Hypocotyl Elongation Inhibition of Melatonin Is Involved in Repressing Brassinosteroid Biosynthesis in Arabidopsis.
ABSTRACT: Melatonin functions as a plant hormone/regulator in the regulation of growth and development. However, the underlying mechanisms are still unclear. In this study, we found that a high dose of melatonin inhibited hypocotyl elongation in a dose-dependent manner in Arabidopsis. An expression profile analysis showed that hypocotyl growth inhibition by melatonin was involved in reprograming the expression of cell elongation genes and brassinosteroid (BRs) biosynthetic genes. Furthermore, similar to BR biosynthetic inhibitor brassinazole (BRZ), a high concentration of melatonin upregulated BR-biosynthetic genes and downregulated BR-induced genes involved in cell elongation, while melatonin was inefficient in brassinazole-resistant mutants like the bzr1-1D and bes1-D in hypocotyl inhibition. The comparative expression profile analysis showed an opposite expression mode in the co-regulated genes between melatonin and BZR1 or melatonin and brassinolide (BL). Additionally, exogenous BL rescued the repressive phenotype of BR biosynthesis-deficient mutant like det2-1 even in the presence of high-dose melatonin, but not BR receptor mutant bri1-5 or signal transduction mutant bin2-1. A biochemical analysis further confirmed that melatonin reduced endogenous BR levels in a dose-dependent manner in Arabidopsis. Taken together, these results indicate that melatonin inhibits BR biosynthesis but does not block BR signaling in the inhibition of hypocotyl elongation and extends insights on the role of melatonin in cross-talking with plant hormone signaling.
Project description:Interactions between signaling pathways help guide plant development. In this study, we found that brassinosteroid (BR) signaling converges with SUPPRESSOR OF PHYTOCHROME B4-#3 (SOB3) to influence both the transcription of genes involved in cell elongation and hypocotyl growth. Specifically, SOB3 mutant hypocotyl phenotypes, which are readily apparent when the seedlings are grown in dim white light, were attenuated by treatment with either brassinolide (BL) or the BR biosynthesis inhibitor brassinazole (BRZ). Hypocotyls of SOB3 mutant seedlings grown in white light with a higher fluence rate also exhibited altered sensitivities to BL, further suggesting a connection to BR signaling. However, the impact of BL treatment on SOB3 mutants grown in moderate-intensity white light was reduced when polar auxin transport was inhibited. BL treatment enhanced transcript accumulation for all six members of the SMALL AUXIN UP RNA19 (SAUR19) subfamily, which promote cell expansion, are repressed by SOB3 and light, and are induced by auxin. Conversely, BRZ inhibited the expression of SAUR19 and its homologs. Expression of these SAURs was also enhanced in lines expressing a constitutively active form of the BR signaling component BZR1, further indicating that the transcription of SAUR19 subfamily members are influenced by this hormone signaling pathway. Taken together, these results indicate that SOB3 and BR signaling converge to influence the transcription of hypocotyl growth-promoting SAUR19 subfamily members.
Project description:Brassinosteroid (BR) regulates plant development by activating the transcription factor brassinazole resistant 1 (BZR1), which activates and represses different target genes to switch cellular programmes. The mechanisms that determine BZR1's transcriptional activities remain largely unknown. Here we show that BZR1 represses target genes by recruiting the Groucho/TUP1-like transcriptional corepressor TOPLESS (TPL). Specific deletion or mutation of an evolutionarily conserved ERF-associated amphiphilic repression (EAR) motif at the carboxy terminus abolishes BZR1's abilities to regulate gene expression and cell elongation, but these defects are rescued by TPL fusion to the EAR motif-mutated BZR1. The EAR motif in BZR1 mediates recruitment of TPL to BZR1-repressed promoters. A triple tpl mutant (tpl;tpr1;tpr4) shows reduced BR sensitivity and suppresses the gain-of-function bzr1-1D mutant phenotype. BR repression of gene expression also requires histone deacetylases that interact with TPL. Our study demonstrates key roles of the EAR motif and TPL in BR regulation of gene expression and plant growth.
