Activation of YAP attenuates hepatic damage and fibrosis in liver ischemia-reperfusion injury.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND & AIMS:Hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) is a major complication of hemorrhagic shock, liver resection and transplantation. YAP, a key downstream effector of the Hippo pathway, is essential for determining cell fate and maintaining homeostasis in the liver. We aimed to elucidate its role in IRI. METHODS:The role of YAP/Hippo signaling was systematically studied in biopsy specimens from 60 patients after orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT), and in a mouse model of liver warm IRI. Human biopsy specimens were collected after 2-10?h of cold storage and 3?h post-reperfusion, before being screened by western blot. In the mouse model, the role of YAP was probed by activating or inhibiting YAP prior to ischemia-reperfusion. RESULTS:In human biopsies, high post-OLT YAP expression was correlated with well-preserved histology and improved hepatocellular function at postoperative day 1-7. In mice, the ischemia insult (90?min) triggered intrinsic hepatic YAP expression, which peaked at 1-6?h of reperfusion. Activation of YAP protected the liver against IR-stress, by promoting regenerative and anti-oxidative gene induction, while diminishing oxidative stress, necrosis/apoptosis and the innate inflammatory response. Inhibition of YAP aggravated hepatic IRI and suppressed repair/anti-oxidative genes. In mouse hepatocyte cultures, activating YAP prevented hypoxia-reoxygenation induced stress. Interestingly, YAP activation suppressed extracellular matrix synthesis and diminished hepatic stellate cell (HSC) activation, whereas YAP inhibition significantly delayed hepatic repair, potentiated HSC activation, and enhanced liver fibrosis at 7?days post-IRI. Notably, YAP activation failed to protect Nrf2-deficient livers against IR-mediated damage, leading to extensive fibrosis. CONCLUSION:Our novel findings document the crucial role of YAP in IR-mediated hepatocellular damage and liver fibrogenesis, providing evidence of a potential therapeutic target for the management of sterile liver inflammation in transplant recipients. LAY SUMMARY:In the clinical arm, graft YAP expression negatively correlated with liver function and tissue damage after human liver transplantation. YAP activation attenuated hepatocellular oxidative stress and diminished the innate immune response in mouse livers following ischemia-reperfusion injury. In the mouse model, YAP inhibited hepatic stellate cell activation, and abolished injury-mediated fibrogenesis up to 7?days after the ischemic insult.
Project description:Liver ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) represents a risk factor for early graft dysfunction and an obstacle to expanding donor pool in orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT). We have reported on the crucial role of macrophage Notch1 signaling in mouse warm hepatic IRI model. However, its clinical relevance or therapeutic potential remain unknown. Here, we used Serelaxin (SER), to verify Notch1 induction and putative hepatoprotective function in ischemia-reperfusion-stressed OLT. C57BL/6 mouse livers subjected to extended (18-hour) cold storage were transplanted to syngeneic recipients. SER treatment at reperfusion ameliorated IRI, improved post-OLT survival, decreased neutrophil/macrophage infiltration, and suppressed proinflammatory cytokine programs, while simultaneously increasing Notch intracellular domain (NICD) and hairy and enhancer of split 1 (Hes1) target genes. In bone marrow-derived macrophage cultures, SER suppressed proinflammatory while enhancing antiinflammatory gene expression concomitantly with increased NICD and Hes1. Hepatic biopsies from 21 adult primary liver transplant patients (2 hours postreperfusion) were divided into low-NICD (n = 11) and high-NICD (n = 10) expression groups (western blots). Consistent with our murine findings, human livers characterized by high NICD were relatively IRI resistant, as shown by serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels at day 1 post-OLT. Our study documents the efficacy of SER-Notch1 signaling in mouse OLT and highlights the protective function of Notch1 in liver transplant patients.
Project description:Although CEACAM1 (CC1) glycoprotein resides at the interface of immune liver injury and metabolic homeostasis, its role in orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) remains elusive. We aimed to determine whether/how CEACAM1 signaling may affect hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) and OLT outcomes. In the mouse, donor liver CC1 null mutation augmented IRI-OLT (CC1-KO?WT) by enhancing ROS expression and HMGB1 translocation during cold storage, data supported by in vitro studies where hepatic flush from CC1-deficient livers enhanced macrophage activation in bone marrow-derived macrophage cultures. Although hepatic CC1 deficiency augmented cold stress-triggered ASK1/p-p38 upregulation, adjunctive ASK1 inhibition alleviated IRI and improved OLT survival by suppressing p-p38 upregulation, ROS induction, and HMGB1 translocation (CC1-KO?WT), whereas ASK1 silencing (siRNA) promoted cytoprotection in cold-stressed and damage-prone CC1-deficient hepatocyte cultures. Consistent with mouse data, CEACAM1 expression in 60 human donor liver biopsies correlated negatively with activation of the ASK1/p-p38 axis, whereas low CC1 levels associated with increased ROS and HMGB1 translocation, enhanced innate and adaptive immune responses, and inferior early OLT function. Notably, reduced donor liver CEACAM1 expression was identified as one of the independent predictors for early allograft dysfunction (EAD) in human OLT patients. Thus, as a checkpoint regulator of IR stress and sterile inflammation, CEACAM1 may be considered as a denominator of donor hepatic tissue quality, and a target for therapeutic modulation in OLT recipients.
