Antimicrobial peptide, cLF36, affects performance and intestinal morphology, microflora, junctional proteins, and immune cells in broilers challenged with E. coli.
ABSTRACT: This study investigated the effects of an antimicrobial peptide (AMP), cLF36, on growth performance and the histophysiological changes of the intestine in E. coli-challenged broiler chickens. A total number of 360?day old male chicks were randomly assigned to 4 groups of 6 replicates as follows: T1) negative control diet based on corn-soybean meal without E. coli challenge and additives; T2) positive control diet based on corn-soybean meal and challenged with E. coli without any additives; T3) positive control diet challenged with E. coli and supplemented with 20?mg AMP (cLF36)/kg diet; T4) positive control diet challenged with E. coli and supplemented with 45?mg antibiotic (bacitracin methylene disalicylate)/kg diet. Results showed that T3 improved growth performance and the jejunal morphology of E. coli-challenged chickens similar to those of T4. While antibiotic non-selectively decreased the population of ileal bacteria, AMP increased the population of Lactobacillus spp. and decreased harmful bacteria in the ileum of E. coli-challenged chickens. Supplementing E. coli-challenged chickens with AMP improved the gene expression of immune cells and upregulated the expression of tight junction proteins compared to other challenged groups. In conclusion, although cLF36 beneficially affected growth performance and the intestinal morphology of E. coli-challenged chickens similar to those of the antibiotic group, this AMP drastically improved the intestinal microbiome, immune cells, and junctional proteins compared to other E. coli-challenged birds, and can be nominated as an alternative for growth promoter antibiotics.
Project description:Three hundred and sixty 1-day-old male broiler chicks were randomly allocated to 4 treatments of 6 replicates to evaluate the effects of cLFchimera, a recombinant antimicrobial peptide (AMP), on gut health attributes of broiler chickens under necrotic enteritis (NE) challenge. Treatments were as follows: (T1) unchallenged group fed with corn-soybean meal (CSM) without NE challenge and additives (NC); (T2) group fed with CSM and challenged with NE without any additives (PC); (T3) PC group supplemented with 20 mg cLFchimera/kg diet (AMP); (T4) PC group supplemented with 45 mg antibiotic (bacitracin methylene disalicylate)/kg diet (antibiotic). Birds were sampled for villi morphology, ileal microbiota, and jejunal gene expression of cytokines, tight junctions proteins, and mucin. Results showed that AMP ameliorated NE-related intestinal lesions, reduced mortality, and rehabilitated jejunal villi morphology in NE challenged birds. While the antibiotic non-selectively reduced the count of bacteria, AMP restored microflora balance in the ileum of challenged birds. cLFchimera regulated the expression of cytokines, junctional proteins, and mucin transcripts in the jejunum of NE challenged birds. In conclusion, cLFchimera can be a reliable candidate to substitute growth promoter antibiotics, while more research is required to unveil the exact mode of action of this synthetic peptide.
Project description:The use of herbs and spices has gained increasing interest as feed additives and possible alternative to antibiotics in poultry production. The effects of using different levels of coriander seed powder or extract on selected blood parameters, intestinal microflora, and immune response of broiler chickens were investigated in this study. A total of 420-day-old broiler chicks were randomly assigned to 7 treatments with 4 replicates and fed for 42 days. Results showed that inclusion of 2.0% coriander powder in broiler diets lowered total cholesterol while blood urea was significantly higher in birds on T4 compared to T1 and T2. Furthermore, there were no treatment effects on Lactobacillus bacteria; however, the population of E. coli was significantly higher in the ileum of chickens fed T0. Noticeable significant improvements of antibody titer against Newcastle, infectious bronchitis, and infectious bursal disease were observed in birds receiving coriander extract in water. Immunoglobulin G antibody against sheep red blood cells showed significant improvement in birds fed T3; likewise, immunoglobulin M was significantly higher in birds on T2 and T3 at 28 d of age. These results revealed that coriander extract or powder can be used as antibiotic alternative in broiler feeds.
