Sierra Leone through qualitative interviews with recent graduates. METHODS:In-depth interviews were conducted with purposively sampled junior doctors (n?=?15) who had graduated from the only medical school in Sierra Leone. Additionally, semi-structured interviews were held with senior teaching staff at the School (n?=?7). Interviews were conducted in October 2013. Results were thematically analysed. RESULTS:The analytical framework consisted of four themes. Medical school experiences (Theme 1) were described as 'stressful and tedious' but also 'interesting and enjoyable'. Various constraints were experienced linked to the Medical school capacity (Theme 2), including human (limited number of teachers, teaching skills), organisational (departmental differences, curriculum related challenges), physical (lacking teaching facilities on campus, transportation problems) and financial capacity (inadequate remunerations for teachers, most students receive scholarships). Medical school culture (Theme 3) was by some participants perceived as fearful and unfair. Findings suggest various coping strategies (Theme 4) were used at school ('creatively' hire extra teaching staff, teaching schedule upon availability of staff), staff (juggle multiple roles, teach flexibly), and student levels (comply with 'hidden' rules, negotiate teaching support from less qualified health personnel). CONCLUSIONS:This study has provided an insight into the student perspective on medical education in Sierra Leone. Numerous capacity related concerns were identified; which are unsurprising for an educational institution in a low-income and conflict affected country. While the School, staff and students have found creative ways to deal with these constraints, participants' accounts of stress imply more is needed. For example, findings suggest that: students could be better supported in their self-directed learning, more effort is required to ensure basic needs of students are met (like shelter and food), and the power imbalance between staff and students could be addressed. Also better alignment amongst learning objectives and assessment methods will likely diminish student distress and may, consequently, reduce exam failure and possibly drop-out.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Despite the increasing interest in medical education in the German-speaking countries, there is currently no information available on the challenges which medical educators face. To address this problem, we carried out a web-based survey among the members of the Association for Medical Education (Gesellschaft für medizinische Ausbildung, GMA). METHODS: A comprehensive survey was carried out on the need for further qualifications, expertise and the general conditions of medical educators in Germany. As part of this study, the educators were asked to list the three main challenges which they faced and which required urgent improvement. The results were analysed by means of qualitative content analysis. RESULTS: The questionnaire was completed by 147 of the 373 members on the GMA mailing list (response rate: 39%). The educators named a total of 346 challenges and emphasised the following areas: limited academic recognition for engagement in teaching (53.5% of educators), insufficient institutional (31.5%) and financial support (28.4%), a curriculum in need of reform (22.8%), insufficient time for teaching assignments (18,9%), inadequate teacher competence in teaching methods (18.1%), restricted faculty development programmes (18.1%), limited networking within the institution (11.0%), lack of teaching staff (10.2%), varying preconditions of students (8.7%), insufficient recognition and promotion of medical educational research (5.5%), extensive assessment requirements (4.7%), and the lack of role models within medical education (3.2%). CONCLUSION: The medical educators found the biggest challenges which they faced to be limited academic recognition and insufficient institutional and financial support. Consequently, improvements should be implemented to address these issues.
Project description:Background: There is general consensus that the organizational and administrative aspects of academic study programs exert an important influence on teaching and learning. Despite this, no comprehensive framework currently exists to describe the conditions that affect the quality of teaching and learning in medical education. The aim of this paper is to systematically and comprehensively identify these factors to offer academic administrators and decision makers interested in improving teaching a theory-based and, to an extent, empirically founded framework on the basis of which improvements in teaching quality can be identified and implemented. Method: Primarily, the issue was addressed by combining a theory-driven deductive approach with an experience based, "best evidence" one during the course of two workshops held by the GMA Committee on Personnel and Organizational Development in Academic Teaching (POiL) in Munich (2013) and Frankfurt (2014). Two models describing the conditions relevant to teaching and learning (Euler/Hahn and Rindermann) were critically appraised and synthesized into a new third model. Practical examples of teaching strategies that promote or hinder learning were compiled and added to the categories of this model and, to the extent possible, supported with empirical evidence. Based on this, a checklist with recommendations for optimizing general academic conditions was formulated. Results: The Frankfurt Model of conditions to ensure Quality in Teaching and Learning covers six categories: organizational structure/medical school culture, regulatory frameworks, curricular requirements, time constraints, material and personnel resources, and qualification of teaching staff. These categories have been supplemented by the interests, motives and abilities of the actual teachers and students in this particular setting. The categories of this model provide the structure for a checklist in which recommendations for optimizing teaching are given. Conclusions: The checklist derived from the Frankfurt Model for ensuring quality in teaching and learning can be used for quality assurance and to improve the conditions under which teaching and learning take place in medical schools.
