Green light powered molecular state motor enabling eight-shaped unidirectional rotation.
ABSTRACT: Molecular motors convert external energy into directional motions at the nano-scales. To date unidirectional circular rotations and linear motions have been realized but more complex directional trajectories remain unexplored on the molecular level. In this work we present a molecular motor powered by green light allowing to produce an eight-shaped geometry change during its unidirectional rotation around the central molecular axis. Motor motion proceeds in four different steps, which alternate between light powered double bond isomerizations and thermal hula-twist isomerizations. The result is a fixed sequence of populating four different isomers in a fully unidirectional trajectory possessing one crossing point. This motor system opens up unexplored avenues for the construction and mechanisms of molecular machines and will therefore not only significantly expand the toolbox of responsive molecular devices but also enable very different applications in the field of miniaturized technology than currently possible.
Project description:Molecular dynamics simulations are performed to explore if isotopic chirality can induce unidirectional rotary motion in molecular motors operated through double-bond photoisomerizations. Using a high-quantum yield motor featuring a chemically asymmetric carbon atom as reference, it is found that isotopically chiral counterparts of this motor sustain such motion almost equally well. Overall, the study reveals a previously unexplored role for isotopic chirality in the design of rotary molecular motors.
Project description:Unidirectional molecular rotation based on alternating photochemical and thermal isomerizations of overcrowded alkenes is well established, but rotary cycles based purely on photochemical isomerizations are rare. Herein we report three new second-generation molecular motors featuring a phosphorus center in the lower half, which engenders a unique element of axial chirality. These motors exhibit unusual behavior, in that all four diastereomeric states can interconvert solely photochemically. Kinetic analysis and modeling reveal that the behavior of the new motors is consistent with all-photochemical unidirectional rotation. Furthermore, X-ray crystal structures of all four diastereomeric states of two of these new motors were obtained, which constitute the first achievements of crystallographic characterization of the full 360° rotational cycle of overcrowded-alkene-based molecular motors. Finally, the axial phosphorus stereoelement in the phosphine motor can be thermally inverted, and this epimerization enables a "shortcut" of the traditional rotational cycle of these compounds.
Project description:The sensing and actuation capabilities of biological cells integrated with artificial components have been used to create autonomous microsystems. For creating autonomous microsystems, the unidirectional transport of a submillimeter-sized cargo with stimuli responsive bio-motors should be developed as a fundamental motion. This study aims to use Volvox as a light-controlled microrobot to achieve the unidirectional transport of a submillimeter-sized cargo. We show the fabrication of a guide structure, cargo, and light irradiation platform for a unidirectional actuation. The fundamental performances of each component were investigated, and the motions of Volvox were controlled in a microchamber with the developed light irradiation platform. All components were integrated to demonstrate the unidirectional actuation of a block by Volvox. We discuss the dynamics of the mechanical motions.
Project description:Photodriven molecular motors are able to convert light energy into directional motion and hold great promise as miniaturized powering units for future nanomachines. In the current state of the art, considerable efforts have still to be made to increase the efficiency of energy transduction and devise systems that allow operation in ambient and non-damaging conditions with high rates of directional motions. The need for ultraviolet light to induce the motion of virtually all available light-driven motors especially hampers the broad applicability of these systems. We describe here a hemithioindigo-based molecular motor, which is powered exclusively by nondestructive visible light (up to 500?nm) and rotates completely directionally with kHz frequency at 20?°C. This is the fastest directional motion of a synthetic system driven by visible light to date permitting materials and biocompatible irradiation conditions to establish similarly high speeds as natural molecular motors.
Project description:Precise fabrication of molecular assemblies on a solid surface has long been of central interest in surface science. Their perfectly oriented growth only along a desired in-plane direction, however, remains a challenge, because of the thermodynamical equivalence of multiple axis directions on a solid-surface lattice. Here we demonstrate the successful fabrication of an in-plane, unidirectional molecular assembly on graphene. Our methodology relies on nanomechanical symmetry breaking effects under atomic force microscopy tip scanning, which has never been used in molecular alignment. Individual one-dimensional (1D) molecular assemblies were aligned along a selected symmetry axis of the graphene lattice under finely-tuned scanning conditions after removing initially-adsorbed molecules. Experimental statistics and computational simulations suggest that the anisotropic tip scanning locally breaks the directional equivalence of the graphene surface, which enables nucleation of the unidirectional 1D assemblies. Our findings will open new opportunities in the molecular alignment control on various atomically flat surfaces.
