Meta-analysis of goal-directed fluid therapy using transoesophageal Doppler monitoring in patients undergoing elective colorectal surgery.
ABSTRACT: Background:Intraoperative goal-directed fluid therapy (GDFT) is recommended in most perioperative guidelines for intraoperative fluid management in patients undergoing elective colorectal surgery. However, the evidence in elective colorectal surgery alone is not well established. The aim of this meta-analysis was to compare the effects of GDFT with those of conventional fluid therapy on outcomes after elective colorectal surgery. Methods:A meta-analysis of RCTs examining the role of transoesophageal Doppler-guided GDFT with conventional fluid therapy in adult patients undergoing elective colorectal surgery was performed in accordance with PRISMA methodology. The primary outcome measure was overall morbidity, and secondary outcome measures were length of hospital stay, time to return of gastrointestinal function, 30-day mortality, acute kidney injury, and surgical-site infection and anastomotic leak rates. Results:A total of 11 studies were included with a total of 1113 patients (556 GDFT, 557 conventional fluid therapy). There was no significant difference in any clinical outcome measure studied between GDFT and conventional fluid therapy, including overall morbidity (risk ratio (RR) 0·90, 95 per cent c.i. 0·75 to 1·08, P = 0·27; I 2 = 47 per cent; 991 patients), 30-day mortality (RR 0·67, 0·23 to 1·92, P = 0·45; I 2 = 0 per cent; 1039 patients) and length of hospital stay (mean difference 0·01 (95 per cent c.i. -0·92 to 0·94) days, P = 0·98; I 2 = 34 per cent; 1049 patients). Conclusion:This meta-analysis does not support the perceived benefits of GDFT guided by transoesophageal Doppler monitoring in the setting of elective colorectal surgery.
Project description:Background:Perioperative fluid overload is an important modifiable risk factor for adverse outcomes after colorectal surgery. This study aimed to define critical thresholds for perioperative fluid management and postoperative weight gain for patients undergoing elective laparoscopic colorectal surgery. Methods:This was an analysis of consecutive elective laparoscopic colorectal resections at Lausanne University Hospital from May 2011 to May 2017. Main outcomes were overall, major (Clavien-Dindo grade IIIb or above) and respiratory complications, and postoperative ileus. Thresholds regarding perioperative fluid management and postoperative weight gain were identified through receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis and clinical judgement. Independent risk factors for all four outcomes were assessed by multinominal logistic regression. Results:Overall and major complications occurred in 210 (36·2 per cent) and 46 (7·9 per cent) of 580 patients respectively. Twenty-three patients (4·0 per cent) had respiratory complications and 98 (16·9 per cent) had postoperative ileus. Median length of hospital stay was 5 (i.q.r. 3-9) days. Based on respiratory complications, thresholds for perioperative intravenous fluid administration (postoperative day (POD) 0) were set pragmatically at 3000 ml for colonic (calculated threshold 3120 ml (area under ROC curve (AUROC) 0·63)) and 4000 ml for rectal (AUROC 0·79) procedures. Postoperative weight gain of 2·5 kg at POD 2 was predictive of respiratory complications. Multivariable analysis retained perioperative intravenous fluid administration over the above thresholds as an independent risk factor for overall (odds ratio (OR) 2·25, 95 per cent c.i. 1·23 to 4·11), major (OR 2·49, 1·17 to 5·31) and respiratory (OR 4·71, 1·42 to 15·58) complications. Weight gain above 2·5 kg at POD 2 was identified as a risk factor for respiratory complications (OR 3·58, 1·10 to 11·70) and ileus (OR 1·82, 1·02 to 3·52). Conclusion:Perioperative intravenous fluid and weight thresholds were associated with postoperative adverse outcomes. These thresholds need independent validation.
Project description:Background:The decision to perform surgery for patients with T1 colorectal cancer hinges on the estimated risk of lymph node metastasis, residual tumour and risks of surgery. The aim of this observational study was to compare surgical outcomes for T1 colorectal cancer with those for more advanced colorectal cancer. Methods:This was a population-based cohort study of patients treated surgically for pT1-3 colorectal cancer between 2009 and 2016, using data from the Dutch ColoRectal Audit. Postoperative complications (overall, surgical, severe complications and mortality) were compared using multivariable logistic regression. A risk stratification table was developed based on factors independently associated with severe complications (reintervention and/or mortality) after elective surgery. Results:Of 39 813 patients, 5170 had pT1 colorectal cancer. No statistically significant differences were observed between patients with pT1 and pT2-3 disease in the rate of severe complications (8·3 versus 9·5 per cent respectively; odds ratio (OR) 0·89, 95 per cent c.i. 0·80 to 1·01, P = 0·061), surgical complications (12·6 versus 13·5 per cent; OR 0·93, 0·84 to 1·02, P = 0·119) or mortality (1·7 versus 2·5 per cent; OR 0·94, 0·74 to 1·19, P = 0·604). Male sex, higher ASA grade, previous abdominal surgery, open approach and type of procedure were associated with a higher severe complication rate in patients with pT1 colorectal cancer. Conclusion:Elective bowel resection was associated with similar morbidity and mortality rates in patients with pT1 and those with pT2-3 colorectal carcinoma.