Project description:Attitudes towards conflict of interest (COI) and COI policy are shaped during medical school and influence both the education of medical students and their future medical practice. Understanding the current attitudes of medical students and medical school teaching faculty may provide insight into what is taught about COI and COI policy within the 'hidden' medical curriculum. Differences between medical student and medical school teaching faculty perceptions of COI and COI policy have not been compared in detail. The authors surveyed first year medical students and medical school teaching faculty at one academic medical center.The response rate was 98.7% (150/152) for students and 34.2% (69/202) for faculty. Students were less likely than faculty to agree that lecturers should disclose COI to any learners (4.06 vs. 4.31, p = 0.01), but more likely to agree that COI disclosure decreases the presentation of biased material (3.80 vs. 3.21, p < 0.001). Student and faculty responses for all other questions were not different. Many of these responses suggest student and faculty support for stronger COI policy at academic medical centers.Students and faculty perceptions regarding COI and COI policy are largely similar, but differ in terms of the perceived effectiveness of COI disclosure. This study also suggests that medical students and medical school teaching faculty support for stronger COI policy at academic medical centers.
Project description:Although a number of studies have attempted to determine the antecedents, correlates, and consequences of students' academic performance, there are few studies in the literature that examine the correlates of academic achievement for physical education and sports undergraduate students. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between the academic achievement of first-year physical education and sports students and their sociodemographics, attitudes towards the teaching profession, personality traits, and achievement goal orientations. The participants of the study consisted of 127 (67% male) physical education and sports students, ranging in age from 16 to 30 years old when they began their studies. Participants responded to a questionnaire to determine their sociodemographic characteristics, their attitudes towards the teaching profession in their high school years, their core self-evaluations, and their achievement goal orientations. Pearson correlation analysis results showed that students' first year grade-point average (GPA) was associated with gender, high school GPA, core-self evaluations, and mastery-approach achievement goal orientation. Results of the regression analysis suggested that the three variables that predicted the students' first year GPA were their mastery-approach scores, attitudes towards the teaching profession in high school years, and high school GPA. In order to prevent academic failure in physical education and sports students, those who do not have a mastery-approach goal orientation and who had a low high school GPA should be identified at the beginning of the academic year, so that educational interventions can be directed at these students.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Although hospitalists may improve efficiency and quality of inpatient care, their effect on healthcare-worker communication and education has been less well-studied. OBJECTIVE:To test various approaches to improving healthcare-worker communication and learner education within the context of a newly designed academic hospital medicine program. DESIGN:Before-and-after design with concurrent control group. SETTING:A Midwestern Veterans Affairs medical center. INTERVENTION:Multimodal systems redesign of 1 of 4 medical teams (Gold team) that included clinical modifications (change in rounding structure, with inclusion of nurses, a Clinical Care Coordinator, and a pharmacist) and educational interventions (providing explicit expectations of learners and providing a reading list for both learners and attending physicians). MEASUREMENTS:Number of admissions, length of stay, readmissions, house officer and medical student ratings of attendings' teaching, medical student internal medicine National Board of Medical Examiners Subject Examination ("shelf" exam) scores, and clinical staff surveys. RESULTS:Length of stay was reduced by about 0.3 days on all teams after the initiative began (P = 0.004), with no significant differences between Gold and non-Gold teams. The majority of physicians (83%) and nurses (68%) felt that including nurses during rounds improved healthcare-worker communication; significantly more nurses were satisfied with communication with the Gold team than with the other teams (71% vs 53%; P = 0.02). Gold attendings generally received higher teaching scores compared with non-Gold attendings, and third-year medical students on the Gold team scored significantly higher on the shelf exam compared with non-Gold team students (84 vs 82; P = 0.006). CONCLUSIONS:Academic hospitalists working within a systems redesign intervention were able to improve healthcare-worker communication and enhance learner education without increasing patient length of stay or readmission rates.