Project description:Brassinosteroid and gibberellin promote many similar developmental responses in plants; however, their relationship remains unclear. Here we show that BR and GA act interdependently through a direct interaction between the BR-activated BZR1 and GA-inactivated DELLA transcription regulators. GA promotion of cell elongation required BR signalling, whereas BR or active BZR1 suppressed the GA-deficient dwarf phenotype. DELLAs directly interacted with BZR1 and inhibited BZR1-DNA binding both in vitro and in vivo. Genome-wide analysis defined a BZR1-dependent GA-regulated transcriptome, which is enriched with light-regulated genes and genes involved in cell wall synthesis and photosynthesis/chloroplast function. GA promotion of hypocotyl elongation requires both BZR1 and the phytochrome-interacting factors (PIFs), as well as their common downstream targets encoding the PRE-family helix-loop-helix factors. The results demonstrate that GA releases DELLA-mediated inhibition of BZR1, and that the DELLA-BZR1-PIF4 interaction defines a core transcription module that mediates coordinated growth regulation by GA, BR and light signals.
Project description:Plant development is modulated by the convergence of multiple environmental and endogenous signals, and the mechanisms that allow the integration of different signaling pathways is currently being unveiled. A paradigmatic case is the concurrence of brassinosteroid (BR) and gibberellin (GA) signaling in the control of cell expansion during photomorphogenesis, which is supported by physiological observations in several plants but for which no molecular mechanism has been proposed. In this work, we show that the integration of these two signaling pathways occurs through the physical interaction between the DELLA protein GAI, which is a major negative regulator of the GA pathway, and BRASSINAZOLE RESISTANT1 (BZR1), a transcription factor that broadly regulates gene expression in response to BRs. We provide biochemical evidence, both in vitro and in vivo, indicating that GAI inactivates the transcriptional regulatory activity of BZR1 upon their interaction by inhibiting the ability of BZR1 to bind to target promoters. The physiological relevance of this interaction was confirmed by the observation that the dominant gai-1 allele interferes with BR-regulated gene expression, whereas the bzr1-1D allele displays enhanced resistance to DELLA accumulation during hypocotyl elongation. Because DELLA proteins mediate the response to multiple environmental signals, our results provide an initial molecular framework for the integration with BRs of additional pathways that control plant development.
Project description:The phytohormones brassinosteroid (BR), auxin, and gibberellin (GA) regulate photomorphogenesis-related hypocotyl elongation in Arabidopsis via the co-operative interaction of BZR-ARF-PIF/DELLA (BAP/D) transcription factors/regulators. In addition, ethylene activates the PIF3 or ERF1 pathway through EIN3/EIL1 to balance hypocotyl elongation in Arabidopsis seedlings. However, the mechanism by which ethylene is co-ordinated with other phytohormones to produce light-regulated hypocotyl growth remains elusive. In this study, we found that hypocotyl cell elongation is regulated by a network involving ethylene, auxin, and BR signalling, which is mediated by interactions among ERF72, ARF6, and BZR1. ERF72 interacted directly with ARF6 and BZR1 in vitro and in vivo, and it antagonised regulation by ARF6 and BZR1 of the transcription of BEE3 and XTH7. In addition, light modulated the subcellular localisation of ERF72 and transcription of ERF72 through the EIN2-EIN3/EIL1 pathway, facilitating the function of ERF72 in photomorphogenesis. The expression of BEE3 and XTH7 was also regulated by the EIN2-EIN3/EIL1 pathway. Our findings indicate that a revised BZR-ARF-PIF/DELLA-ERF (BAP/DE) module integrates light and hormone signals to regulate hypocotyl elongation in Arabidopsis.