Project description:<h4>Objectives</h4>To compare the effects of intraoperative goal-directed fluid therapy (GDFT) with conventional fluid therapy, and determine whether there was a difference in outcome between studies that did and did not use Enhanced Recovery After Surgery (ERAS) protocols.<h4>Methods</h4>Meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials of adult patients undergoing elective major abdominal surgery comparing intraoperative GDFT versus conventional fluid therapy. The outcome measures were postoperative morbidity, length of stay, gastrointestinal function and 30-day mortality.<h4>Results</h4>A total of 23 studies were included with 2099 patients: 1040 who underwent GDFT and 1059 who received conventional fluid therapy. GDFT was associated with a significant reduction in morbidity (risk ratio [RR] 0.76, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.66-0.89, P?=?0.0007), hospital length of stay (LOS; mean difference -1.55 days, 95% CI -2.73 to -0.36, P?=?0.01), intensive care LOS (mean difference -0.63 days, 95% CI -1.18 to -0.09, P?=?0.02), and time to passage of feces (mean difference -0.90 days, 95% CI -1.48 to -0.32 days, P?=?0.002). However, no difference was seen in mortality, return of flatus, or risk of paralytic ileus. If patients were managed in an ERAS pathway, the only significant reductions were in intensive care LOS (mean difference -0.63 days, 95% CI -0.94 to -0.32, P?<?0.0001) and time to passage of feces (mean difference -1.09 days, 95% CI -2.03 to -0.15, P?=?0.02). If managed in a traditional care setting, a significant reduction was seen in both overall morbidity (RR 0.69, 95% CI 0.57 to -0.84, P?=?0.0002) and total hospital LOS (mean difference -2.14, 95% CI -4.15 to -0.13, P?=?0.04).<h4>Conclusions</h4>GDFT may not be of benefit to all elective patients undergoing major abdominal surgery, particularly those managed in an ERAS setting.
Project description:BACKGROUND:This study aimed to evaluate the effect of perioperative supplementation with omega-3 fatty acids (n-3 FA) on perioperative outcomes and survival in patients undergoing colorectal cancer surgery. METHODS:Patients scheduled for elective resection of colorectal cancer between 2007 and 2010 were randomized to either an n-3 FA-enriched oral nutrition supplement (ONS) twice daily or a standard ONS (control) for 7?days before and after surgery. Outcome measures, including postoperative complications, 3-year cumulative incidence of local or metastatic colorectal cancer recurrence and 5-year overall survival, were compared between the groups. RESULTS:Of 148 patients enrolled in the study, 125 (65 patients receiving n-3 FA-enriched ONS and 60 receiving standard ONS) were analysed. There were no differences in postoperative complications after surgery (P = 0·544). The risk of disease recurrence at 3?years was similar (relative risk 1·66, 95 per cent c.i. 0·65 to 4·26).The 5-year survival rate of patients treated with n-3 FA was 69·2 (95 per cent c.i. 56·5 to 78·9) per cent, compared with 81·7 (69·3 to 89·4) per cent in the control group (P = 0·193). After adjustment for age, stage of disease and adjuvant chemotherapy, n-3 FA was associated with higher mortality compared with controls (hazard ratio 1·73, 95 per cent c.i. 1·06 to 2·83; P = 0·029). The interaction between n-3 FA and adjuvant chemotherapy was not statistically significant. CONCLUSION:Perioperative supplementation with n-3 FA did not confer a survival benefit in patients undergoing colorectal cancer surgery. n-3 FA did not benefit the subgroup of patients treated with adjuvant chemotherapy or decrease the risk of disease recurrence.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Decreasing anastomotic leak rates remain a major goal in colorectal surgery. Assessing intraoperative perfusion by indocyanine green (ICG) with near-infrared (NIR) visualization may assist in selection of intestinal transection level and subsequent anastomotic vascular sufficiency. This study examined the use of NIR-ICG imaging in colorectal surgery. METHODS:This was a prospective phase II study (NCT02459405) of non-selected patients undergoing any elective colorectal operation with anastomosis over a 3-year interval in three tertiary hospitals. A standard protocol was followed to assess NIR-ICG perfusion before and after anastomosis construction in comparison with standard operator visual assessment alone. RESULTS:Five hundred and four patients (median age 64 years, 279 men) having surgery for neoplastic (330) and benign (174) pathology were studied. Some 425 operations (85·3 per cent) were started laparoscopically, with a conversion rate of 5·9 per cent. In all, 220 patients (43·7 per cent) underwent high anterior resection or reversal of Hartmann's operation, and 90 (17·9 per cent) low anterior resection. ICG angiography was achieved in every patient, with a median interval of 29 s to visualization of the signal after injection. NIR-ICG assessment resulted in a change in the site of bowel division in 29 patients (5·8 per cent) with no subsequent leaks in these patients. Leak rates were 2·4 per cent overall (12 of 504), 2·6 per cent for colorectal anastomoses and 3 per cent for low anterior resection. When NIR-ICG imaging was used, the anastomotic leak rates were lower than those in the participating centres from over 1000 similar operations performed with identical technique but without NIR-ICG technology. CONCLUSION:Routine NIR-ICG assessment in patients undergoing elective colorectal surgery is feasible. NIR-ICG use may change intraoperative decisions, which may lead to a reduction in anastomotic leak rates.
