Long noncoding RNA lnc-DILC stabilizes PTEN and suppresses clear cell renal cell carcinoma progression.
ABSTRACT: Background:Increasing evidence has indicated that long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are crucial regulators affecting the progression of human cancers. Recently, lncRNA downregulated in liver cancer stem cells (lnc-DILC) was identified to function as a tumor suppressor inhibiting the tumorigenesis and metastasis in liver cancer and colorectal cancer. However, to date, little is known about the functional roles of lnc-DILC in modulating malignant phenotypes of clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) cells. Methods:lnc-DILC expression in human ccRCC tissues was detected by qRT-PCR. Overexpression and knockdown experiments were carried out to determine the effects of lnc-DILC on ccRCC cell proliferation, migration and invasion. To reveal the underlying mechanisms of lnc-DILC functions in ccRCC cells. RNA immunoprecipitation, RNA pull-down, in vivo ubiquitination, co-immunoprecipitation and western blot assays were performed. Results:Here, we identified that lnc-DILC levels were dramatically downregulated in ccRCC tissues. Loss of lnc-DILC expression was correlated with larger tumor size, advanced tumor grade and lymph node metastasis, and also predicted worse prognosis in patients with ccRCC. Functionally, knockdown and overexpression experiments demonstrated that lnc-DILC inhibited cell proliferation, migration and invasion in ccRCC cells. Mechanistic investigation revealed that lnc-DILC bound to tumor suppressor PTEN and suppressed its degradation. lnc-DILC repressed the PTEN ubiquitination through blocking the interaction between PTEN and E3 ubiquitin ligase WWP2 and recruiting the deubiquitinase USP11 to PTEN. Moreover, we demonstrated that PTEN-AKT signaling was crucial for lnc-DILC-mediated suppressive effects. Conclusions:In summary, our research revealed a novel mechanism by which lnc-DILC regulates PTEN stability via WWP2 and USP11, and shed light on potential therapeutic strategies by the restoration of lnc-DILC expression in patients with ccRCC.
Project description:PTEN is a lipid phosphatase that antagonizes the PI3K/AKT pathway and is recognized as a major dose-dependent tumor suppressor. The cellular mechanisms that control PTEN levels therefore offer potential routes to therapy, but these are as yet poorly defined. Here we demonstrate that PTEN plays an unexpected role in regulating its own stability through the transcriptional upregulation of the deubiquitinase USP11 by the PI3K/FOXO pathway, and further show that this feedforward mechanism is implicated in its tumor-suppressive role, as mice lacking Usp11 display increased susceptibility to PTEN-dependent tumor initiation, growth and metastasis. Notably, USP11 is downregulated in cancer patients, and correlates with PTEN expression and FOXO nuclear localization. Our findings therefore demonstrate that PTEN-PI3K-FOXO-USP11 constitute the regulatory feedforward loop that improves the stability and tumor suppressive activity of PTEN.
Project description:The WW domain containing E3 ubiquitin protein ligase 2 (WWP2) encodes a member of the Nedd4 family of E3 ligases, which catalyzes the final step of the ubiquitination cascade. WWP2 is involved in tumoral growth with degradation of the tumor suppressor phosphatase and tensin homologue deleted on chromosome TEN (PTEN). However, little is known about the mechanisms and roles of WWP2 in human malignancies including oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCCs). We found frequent WWP2 overexpression in all OSCC-derived cell lines examined that was associated with cellular growth by accelerating the cell cycle in the G1 phase via degradation of PTEN and activation of the PI3K/AKT signaling pathway. Our in vivo data of WWP2 silencing showed dramatic inhibition of tumoral growth with increased expression of PTEN. Our 104 primary OSCCs had significantly higher expression of WWP2 than their normal counterparts. Moreover, among the clinical variables analyzed, enhanced WWP2 expression was correlated with primary tumoral size and poor prognosis. These data suggested that WWP2 overexpression contributes to neoplastic promotion via the PTEN/PI3K/AKT pathway in OSCCs. WWP2 is likely to be a biomarker of tumoral progression and prognosis and a potential therapeutic target for development of anticancer drugs in OSCCs.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) play vital roles in the development and progression of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC); however, the role of most lncRNAs in NSCLC remains unknown. This study explored the clinical significance, biological function and underlying mechanism of lnc-GAN1 in NSCLC.<h4>Methods</h4>With a custom lncRNA microarray we found that lnc-GAN1 is markedly downregulated in NSCLC tissues. Then lnc-GAN1 expression level was measured using qRT-PCR in NSCLC tissues and cell lines. Survival was assessed using the Kaplan-Meier method. The biological functions of lnc-GAN1 in lung cancer cells were evaluated in vitro and in vivo. RNA fluorescence in situ hybridization and subcellular localization assays revealed the subcellular distribution of lnc-GAN1 in cells. Bioinformatic analysis was adopted to predict miRNAs and signaling pathways regulated by lnc-GAN1. RNA immunoprecipitation and Dual-luciferase reporter assays were used to assess the interaction between lnc-GAN1 and miR-26a-5p in lung cancer cells.<h4>Results</h4>lnc-GAN1 is downregulated in HCC tissues and associated with larger tumor size and poor overall survival and disease-free survival; its ectopic expression suppresses cell proliferation, colony formation, and cell cycle progression and induces apoptosis in NSCLC cells; it also inhibits tumor growth in the NSCLC xenograft model. We further proved that lnc-GAN1 is localized in cytoplasm and transcribed independently from its parental gene GAN. Mechanistically, lnc-GAN1 acts as a sponge for miR-26a-5p by two seed sequences, and the two non-coding RNAs have a negative relationship in NSCLC tissues; we further prove that PTEN is a direct target of miR-26a-5p and lnc-GAN1 inhibits cell cycle signaling pathway by activating PTEN, whose expression level correlated negatively with miR-26a-5p level but positively with lnc-GAN1 level in NSCLC samples.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Lnc-GAN1 is downregulated and associated with poor survival of NSCLC patients, and mechanistically acts as a tumor suppressor via sponging and inhibiting miR-26a-5p to upregulate PTEN. This study provides a potential prognostic biomarker and treatment target for NSCLC.