Project description:Brassinosteroid (BR) and gibberellin (GA) promote many similar developmental responses in plants; but their relationship remains unclear. Here we show that BR and GA act interdependently through a direct interaction between the BR-activated BZR1 and GAinactivated DELLA transcription regulators. GA promotion of cell elongation required BR signaling, whereas BR or active BZR1 can suppresssed the GA-deficient dwarf phenotype. DELLAs directly interacted with BZR1 and inhibited BZR1-DNA binding both in vitro and in vivo. Genome-wide analysis defined a BZR1-dependent GA-regulated transcriptome, which is enriched with light-regulated genes and genes involved in cell wall synthesis and photosynthesis/chloroplast. GA promotion of hypocotyl elongation requires both BZR1 and the phytochrome interacting factors (PIFs), as well as their common downstream targets PREs. The results demonstrate that GA releases DELLA-mediated inhibition of BZR1, and that the DELLA-BZR1-PIF4 interaction defines a core transcription module that mediates coordinated growth regulation by GA, BR and light signals. Wild type Arabidopsis and bzr1-1D were grown in media containing 1 uM PAC and 0 or 2 uM PPZ for 4.5 days in dark, then treated with 10 uM GA3 or mock solution for 12 hr. Total RNA was extracted with Spectrum Plant Total RNA Kit (Sigma) and the mRNA sequencing libraries were constructed with barcodes using TruSeqTM RNA Sample Preparation Kit (Illumina). Six barcoded libraries were pooled together and sequenced by Illumina HiSeq2000.
Project description:ELONGATED HYPOCOTYL 5 (HY5), a basic domain/leucine zipper (bZIP) transcription factor, acts as a master regulator of transcription to promote photomorphogenesis. At present, it's unclear whether HY5 uses additional mechanisms to inhibit hypocotyl elongation. Here, we demonstrate that HY5 enhances the activity of GSK3-like kinase BRASSINOSTEROID-INSENSITIVE 2 (BIN2), a key repressor of brassinosteroid signaling, to repress hypocotyl elongation. We show that HY5 physically interacts with and genetically acts through BIN2 to inhibit hypocotyl elongation. The interaction of HY5 with BIN2 enhances its kinase activity possibly by the promotion of BIN2 Tyr200 autophosphorylation, and subsequently represses the accumulation of the transcription factor BRASSINAZOLE-RESISTANT 1 (BZR1). Leu137 of HY5 is found to be important for the HY5-BIN2 interaction and HY5-mediated regulation of BIN2 activity, without affecting the transcriptional activity of HY5. HY5 levels increase with light intensity, which gradually enhances BIN2 activity. Thus, our work reveals an additional way in which HY5 promotes photomorphogenesis, and provides an insight into the regulation of GSK3 activity.
Project description:Small increases in temperature result in enhanced elongation of the hypocotyl and petioles and hyponastic growth, in an adaptive response directed to the cooling of the leaves and to protect the shoot meristem from the warm soil. This response, collectively termed as thermomorphogenesis, relies on the faster reversion of phyB Pfr at warmer temperatures, which leads to enhanced activity of the basic-helix-loop-helix PHYTOCHROME INTERACTING FACTOR 4 (PIF4). PIF4 acts as a molecular hub integrating light and temperature cues with endogenous hormonal signaling, and drives thermoresponsive growth by directly activating auxin synthesis and signaling genes. Growth promotion by PIF4 depends on brassinosteroid (BR) signaling, as indicated by the impaired thermoresponse of BR-defective mutants and the partial restoration of pifq thermoresponsive defects by brassinolide (BL) application. Also, phyB limits thermomorphogenic elongation through negative regulation of the E3 ubiquitin ligase COP1 that triggers nuclear degradation of multiple photomorphogenesis-promoting factors acting antagonistically to PIF4. COP1 is indeed observed to accumulate in the nucleus in darkness, or in response to warm temperatures, with constitutive photomorphogenic cop1 mutants failing to respond to temperature. Here we explored the role of BR signaling on COP1 function, by growing cop1 seedlings on BL or the inhibitor brassinazole (BRZ), under different light and temperature regimes. We show that weak cop1 alleles exhibit a hyposensitive response to BL. Furthermore, while cop1-6 mutants display as described a wild-type response to temperature in continuous darkness, this response is abolished by BRZ. Application of this inhibitor likewise suppressed temperature-induced COP1 nuclear accumulation in N. benthamiana leaves. Overall these results demonstrate that cop1-6 is not a temperature-conditional allele, but this mutation allows for a partially active protein which unveils a pivotal role of active BR signaling in the control of COP1 activity.