Project description:Background:End colostomy rates following colorectal resection vary across institutions in high-income settings, being influenced by patient, disease, surgeon and system factors. This study aimed to assess global variation in end colostomy rates after left-sided colorectal resection. Methods:This study comprised an analysis of GlobalSurg-1 and -2 international, prospective, observational cohort studies (2014, 2016), including consecutive adult patients undergoing elective or emergency left-sided colorectal resection within discrete 2-week windows. Countries were grouped into high-, middle- and low-income tertiles according to the United Nations Human Development Index (HDI). Factors associated with colostomy formation versus primary anastomosis were explored using a multilevel, multivariable logistic regression model. Results:In total, 1635 patients from 242 hospitals in 57 countries undergoing left-sided colorectal resection were included: 113 (6·9 per cent) from low-HDI, 254 (15·5 per cent) from middle-HDI and 1268 (77·6 per cent) from high-HDI countries. There was a higher proportion of patients with perforated disease (57·5, 40·9 and 35·4 per cent; P?<?0·001) and subsequent use of end colostomy (52·2, 24·8 and 18·9 per cent; P?<?0·001) in low- compared with middle- and high-HDI settings. The association with colostomy use in low-HDI settings persisted (odds ratio (OR) 3·20, 95 per cent c.i. 1·35 to 7·57; P?=?0·008) after risk adjustment for malignant disease (OR 2·34, 1·65 to 3·32; P?<?0·001), emergency surgery (OR 4·08, 2·73 to 6·10; P?<?0·001), time to operation at least 48?h (OR 1·99, 1·28 to 3·09; P?=?0·002) and disease perforation (OR 4·00, 2·81 to 5·69; P?<?0·001). Conclusion:Global differences existed in the proportion of patients receiving end stomas after left-sided colorectal resection based on income, which went beyond case mix alone.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The World Health Organization (WHO) Surgical Safety Checklist has fostered safe practice for 10 years, yet its place in emergency surgery has not been assessed on a global scale. The aim of this study was to evaluate reported checklist use in emergency settings and examine the relationship with perioperative mortality in patients who had emergency laparotomy. METHODS:In two multinational cohort studies, adults undergoing emergency laparotomy were compared with those having elective gastrointestinal surgery. Relationships between reported checklist use and mortality were determined using multivariable logistic regression and bootstrapped simulation. RESULTS:Of 12 296 patients included from 76 countries, 4843 underwent emergency laparotomy. After adjusting for patient and disease factors, checklist use before emergency laparotomy was more common in countries with a high Human Development Index (HDI) (2455 of 2741, 89·6 per cent) compared with that in countries with a middle (753 of 1242, 60·6 per cent; odds ratio (OR) 0·17, 95 per cent c.i. 0·14 to 0·21, P < 0·001) or low (363 of 860, 42·2 per cent; OR 0·08, 0·07 to 0·10, P < 0·001) HDI. Checklist use was less common in elective surgery than for emergency laparotomy in high-HDI countries (risk difference -9·4 (95 per cent c.i. -11·9 to -6·9) per cent; P < 0·001), but the relationship was reversed in low-HDI countries (+12·1 (+7·0 to +17·3) per cent; P < 0·001). In multivariable models, checklist use was associated with a lower 30-day perioperative mortality (OR 0·60, 0·50 to 0·73; P < 0·001). The greatest absolute benefit was seen for emergency surgery in low- and middle-HDI countries. CONCLUSION:Checklist use in emergency laparotomy was associated with a significantly lower perioperative mortality rate. Checklist use in low-HDI countries was half that in high-HDI countries.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Surgical mortality results are increasingly being reported and published in the public domain as indicators of surgical quality. This study examined how mortality outlier status at 90 days after colorectal surgery compares with mortality at 30 days and subsequent intervals in the first year after surgery. METHODS: All adults undergoing elective and emergency colorectal resection between April 2001 and February 2007 in English National Health Service (NHS) Trusts were identified from administrative data. Funnel plots of postoperative case mix-adjusted institutional mortality rate against caseload were created for 30, 90, 180 and 365 days. High- or low-mortality unit status of individual Trusts was defined as breaching upper or lower third standard deviation confidence limits on the funnel plot for 90-day mortality. RESULTS: A total of 171 688 patients from 153 NHS Trusts were included. Some 14 537 (8·5 per cent) died within 30 days of surgery, 19 466 (11·3 per cent) within 90 days, 23 942 (13·9 per cent) within 180 days and 31 782 (18·5 per cent) within 365 days. Eight institutions were identified as high-mortality units, including all four units with high outlying status at 30 days. Twelve units were low-mortality units, of which six were also low outliers at 30 days. Ninety-day mortality correlated strongly with later mortality results (rs ?