Mechanism of Filamentation-Induced Allosteric Activation of the SgrAI Endonuclease.
ABSTRACT: Filament formation by enzymes is increasingly recognized as an important phenomenon with potentially unique regulatory properties and biological roles. SgrAI is an allosterically regulated type II restriction endonuclease that forms filaments with enhanced DNA cleavage activity and altered sequence specificity. Here, we present the cryoelectron microscopy (cryo-EM) structure of the filament of SgrAI in its activated configuration. The structural data illuminate the mechanistic origin of hyperaccelerated DNA cleavage activity and suggests how indirect DNA sequence readout within filamentous SgrAI may enable recognition of substantially more nucleotide sequences than its low-activity form, thereby altering and partially relaxing its DNA sequence specificity. Together, substrate DNA binding, indirect readout, and filamentation simultaneously enhance SgrAI's catalytic activity and modulate substrate preference. This unusual enzyme mechanism may have evolved to perform the specialized functions of bacterial innate immunity in rapid defense against invading phage DNA without causing damage to the host DNA.
Project description:Filament or run-on oligomer formation by enzymes is now recognized as a widespread phenomenon with potentially unique enzyme regulatory properties and biological roles. SgrAI is an allosteric type II restriction endonuclease that forms run-on oligomeric filaments with activated DNA cleavage activity and altered DNA sequence specificity. In this two-part work, we measure individual steps in the run-on oligomer filament mechanism to address specific questions of cooperativity, trapping, filament growth mechanisms, and sequestration of activity using fluorophore-labeled DNA, kinetic FRET measurements, and reaction modeling with global data fitting. The final models and rate constants show that the assembly step involving association of SgrAI-DNA complexes into the run-on oligomer filament is relatively slow (3-4 orders of magnitude slower than diffusion limited) and rate-limiting at low to moderate concentrations of SgrAI-DNA. The disassembly step involving dissociation of complexes of SgrAI-DNA from each other in the run-on oligomer filament is the next slowest step but is fast enough to limit the residence time of any one copy of SgrAI or DNA within the dynamic filament. Further, the rate constant for DNA cleavage is found to be 4 orders of magnitude faster in the run-on oligomer filament than in isolated SgrAI-DNA complexes and faster than dissociation of SgrAI-DNA complexes from the run-on oligomer filament, making the reaction efficient in that each association into the filament likely leads to DNA cleavage before filament dissociation.
Project description:The three-dimensional X-ray crystal structure of the 'rare cutting' type II restriction endonuclease SgrAI bound to cognate DNA is presented. SgrAI forms a dimer bound to one duplex of DNA. Two Ca(2+) bind in the enzyme active site, with one ion at the interface between the protein and DNA, and the second bound distal from the DNA. These sites are differentially occupied by Mn(2+), with strong binding at the protein-DNA interface, but only partial occupancy of the distal site. The DNA remains uncleaved in the structures from crystals grown in the presence of either divalent cation. The structure of the dimer of SgrAI is similar to those of Cfr10I, Bse634I and NgoMIV, however no tetrameric structure of SgrAI is observed. DNA contacts to the central CCGG base pairs of the SgrAI canonical target sequence (CR|CCGGYG, | marks the site of cleavage) are found to be very similar to those in the NgoMIV/DNA structure (target sequence G|CCGGC). Specificity at the degenerate YR base pairs of the SgrAI sequence may occur via indirect readout using DNA distortion. Recognition of the outer GC base pairs occurs through a single contact to the G from an arginine side chain located in a region unique to SgrAI.
Project description:Filament or run-on oligomer formation by metabolic enzymes is now recognized as a widespread phenomenon having potentially unique enzyme regulatory properties and biological roles, and its dysfunction is implicated in human diseases such as cancer, diabetes, and developmental disorders. SgrAI is a bacterial allosteric type II restriction endonuclease that binds to invading phage DNA, may protect the host DNA from off-target cleavage activity, and forms run-on oligomeric filaments with enhanced DNA-cleavage activity and altered DNA sequence specificity. However, the mechanisms of SgrAI filament growth, cooperativity in filament formation, sequestration of enzyme activity, and advantages over other filament mechanisms remain unknown. In this first of a two-part series, we developed methods and models to derive association and dissociation rate constants of DNA-bound SgrAI in run-on oligomers and addressed the specific questions of cooperativity and filament growth mechanisms. We show that the derived rate constants are consistent with the run-on oligomer sizes determined by EM analysis and are most consistent with a noncooperative growth mode of the run-on oligomer. These models and methods are extended in the accompanying article to include the full DNA-cleavage pathway and address specific questions related to the run-on oligomer mechanism including the sequestration of DNA-cleavage activity and trapping of products.