Project description:Liver endothelial cell (LEC) damage is essential in the pathogenesis of ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) in transplant recipients. We analyzed the mechanism of LEC resistance against IRI by using a novel recombinant soluble form of P selectin glycoprotein ligand 1, tandem P selectin glycoprotein ligand immunoglobulin (TSGL-Ig), in a mouse model of hepatic cold preservation (4°C in University of Wisconsin solution for 20 h) and syngeneic orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT). Unlike controls, TSGL-Ig protected orthotopic liver transplants against ischemia-reperfusion (IR) stress, shown by depressed serum alanine aminotransferase levels, well-preserved hepatic architecture, and improved survival (42% vs. 92%). TSGL-Ig suppressed neutrophil/macrophage sequestration and proinflammatory cytokine/chemokine programs in OLT. Treatment with TSGL-Ig mitigated LEC activation (P and E selectin, VCAM-1 and intercellular adhesion molecule 1 expression). In parallel in vitro studies, TSGL-Ig diminished cellular damage in H2 O2 -stressed LEC cultures (lactic acid dehydrogenase and alanine aminotransferase levels). Increased thioredoxin, glutamate-cysteine ligase, NAD(P)H quinone dehydrogenase 1, and hypoxia-inducible factor 1? expression, along with transcription factor nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), implied that TSGL-Ig exerts antioxidant functions in IR-stressed OLT and H2 O2 -stressed LECs. Indeed, Nrf2-deficient livers suffered fulminant IRI compared with WT despite concomitant TSGL-Ig therapy. Thus, TSGL-Ig is not only acting as a competitive antagonist blocking leukocyte migration into IR-stressed liver, but it may also act directly as an agonist stimulating Nrf2-mediated cytoprotection in LECs. This study supports the role of P selectin signaling in hepatic homeostasis in OLT, with broad implications for tissue damage conditions.
Project description:OBJECTIVE AND BACKGROUND:Pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) on immune and parenchymal cells can detect danger-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) released from cells damaged during ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI), in heart attack or stroke settings, but also as an unavoidable consequence of solid organ transplantation. Despite IRI being a significant clinical problem across all solid organ transplants, there are limited therapeutics and patient-specific diagnostics currently available. METHODS:We screened portal blood samples obtained from 67 human liver transplant recipients both pre- [portal vein (PV) sample] and post-(liver flush; LF) reperfusion for their ability to activate a panel of PRRs, and analyzed this reactivity in relation to biopsy-proven IRI. RESULTS:PV samples from IRI+ orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) patients (n = 35) decreased activation of hTLR4- and hTLR9-transfected cells, whereas PV from IRI- patients (n = 32) primarily increased hTLR7 and hNOD2 activation. LF samples from OLT-IRI patients significantly increased activation of hTLR4 and hTLR9 over IRI- LF. In addition, the change from baseline reactivity to hTLR4/9/NOD2 was significantly higher in IRI+ than IRI- OLT patients. CONCLUSIONS:These results demonstrate that TLR4/7/9 and NOD2 are involved in either promoting or attenuating hepatic IRI, and suggest a diagnostic screening of portal blood for reactivity to these PRRs might prove useful for prediction and/or therapeutic intervention in OLT patients before transplantation.