Project description:<h4>Objective</h4>This study was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary multi-strain probiotic (MSP) (Bacillus coagulans Unique IS2 + Bacillus subtillis UBBS14 + Saccharomyces boulardii Unique 28) on performance, gut morphology and expression of nutrient transporter related genes in broiler chickens.<h4>Methods</h4>A total of 256 (4×8×8) day-old CARIBRO Vishal commercial broiler chicks of uniform body weight were randomly distributed into four treatments with 8 replicates each and having eight chicks in each replicate. Four dietary treatments were T1 (negative control-basal diet), T2 (positive control-antibiotic bacitracin methylene disalicylate at 20 mg/kg diet), T3 (MSP at 107 colony-forming unit [CFU]/g feed), and T4 (MSP at 108 CFU/g feed).<h4>Results</h4>During 3 to 6 weeks and 0 to 6 weeks, the body weight gain increased significantly (p<0.05) in T3 and T4 groups. The feed intake significantly (p<0.05) reduced from T1 to T3 during 0 to 3 weeks and the feed conversion ratio also significantly (p<0.05) improved in T3 and T4 during 0 to 6 weeks. The humoral and cell mediated immune response and the weight of immune organs were also significantly (p<0.05) improved in T3 and T4. However, significant (p<0.05) dietary effects were observed on intestinal histo-morphometry of ileum in T3 followed by T4 and T2. At 14 d post hatch, the relative gene expression of glucose transporter (GLUT5), sodium-dependent glucose transporter (SGLT1) and peptide transporter (PepT1) showed a significant (p<0.05) up-regulating pattern in T2, T3, and T4. Whereas, at 21 d post hatch, the gene expression of SGLT1 and PepT1 was significantly (p<0.05) downregulated in MSP supplemented treatments T3 and T4.<h4>Conclusion</h4>The supplementation of MSP at 107 CFU/g diet showed significant effects with improved performance, immune response, gut morphology and expression of nutrient transporter genes. Thus, the MSP could be a suitable alternative to antibiotic growth promoters in chicken diets.
Project description:Subtherapeutic levels of dietary antibiotics increase growth performance in domestic animals, but the mechanisms are poorly understood. Here, 1-week-old broiler chickens were challenged with LPS (experiment 1), or co-infected with Eimeria maxima and Clostridium perfringens as an experimental model of necrotic enteritis (experiment 2), and fed a standard basal diet or a basal diet supplemented with virginiamycin or bacitracin methylene disalicylate. In experiment 1, LPS-challenged chickens fed the unsupplemented diet had decreased body weight gains, compared with unsupplemented controls given the PBS control. In contrast, antibiotic supplementation increased body weight gains in both the LPS-challenged and PBS groups, compared with the antibiotic-free diet. LPS-challenged chickens fed the unsupplemented diet had increased expression levels of intestinal tight junction proteins (ZO1, JAM2), MUC2 gel-forming mucin, and inflammatory cytokines (IL-1?, IL-2, IL-6, IL-8, IL-17A) at 24 h post-challenge, compared with unsupplemented chickens given the PBS control. However, LPS-challenged chickens fed the antibiotic-supplemented diets had decreased levels of intestinal inflammatory cytokine transcripts, compared with LPS-challenged chickens given the unsupplemented basal diet. In experiment 2, E. maxima/C. perfringens-co-infected chickens fed the antibiotic-supplemented diets had increased body weight gains, decreased intestinal pathology, and greater intestinal crypt depth, compared with co-infected chickens given the unsupplemented diet. Further, similar to LPS challenge, E. maxima/C. perfringens-co-infection of chickens fed the antibiotic-supplemented diets decreased expression levels of intestinal inflammatory cytokines, compared with co-infected chickens given the unsupplemented diet. These results support the hypothesis that dietary antibiotic growth promoters might increase poultry growth, in part, through down-regulation of pathogen-induced inflammatory responses.
Project description:Due to antimicrobial resistance and the public health hazard of antibiotic growth promoters, there is a grave need to find potential alternatives for sustainable poultry production. Piper betle (PB) and Persicaria odorata (PO) are herbs, which have been reported for antimicrobial, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory properties. The present study aimed to estimate the influence of different dose supplementation of Piper betle leaf meal (PBLM) and Persicaria odorata leaf meal (POLM) on growth performance, ileal digestibility and gut morphology of broilers chickens. A total of 210 one day-old broiler chicks were randomly grouped into 7 treatments, and each treatment group has 3 replicates (n = 10) with a total number of 30 chicks. The treatments included T1 control (basal diet (BD) with no supplementation), T2 (BD + 2 g/kg PBLM); T3 (BD + 4 g/kg PBLM), T4 (BD + 8 g/kg PBLM), T5 (BD + 2 g/kg POLM), T6 (BD + 4 g/kg POLM), T7 (BD + 8 g/kg POLM). Growth performance, gut morphology and ileal digestibility were measured. Except for T4 (8 g/kg PBLM), graded dose inclusion of PBLM and POLM increased (P < 0.05) the body weight gain (BWG), positively modulated the gut architecture and enhanced nutrient digestibility in both stater and finisher growth phases of broiler chickens. Birds fed on PBLM 4 g/kg (T3), and POLM 8 g/kg (T7) had significantly higher (P < 0.05) BWG with superior (P < 0.05) feed efficiency in the overall growth period. Chickens fed on diets T3 and T7 had longer (P < 0.05) villi for duodenum as well as for jejunum. Furthermore, the birds fed on supplementations T3 and T7 showed improved (P < 0.05) digestibility of ether extract (EE), and dry matter (DM) compared to the control group. However, least (P < 0.05) crude protein (CP) digestibility was recorded for T4. In conclusion, dietary supplementations of PBLM 4 g/kg and POLM 8 g/kg were positively modulated the intestinal microarchitecture with enhanced nutrient digestibility, resulted in maximum body weight gain, thus improved the growth performance of broiler chickens.