Project description:SgrAI is a type IIF restriction endonuclease that cuts an unusually long recognition sequence and exhibits self-modulation of DNA cleavage activity and sequence specificity. Previous studies have shown that SgrAI forms large oligomers when bound to particular DNA sequences and under the same conditions where SgrAI exhibits accelerated DNA cleavage kinetics. However, the detailed structure and stoichiometry of the SgrAI-DNA complex as well as the basic building block of the oligomers have not been fully characterized. Ion mobility mass spectrometry (IM-MS) was employed to analyze SgrAI-DNA complexes and show that the basic building block of the oligomers is the DNA-bound SgrAI dimer (DBD) with one SgrAI dimer bound to two precleaved duplex DNA molecules each containing one-half of the SgrAI primary recognition sequence. The oligomers contain variable numbers of DBDs with as many as 19 DBDs. Observation of the large oligomers shows that nanoelectrospray ionization (nano-ESI) can preserve the proposed activated form of an enzyme. Finally, the collision cross section of the SgrAI-DNA oligomers measured by IM-MS was found to have a linear relationship with the number of DBDs in each oligomer, suggesting a regular, repeating structure.
Project description:SgrAI is a type II restriction endonuclease with an unusual mechanism of activation involving run-on oligomerization. The run-on oligomer is formed from complexes of SgrAI bound to DNA containing its 8 bp primary recognition sequence (uncleaved or cleaved), and also binds (and thereby activates for DNA cleavage) complexes of SgrAI bound to secondary site DNA sequences which contain a single base substitution in either the 1st/8th or the 2nd/7th position of the primary recognition sequence. This modulation of enzyme activity via run-on oligomerization is a newly appreciated phenomenon that has been shown for a small but increasing number of enzymes. One outstanding question regarding the mechanistic model for SgrAI is whether or not the activating primary site DNA must be cleaved by SgrAI prior to inducing activation. Herein we show that an uncleavable primary site DNA containing a 3'-S-phosphorothiolate is in fact able to induce activation. In addition, we now show that cleavage of secondary site DNA can be activated to nearly the same degree as primary, provided a sufficient number of flanking base pairs are present. We also show differences in activation and cleavage of the two types of secondary site, and that effects of selected single site substitutions in SgrAI, as well as measured collisional cross-sections from previous work, are consistent with the cryo-electron microscopy model for the run-on activated oligomer of SgrAI bound to DNA.
Project description:Here, we investigate an unusual antiviral mechanism developed in the bacterium Streptomyces griseus SgrAI is a type II restriction endonuclease that forms run-on oligomer filaments when activated and possesses both accelerated DNA cleavage activity and expanded DNA sequence specificity. Mutations disrupting the run-on oligomer filament eliminate the robust antiphage activity of wild-type SgrAI, and the observation that even relatively modest disruptions completely abolish this anti-viral activity shows that the greater speed imparted by the run-on oligomer filament mechanism is critical to its biological function. Simulations of DNA cleavage by SgrAI uncover the origins of the kinetic advantage of this newly described mechanism of enzyme regulation over more conventional mechanisms, as well as the origin of the sequestering effect responsible for the protection of the host genome against damaging DNA cleavage activity of activated SgrAI.IMPORTANCE This work is motivated by an interest in understanding the characteristics and advantages of a relatively newly discovered enzyme mechanism involving filament formation. SgrAI is an enzyme responsible for protecting against viral infections in its host bacterium and was one of the first such enzymes shown to utilize such a mechanism. In this work, filament formation by SgrAI is disrupted, and the effects on the speed of the purified enzyme as well as its function in cells are measured. It was found that even small disruptions, which weaken but do not destroy filament formation, eliminate the ability of SgrAI to protect cells from viral infection, its normal biological function. Simulations of enzyme activity were also performed and show how filament formation can greatly speed up an enzyme's activation compared to that of other known mechanisms, as well as to better localize its action to molecules of interest, such as invading phage DNA.