Project description:Hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) is the most common cause of liver damage leading to surgical failures in hepatectomy and liver transplantation. Extensive inflammatory reactions and oxidative responses are reported to be the major processes exacerbating IRI. The involvement of Yes-associated protein (YAP) in either process has been suggested, but the role and mechanism of YAP in IRI remain unclear. In this study, we constructed hepatocyte-specific YAP knockout (YAP-HKO) mice and induced a hepatic IRI model. Surprisingly, the amount of serum EVs decreased in YAP-HKO compared to WT mice during hepatic IRI. Then, we found that the activation of YAP increased EV secretion through F-actin by increasing membrane formation, while inhibiting the fusion of multivesicular body (MVB) and lysosomes in hepatocytes. Further, to explore the essential elements of YAP-induced EVs, we applied mass spectrometry and noticed CD47 was among the top targets highly expressed on hepatocyte-derived EVs. Thus, we enriched CD47<sup>+</sup> EVs by microbeads and applied the isolated CD47<sup>+</sup> EVs on IRI mice. We found ameliorated IRI symptoms after CD47<sup>+</sup> EV treatment in these mice, and CD47<sup>+</sup> EVs bound to CD172<i>α</i> on the surface of dendritic cells (DCs), which inhibited DC activation and the cascade of inflammatory responses. Our data showed that CD47-enriched EVs were released in a YAP-dependent manner by hepatocytes, which could inhibit DC activation and contribute to the amelioration of hepatic IRI. CD47<sup>+</sup> EVs could be a potential strategy for treating hepatic IRI.
Project description:Sotraustaurin (STN), a small molecule, targeted protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitor that prevents T-lymphocyte activation via a calcineurin-independent pathway, is currently being tested in Phase II renal and liver transplantation clinical trials. We have documented the key role of activated T cells in the inflammation cascade leading to liver ischemia/reperfusion injury (IRI). This study explores putative cytoprotective functions of STN in a clinically relevant rat model of hepatic cold ischemia followed by orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT). Livers from Sprague-Dawley rats were stored for 30 h at 4°C in UW solution, and then transplanted to syngeneic recipients. STN treatment of liver donors/recipients or recipients only prolonged OLT survival to >90% (vs. 40% in controls), decreased hepatocellular damage and improved histological features of IRI. STN treatment decreased activation of T cells, and diminished macrophage/neutrophil accumulation in OLTs. These beneficial effects were accompanied by diminished apoptosis, NF-?B/ERK signaling, depressed proapoptotic cleaved caspase-3, yet upregulated antiapoptotic Bcl-2/Bcl-xl and hepatic cell proliferation. In vitro, STN decreased PKC?/I?B? activation and IL-2/IFN-? production in ConA-stimulated spleen T cells, and diminished TNF-?/IL-1? in macrophage-T cell cocultures. This study documents positive effects of STN on liver IRI in OLT rat model that may translate as an additional benefit of STN in clinical liver transplantation.
Project description:Ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI), an innate immunity-driven local inflammation, remains the major problem in clinical organ transplantation. T cell immunoglobulin and mucin domain (TIM-3)-Galectin-9 (Gal-9) signaling regulates CD4+ Th1 immune responses. Here, we explored TIM-3-Gal-9 function in a clinically relevant murine model of hepatic cold storage and orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT). C57BL/6 livers, preserved for 20?h at 4°C in UW solution, were transplanted to syngeneic mouse recipients. Up-regulation of TIM-3 on OLT-infiltrating activated CD4+ T cells was observed in the early IRI phase (1?h). By 6?h of reperfusion, OLTs in recipients treated with a blocking anti-TIM-3 Ab were characterized by: (1) enhanced hepatocellular damage (sALT levels, liver Suzuki's histological score); (2) polarized cell infiltrate towards Th1/Th17-type phenotype; (3) depressed T cell exhaustion markers (PD-1, LAG3); and (4) elevated neutrophil and macrophage infiltration/activation. In parallel studies, adoptive transfer of CD4+ T cells from naïve WT, but not from TIM-3 Tg donors, readily recreated OLT damage in otherwise IR-resistant RAG(-/-) test recipients. Furthermore, pre-treatment of mice with rGal-9 promoted hepatoprotection against preservation-association liver damage, accompanied by enhanced TIM-3 expression in OLTs. Thus, CD4+ T cell-dependent "negative" TIM-3 costimulation is essential for hepatic homeostasis and resistance against IR stress in OLTs.