Project description:This study investigated effects of modified palygorskite (MPal) on immunity, antioxidant capacity, and intestinal barrier integrity in broiler chickens challenged with permitted feed Fusarium mycotoxin concentrations. One-day-old chicks were allocated into three treatments with eight replicates. Chickens in three groups were fed a basal diet with normal corn (control), contaminated diet containing moldy corn, with Fusarium mycotoxins contents in the diets lower than permitted feed mycotoxin concentrations, and the contaminated diet supplemented with 1 g/kg MPal for 42 days, respectively. Compared with control, moldy corn decreased bursa of Fabricius weight, jejunal secreted immunoglobulin A concentration, ileal superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, jejunal and ileal villus height (VH) and VH/crypt depth (CD) ratio, and jejunal zonula occludens-1 and mucin 2 mRNA abundances at 42 days as well as ileal VH/CD ratio at 21 days; while they increased jejunal malondialdehyde accumulation at 21 and 42 days, jejunal SOD activity at 21 days, and serum diamine oxidase activity at 42 days, which were almost recovered by MPal. Moreover, dietary MPal upregulated ileal claudin-2 mRNA abundance compared with other two groups. The results indicated that MPal addition exerted protective effects on immunity, oxidative status, and intestinal barrier integrity in chickens challenged with permitted feed Fusarium mycotoxins levels.
Project description:Gut health plays an important role on production and performance of broilers. This trial was undertaken with an aim to evaluate the synergistic effect of probiotic, chicory root powder and coriander seed powder on the performance and gut health of broiler chicken. For this purpose, a total of 240 day-old broiler chicks were randomly allotted to six dietary treatments with 8 replicates of 5 birds in each. Treatment groups included T1 as control i.e., basal diet (BD) without any growth promoter and T2-BD + antibiotic (BMD 0.05%). In the remaining experimental diets, T3-probiotic (@ 0.01%) + chicory root powder (@ 1.0%), T4-probiotic (@ 0.01%) + coriander seed powder (@ 1.5%), T5-chicory root powder (@ 1.0%) + coriander seed powder (@ 1.5%) and T6-probiotic (@ 0.01%) + chicory root powder (@ 1.0%) + coriander seed powder (@ 1.5%). The results indicated that supplementation of probiotic + chicory (T3), probiotic + coriander (T4), chicory + coriander (T5) and probiotic + chicory + coriander (T6) in combination resulted in significantly (P<0.05) higher weight gain and better FCR compared to control and antibiotic groups at 42 d of age. Supplementation of different dietary groups did not show any significant (P>0.05) effect on feed intake of broilers. Supplementation of all the test diets (T3 to T6) significantly (P<0.05) increased the glutathione peroxidase (GSHPx), glutathione reductase (GSHRx) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) enzyme activity when compared to control and antibiotic groups at 42 d of age. Supplementation of all the test diets (T3 to T6) significantly (P<0.05) lowered the pH in the gut, increased Lactobacillus counts, and reduced E. coli and Salmonella counts in the ileum compared to control and antibiotic groups. Supplementation of all the test diets (T3 to T6) significantly (P<0.05) increased the villus height (VH), crypt depth (CD), VH:CD ratio and villus width (VW) in the duodenum and only VH and CD in the ileum compared to control and antibiotic groups. Significantly (P<0.05) higher jejunal VH and VW and increased the goblet cell number in duodenum, jejunum and ileum was recorded in all test diets (T3 to T6) compared to control and antibiotic groups. Therefore, combinations of probiotic (0.01%), chicory root powder (1.0%) and coriander seed powder (1.5%) can be used as feed additive for improving performance and gut health of broiler chicken.