Project description:SgrAI is a type II restriction endonuclease that cuts an unusually long recognition sequence and exhibits allosteric self-activation with expansion of DNA-sequence specificity. The three-dimensional crystal structures of SgrAI bound to cleaved primary-site DNA and Mg²(+) and bound to secondary-site DNA with either Mg²(+) or Ca²(+) are presented. All three structures show a conformation of enzyme and DNA similar to the previously determined dimeric structure of SgrAI bound to uncleaved primary-site DNA and Ca²(+) [Dunten et al. (2008), Nucleic Acids Res. 36, 5405-5416], with the exception of the cleaved bond and a slight shifting of the DNA in the SgrAI/cleaved primary-site DNA/Mg²(+) structure. In addition, a new metal ion binding site is located in one of the two active sites in this structure, which is consistent with proposals for the existence of a metal-ion site near the 3'-O leaving group.
Project description:SgrAI is a type IIF restriction endonuclease that cuts an unusually long recognition sequence and exhibits allosteric self-modulation of cleavage activity and sequence specificity. Previous studies have shown that DNA bound dimers of SgrAI oligomerize into an activated form with higher DNA cleavage rates, although previously determined crystal structures of SgrAI bound to DNA show only the DNA bound dimer. A new crystal structure of the type II restriction endonuclease SgrAI bound to DNA and Ca(2+) is now presented, which shows the close association of two DNA bound SgrAI dimers. This tetrameric form is unlike those of the homologous enzymes Cfr10I and NgoMIV and is formed by the swapping of the amino-terminal 24 amino acid residues. Two mutations predicted to destabilize the swapped form of SgrAI, P27W and P27G, have been made and shown to eliminate both the oligomerization of the DNA bound SgrAI dimers as well as the allosteric stimulation of DNA cleavage by SgrAI. A mechanism involving domain swapping is proposed to explain the unusual allosteric properties of SgrAI via association of the domain swapped tetramer of SgrAI bound to DNA into higher order oligomers.
Project description:Restriction endonuclease Bse634I recognizes and cleaves the degenerate DNA sequence 5'-R/CCGGY-3' (R stands for A or G; Y for T or C, '/' indicates a cleavage position). Here, we report the crystal structures of the Bse634I R226A mutant complexed with cognate oligoduplexes containing ACCGGT and GCCGGC sites, respectively. In the crystal, all potential H-bond donor and acceptor atoms on the base edges of the conserved CCGG core are engaged in the interactions with Bse634I amino acid residues located on the α6 helix. In contrast, direct contacts between the protein and outer base pairs are limited to van der Waals contact between the purine nucleobase and Pro203 residue in the major groove and a single H-bond between the O2 atom of the outer pyrimidine and the side chain of the Asn73 residue in the minor groove. Structural data coupled with biochemical experiments suggest that both van der Waals interactions and indirect readout contribute to the discrimination of the degenerate base pair by Bse634I. Structure comparison between related enzymes Bse634I (R/CCGGY), NgoMIV (G/CCGGC) and SgrAI (CR/CCGGYG) reveals how different specificities are achieved within a conserved structural core.
Project description:Filament formation by non-cytoskeletal enzymes has been known for decades, yet only relatively recently has its wide-spread role in enzyme regulation and biology come to be appreciated. This comprehensive review summarizes what is known for each enzyme confirmed to form filamentous structures in vitro, and for the many that are known only to form large self-assemblies within cells. For some enzymes, studies describing both the in vitro filamentous structures and cellular self-assembly formation are also known and described. Special attention is paid to the detailed structures of each type of enzyme filament, as well as the roles the structures play in enzyme regulation and in biology. Where it is known or hypothesized, the advantages conferred by enzyme filamentation are reviewed. Finally, the similarities, differences, and comparison to the SgrAI endonuclease system are also highlighted.