Project description:The Keap1-Nrf2 signaling pathway regulates host cell defense responses against oxidative stress and maintains the cellular redox balance.We investigated the function/molecular mechanisms by which Keap1-Nrf2 complex may influence liver ischemia/reperfusion injury (IRI) in a mouse model of hepatic cold storage (20h at 4°C) followed by orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT).The Keap1 hepatocyte-specific knockout (HKO) in the donor liver ameliorated post-transplant IRI, evidenced by improved hepatocellular function and OLT outcomes (Keap1 HKO?Keap1 HKO; 100% survival), as compared with controls (WT?WT; 50% survival; p<0.01). By contrast, donor liver Nrf2 deficiency exacerbated IRI in transplant recipients (Nrf2 KO?Nrf2 KO; 40% survival). Ablation of Keap1 signaling reduced macrophage/neutrophil trafficking, pro-inflammatory cytokine programs, and hepatocellular necrosis/apoptosis, while simultaneously promoting anti-apoptotic functions in OLTs. At the molecular level, Keap1 HKO increased Nrf2 levels, stimulated Akt phosphorylation, and enhanced expression of anti-oxidant Trx1, HIF-1?, and HO-1. Pretreatment of liver donors with PI3K inhibitor (LY294002) disrupted Akt/HIF-1A signaling and recreated hepatocellular damage in otherwise IR-resistant Keap1 HKO transplants. In parallel in vitro studies, hydrogen peroxide-stressed Keap1-deficient hepatocytes were characterized by enhanced expression of Nrf2, Trx1, and Akt phosphorylation, in association with decreased release of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) in cell culture supernatants.Keap1-Nrf2 complex prevents oxidative injury in IR-stressed OLTs through Keap1 signaling, which negatively regulates Nrf2 pathway. Activation of Nrf2 induces Trx1 and promotes PI3K/Akt, crucial for HIF-1? activity. HIF-1?-mediated overexpression of HO-1/Cyclin D1 facilitates cytoprotection by limiting hepatic inflammatory responses, and hepatocellular necrosis/apoptosis in a PI3K-dependent manner.
Project description:Hepatic injury due to cold storage followed by reperfusion remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality after orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT). CD4 T cell TIM-1 signaling costimulates a variety of immune responses in allograft recipients. This study analyzes mechanisms by which TIM-1 affects liver ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) in a murine model of prolonged cold storage followed by OLT. Livers from C57BL/6 mice, preserved at 4°C in the UW solution for 20 h, were transplanted to syngeneic recipients. There was an early (1 h) increased accumulation of TIM-1+ activated CD4 T cells in the ischemic OLTs. Disruption of TIM-1 signaling with a blocking mAb (RMT1-10) ameliorated liver damage, evidenced by reduced sALT levels and well-preserved architecture. Unlike in controls, TIM-1 blockade diminished OLT expression of Tbet/IFN-?, but amplified IL-4/IL-10/IL-22; abolished neutrophil and macrophage infiltration/activation and inhibited NF-?B while enhancing Bcl-2/Bcl-xl. Although adoptive transfer of CD4 T cells triggered liver damage in otherwise IR-resistant RAG(-/-) mice, adjunctive TIM-1 blockade reduced Tbet transcription and abolished macrophage activation, restoring homeostasis in IR-stressed livers. Further, transfer of TIM-1(Hi) CD4+, but not TIM-1(Lo) CD4+ T cells, recreated liver IRI in RAG(-/-) mice. Thus, TIM-1 expressing CD4 T cells are required in the mechanism of innate immune-mediated hepatic IRI in OLTs.
Project description:Although modifications of gut microbiota with antibiotics (Abx) influence mouse skin and cardiac allografts, its role in orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) remains unknown. We aimed to determine whether and how recipient Abx pretreatment may affect hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) and OLT outcomes. Mice (C57BL/6) with or without Abx treatment (10 days) were transplanted with allogeneic (BALB/c) cold-stored (18 hours) livers, followed by liver and blood sampling (6 hours). We divided 264 human OLT recipients on the basis of duration of pre-OLT Abx treatment into control (Abx-free/Abx <10 days; n = 108) and Abx treatment (Abx ≥10days; n = 156) groups; OLT biopsy (Bx) samples were collected 2 hours after OLT (n = 52). Abx in mice mitigated IRI-stressed OLT (IRI-OLT), decreased CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein homologous protein (CHOP) (endoplasmic reticulum [ER] stress), enhanced LC3B (autophagy), and inhibited inflammation, whereas it increased serum prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and hepatic PGE2 receptor 4 (EP4) expression. PGE2 increased EP4, suppressed CHOP, and induced autophagosome formation in hepatocyte cultures in an EP4-dependent manner. An EP4 antagonist restored CHOP, suppressed LC3B, and recreated IRI-OLT. Remarkably, human recipients of Abx treatment plus OLT (Abx-OLT), despite severe pretransplantation clinical acuity, had higher EP4 and LC3B levels but lower CHOP levels, which coincided with improved hepatocellular function (serum aspartate aminotransferase/serum aspartate aminotransferase [sALT/sAST]) and a decreased incidence of early allograft dysfunction (EAD). Multivariate analysis identified "Abx-free/Abx <10 days" as a predictive factor of EAD. This study documents the benefits of Abx pretreatment in liver transplant recipients, identifies ER stress and autophagy regulation by the PGE2/EP4 axis as a homeostatic underpinning, and points to the microbiome as a therapeutic target in OLT.