Project description:Numerous non-antibiotic feed additives (alternatives to antibiotics, ATAs) have been marketed, but few have been evaluated under uniform testing conditions modelling commercial flocks. We compared 24 ATA treatments and the ionophorous coccidiostat narasin against a diet without any feed additives. Feed conversion ratio and body weight gain were registered from day 0 to 28 in Ross 308 chickens housed on litter floor. The chickens were challenged with Eimeria spp., and cecal Clostridium perfringens (CP) counts were investigated. Active components from all ATA classes had a positive impact on intestinal health or production performance. Whereas narasin had a strong CP-reducing effect in combination with performance-promoting impact, only two ATA treatments achieved significantly beneficial effects on CP counts as well as feed conversion during the time span following Eimeria challenge. Active components present in these two treatments include a Bacillus subtilis probiotic strain, short- and medium-chain fatty acids and Saccharomyces cerevisiae components. Different ATA classes had beneficial impact during distinct rearing phases and on specific performance targets, suggesting that optimizing combinations and use of active components can make ATAs even more useful tools in broiler rearing without the use of in-feed antimicrobials. Further studies of promising ATAs and ATA combinations are required.
Project description:The effects on rumen microbial communities of direct-fed probiotics, <i>Lactobacillus rhamnosus</i> and <i>Enterococcus faecalis</i>, singly and in combination as feed supplements to both the Boer and Speckled goats were studied using the Illumina Miseq platform targeting the V3-V4 region of the 16S rRNA microbial genes from sampled rumen fluid. Thirty-six goats of both the Boer and Speckled were divided into five experimental groups: (T1) = diet + <i>Lactobacillus rhamnosus</i>; (T2) = diet + <i>Enterococcus faecalis</i>; (T3) = diet + <i>Lactobacillus rhamnosus</i> + <i>Enterococcus faecalis</i>; (T4, positive control) = diet + antibiotic and (T5, negative control) = diet without antibiotics and without probiotics. Our results revealed that Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, TM7, Proteobacteria, and Euryarchaeota dominate the bacterial communities. In our observations, <i>Lactobacillus rhamnosus</i> and <i>Enterococcus faecalis</i> supplements reduced the archaeal population of Methanomassiliicocca in the T1, T2 and T3 groups, and caused an increase in the T4 group. Chlamydiae were present only in the T5 group, suggesting that probiotic and antibiotic inhibit the growth of pathogens in the rumen. We inferred, based on our results, that <i>Lactobacillus rhamnosus</i> and <i>Enterococcus faecalis</i> favour the survival of beneficial microbial communities in the goats' rumen. This may lead to an overall improved feed efficacy and growth rate.
Project description:The present work was part of a project intended to evaluate whether organic selenium (Se) has the potential to protect against toxic effects exerted by cadmium (Cd). For this reason, 300 as-hatched, one-day-old broiler chickens were randomly allocated in four dietary treatments with five replicate pens per treatment. Chickens in T1 treatment, were offered a diet supplemented with 0.3 ppm Se (as Se-yeast), without added Cd; in T2 treatment, they were offered a diet with 0.3 ppm Se and 10 ppm Cd; in T3 treatment, they were offered a diet with 0.3 ppm Se and 100 ppm Cd; in T4 treatment, chickens were offered a diet supplemented with 3 ppm Se and 100 ppm Cd. Cadmium was added to the diets in T2, T3, and T4 as CdCl2. On the fourth and sixth weeks, liver and breast samples were obtained from two broilers per replicate pen. Relative gene expression levels of catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) and 2 (SOD2), methionine sulfoxide reductase A (MSRA) and B3 (MSRB3), iodothyronine deiodinase 1 (DIO1), 2 (DIO2), and 3 (DIO3), glutathione peroxidase 1 (GPX1) and 4 (GPX4), thioredoxin reductase 1 (TXNRD1) and 3 (TXNRD3), and metallothionein 3 (MT3) were analyzed by real-time quantitative PCR in liver, whereas the fatty-acid (FA) profile of breast muscle was determined by gas chromatography. Broilers supplemented with 0.3 ppm Se could tolerate low levels of Cd present in the diets, as there were no significant changes in the breast muscle FA profile, whereas excess Cd led to decreased polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), and in particular n-6 PUFA. Furthermore, treatments mainly affected the messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of SOD2, TXNRD3, and MT3, while age affected CAT, MSRB3, DIO2, DIO3, GPX4, TXNRD1, and MT3. In conclusion, dietary Se may help against the negative effects of Cd, but cannot be effective when Cd is present at excessive amounts in the diet.