Project description:Cell elongation is promoted by different environmental and hormonal signals, involving light, temperature, brassinosteroid (BR), and gibberellin, that inhibit the atypical basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factor INCREASED LEAF INCLINATION1 BINDING bHLH1 (IBH1). Ectopic accumulation of IBH1 causes a severe dwarf phenotype, but the cell elongation suppression mechanism is still not well understood. Here, we identified a close homolog of IBH1, IBH1-LIKE1 (IBL1), that also antagonized BR responses and cell elongation. Genome-wide expression analyses showed that IBH1 and IBL1 act interdependently downstream of the BRASSINAZOLE-RESISTANT1 (BZR1)-PHYTOCHROME-INTERACTING FACTOR 4 (PIF4)-DELLA module. Although characterized as non-DNA binding, IBH1 repressed direct IBL1 transcription, and they both acted in tandem to suppress the expression of a common downstream helix-loop-helix (HLH)/bHLH network, thus forming an incoherent feed-forward loop. IBH1 and IBL1 together repressed the expression of PIF4, known to stimulate skotomorphogenesis synergistically with BZR1. Strikingly, PIF4 bound all direct and down-regulated HLH/bHLH targets of IBH1 and IBL1. Additional genome-wide comparisons suggested a model in which IBH1 antagonized PIF4 but not the PIF4-BZR1 dimer.
Project description:Plant steroid hormones, brassinosteroids (BRs), play important roles in plants. BRs regulate the expression of several thousand genes, half of which are induced and the other half repressed by the hormone. BRs signal through plasma membrane-localized receptor kinase brassinosteroid-insensitive 1 (BRI1), BRI1-associated receptor kinase (BAK1), and several intermediates to regulate the protein levels, cellular localizations, and/or DNA binding of BRI1-EMS suppressor 1 (BES1)/brassinazole-resistant 1 (BZR1) family transcription factors. Although BES1 is known to interact with other transcription factors, histone-modifying enzymes, and transcription elongation factors to activate BR-induced genes, how BES1 mediates the BR-repressed gene expression is not known. Here, we show that BES1 interacts with myeloblastosis family transcription factor-like 2 (MYBL2), a transcription repressor, to down-regulate BR-repressed gene expression. The loss-of-function mybl2 mutant enhances the phenotype of a weak allele of bri1 and suppresses the constitutive BR-response phenotype of bes1-D. The results suggest that suppression of BR-repressed gene expression is required for optimal BR response. Moreover, MYBL2 is a substrate of glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3)-like kinase brassinosteroid-insensitive 2 (BIN2), which has been well established as a negative regulator in the BR pathway by phosphorylating and inhibiting the functions of BES1/BZR1. Unlike BIN2 phosphorylation of BES1/BZR1 leading to protein degradation, BIN2 phosphorylation stabilizes MYBL2. Such dual role of phosphorylation has also been reported in WNT signaling pathway in which GSK3 phosphorylation destabilizes ?-catenin and stabilizes Axin, a scaffolding protein facilitating the phosphorylation of ?-catenin by GSK3. Our results thus establish the mechanisms for BR-repressed gene expression and the integration of BR signaling and BR transcriptional network.