Project description:High directive antennas are fundamental elements for microwave communication and information processing. Here, inspired by the method of transformation optics, we propose and demonstrate a transformation medium to control the transmission path of a point source, resulting in the unidirectional behavior of electromagnetic waves (directional emitter) without any reflectors. The network of inductor-capacitor transmission lines is designed to experimentally realize the transformation medium. Furthermore, the designed device can work in a broadband frequency range. The unidirectional-manner-based device demonstrated in this work will be an important step forward in developing a new type of directive antennas.
Project description:Myosins are ATP-driven linear molecular motors that work as cellular force generators, transporters, and force sensors. These functions are driven by large-scale nucleotide-dependent conformational changes, termed "strokes"; the "power stroke" is the force-generating swinging of the myosin light chain-binding "neck" domain relative to the motor domain "head" while bound to actin; the "recovery stroke" is the necessary initial motion that primes, or "cocks," myosin while detached from actin. Myosin Va is a processive dimer that steps unidirectionally along actin following a "hand over hand" mechanism in which the trailing head detaches and steps forward ?72 nm. Despite large rotational Brownian motion of the detached head about a free joint adjoining the two necks, unidirectional stepping is achieved, in part by the power stroke of the attached head that moves the joint forward. However, the power stroke alone cannot fully account for preferential forward site binding since the orientation and angle stability of the detached head, which is determined by the properties of the recovery stroke, dictate actin binding site accessibility. Here, we directly observe the recovery stroke dynamics and fluctuations of myosin Va using a novel, transient caged ATP-controlling system that maintains constant ATP levels through stepwise UV-pulse sequences of varying intensity. We immobilized the neck of monomeric myosin Va on a surface and observed real time motions of bead(s) attached site-specifically to the head. ATP induces a transient swing of the neck to the post-recovery stroke conformation, where it remains for ?40 s, until ATP hydrolysis products are released. Angle distributions indicate that the post-recovery stroke conformation is stabilized by ? 5 k(B)T of energy. The high kinetic and energetic stability of the post-recovery stroke conformation favors preferential binding of the detached head to a forward site 72 nm away. Thus, the recovery stroke contributes to unidirectional stepping of myosin Va.
Project description:Light-driven molecular motors possess immense potential as central driving units for future nanotechnology. Integration into larger molecular setups and transduction of their mechanical motions represents the current frontier of research. Herein we report on an integrated molecular machine setup allowing the transmission of potential energy from a motor unit onto a remote receiving entity. The setup consists of a motor unit connected covalently to a distant and sterically encumbered biaryl receiver. By action of the motor unit, single-bond rotation of the receiver is strongly accelerated and forced to proceed unidirectionally. The transmitted potential energy is directly measured as the extent to which energy degeneration is lifted in the thermal atropisomerization of this biaryl. Energy degeneracy is reduced by more than 1.5?kcal?mol-1 , and rate accelerations of several orders of magnitude in terms of the rate constants are achieved.
Project description:The actomyosin molecular motor, the motor composed of myosin II and actin filament, is responsible for muscle contraction, converting chemical energy into mechanical work. Although recent single molecule and structural studies have shed new light on the energy-converting mechanism, the physical basis of the molecular-level mechanism remains unclear because of the experimental limitations. To provide a clue to resolve the controversy between the lever-arm mechanism and the Brownian ratchet-like mechanism, we here report an in silico single molecule experiment of an actomyosin motor. When we placed myosin on an actin filament and allowed myosin to move along the filament, we found that myosin exhibits a unidirectional Brownian motion along the filament. This unidirectionality was found to arise from the combination of a nonequilibrium condition realized by coupling to the ATP hydrolysis and a ratchet-like energy landscape inherent in the actin-myosin interaction along the filament, indicating that a Brownian ratchet-like mechanism contributes substantially to the energy conversion of this molecular motor.
Project description:Hexameric ring-shaped AAA+ molecular motors have a key function of active translocation of a macromolecular chain through the central pore. By performing multiscale molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, we revealed that HslU, a AAA+ motor in a bacterial homologue of eukaryotic proteasome, translocates its substrate polypeptide via paddling mechanism during ATP-driven cyclic conformational changes. First, fully atomistic MD simulations showed that the HslU pore grips the threaded signal peptide by the highly conserved Tyr-91 and Val-92 firmly in the closed form and loosely in the open form of the HslU. The grip depended on the substrate sequence. These features were fed into a coarse-grained MD, and conformational transitions of HslU upon ATP cycles were simulated. The simulations exhibited stochastic unidirectional translocation of a polypeptide. This unidirectional translocation is attributed to paddling motions of Tyr-91s between the open and the closed forms: downward motions of Tyr-91s with gripping the substrate and upward motions with slipping on it. The paddling motions were caused by the difference between the characteristic time scales of the pore-radius change and the up-down displacements of Tyr-91s. Computational experiments on mutations at the pore and the substrate were in accord with several experiments.