=?0·957, P?<?0·001 versus 180-day mortality; rs ?=?0·860, P?<?0·001 versus 365-day mortality). CONCLUSION: Extending mortality reporting to 90 days identifies a greater number of mortality outliers when compared with the 30-day death rate. Ninety-day mortality is proposed as the preferred indicator of perioperative outcome for local analysis and public reporting.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The purpose of this study was to test use of the Dutch leakage score (DLS), serum C-reactive protein (CRP) and serum procalcitonin (PCT) in the diagnosis of anastomotic leakage (AL) after elective colorectal resection in a prospective observational study. METHODS:Patients undergoing elective colorectal resection with anastomosis in 19 centres were enrolled over a 1-year period from September 2017. The DLS and CRP and PCT levels were evaluated on postoperative day (POD) 2, POD3 and POD6. Statistical analysis, including determination of the area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve (AUC), was performed for the primary endpoint of AL; secondary endpoints were morbidity and mortality rates ( ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT03560180). RESULTS:Among 1546 patients enrolled, the AL rate was 4·9 per cent. Morbidity and mortality rates were 30·2 and 1·3 per cent respectively. With respect to AL, DLS performed better than CRP and PTC levels on POD2 and POD3 (AUC 0·75 and 0·84), whereas CRP levels were documented with better AUC values on POD6 (AUC 0·81). Morbidity was poorly predicted, whereas mortality was best predicted by PCT on POD2 (AUC 0·83) and by DLS on POD3 and POD6 (AUC 0·87 and 0·98 respectively). Overall, the combination of positive PCT, CRP and DLS values resulted in a probability of AL of 21·3 per cent on POD2, 33·4 per cent on POD3, and 47·1 per cent on POD6. However, the combination of their negative values excluded AL in 99·0 per cent of cases on POD2, 99·3 per cent on POD3, and 99·2 per cent on POD6. CONCLUSION:DLS and CRP level are good positive and excellent negative predictors of AL; the addition of PCT improved the predictive value for diagnosis of AL.
Project description:Background:Several randomized controlled trials suggest that goal-directed fluid therapy (GDFT) may result in improved postoperative outcomes. The aim of this study was to assess the clinical and financial impact of the real-life implementation of intraoperative GDFT in patients undergoing elective gastrointestinal surgery in a Chinese tertiary medical center. Methods:This Quality Improvement Program (QIP) study comprised three phases of 5, 1, and 5 months, respectively. During the first phase, we retrospectively collected perioperative data from patients who received standard intraoperative fluid management from January to May 2016. Then a 1-month training period allowed the clinical staff to become familiar with the GDFT protocol. After the training phase, GDFT was used from July to November 2016. In the GDFT group, stroke volume (SV) was continuously monitored and optimized towards the plateau of the Frank-Starling curve. The primary outcome measure was postoperative morbidity (the proportion of patients with one or more complications within 30 days after surgery). Secondary outcomes were total hospital cost, postoperative length of hospital stay, and 30-day mortality. Results:Data from 200 patients before (control group) and 201 patients after the implementation of GDFT (GDFT group) were collected and compared. There was no significant difference in demographics and surgical procedures between the two groups. Postoperative morbidity was significantly lower in the GDFT group than in the control group (30.8% vs. 44.0%, p?=?0.006). No significant differences were observed for mean total hospital cost (76,793 RMB vs. 74,444 RMB; p?=?0.430), median postoperative length of hospital stay (10 days vs. 10 days; p?=?0.104), and 30-day mortality (1% vs. 0.5%; p?=?0.565). Conclusion:In patients undergoing gastrointestinal surgery, the implementation of a GDFT protocol was associated with a reduction in postoperative morbidity without increasing costs. Trial registration:clinicaltrials.gov, NCT02507557. Registered 13 July 2015.