Project description:The Notch3 signaling pathway is thought to play a critical role in cancer development, as evidenced by the Notch3 amplification and rearrangement observed in human cancers. However, the molecular mechanism by which Notch3 signaling contributes to tumorigenesis is largely unknown. In an effort to identify the molecular modulators of the Notch3 signaling pathway, we screened for Notch3-intracellular domain (N3-ICD) interacting proteins using a human proteome microarray. Pathway analysis of the Notch3 interactome demonstrated that ubiquitin C was the molecular hub of the top functional network, suggesting the involvement of ubiquitination in modulating Notch3 signaling. Thereby, we focused on functional characterization of an E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase, WWP2, a top candidate in the Notch3 interactome list. Co-immunoprecipitation experiments showed that WWP2 interacted with N3-ICD but not with intracellular domains from other Notch receptors. Wild-type WWP2 but not ligase-deficient mutant WWP2 increases mono-ubiquitination of the membrane-tethered Notch3 fragment, therefore attenuating Notch3 pathway activity in cancer cells and leading to cell cycle arrest. The mono-ubiquitination by WWP2 may target an endosomal/lysosomal degradation fate for Notch3 as suggested by the fact that the process could be suppressed by the endosomal/lysosomal inhibitor. Analysis of The Cancer Genome Atlas dataset showed that the majority of ovarian carcinomas harbored homozygous or heterozygous deletions in WWP2 locus, and there was an inverse correlation in the expression levels between WWP2 and Notch3 in ovarian carcinomas. Furthermore, ectopic expression of WWP2 decreased tumor development in a mouse xenograft model and suppressed the Notch3-induced phenotypes including increase in cancer stem cell-like cell population and platinum resistance. Taken together, our results provide evidence that WWP2 serves as a tumor suppressor by negatively regulating Notch3 signaling in ovarian cancer.
Project description:The tumor suppressor, PTEN is key to the regulation of diverse cellular processes, making it a prime candidate to be tightly regulated. The PTEN level is controlled in a major way by E3 ligase-mediated degradation through the Ubiquitin-Proteasome System (UPS). Nedd 4-1, XIAP, and WWP2 have been shown to maintain PTEN turnover. Here, we report that CHIP, the chaperone-associated E3 ligase, induces ubiquitination and regulates the proteasomal turnover of PTEN. It was apparent from our findings that PTEN transiently associates with the molecular chaperones and thereby gets diverted to the degradation pathway through its interaction with CHIP. The TPR domain of CHIP and parts of the N-terminal domain of PTEN are required for their interaction. Overexpression of CHIP leads to elevated ubiquitination and a shortened half-life of endogenous PTEN. On the other hand, depletion of endogenous CHIP stabilizes PTEN. CHIP is also shown to regulate PTEN-dependent transcription presumably through its down-regulation. PTEN shared an inverse correlation with CHIP in human prostate cancer patient samples, thereby triggering the prospects of a more complex mode of PTEN regulation in cancer.
Project description:Anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome/Cdh1 is a multi-subunit ubiquitin E3 ligase that drives M to G1 cell cycle progression through primarily earmarking various substrates for ubiquitination and subsequent degradation by the 26S proteasome. Notably, emerging evidence suggested that Cdh1 could also function in various cellular processes independent of anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome. To this end, we recently identified an anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome-independent function of Cdh1 in modulating osteoblast differentiation through activating Smurf1, one of the NEDD4 family of HECT domain-containing E3 ligases. However, it remains largely unknown whether Cdh1 could exert its tumor suppressor role through similarly modulating the E3 ligase activities of other NEDD4 family members, most of which have characterized important roles in tumorigenesis. Here we report that in various tumor cells, Cdh1, conversely, suppresses the E3 ligase activity of WWP2, another NEDD4 family protein, in an anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome-independent manner. As such, loss of Cdh1 activates WWP2, leading to reduced abundance of WWP2 substrates including PTEN, which subsequently activates PI3K/Akt oncogenic signaling to facilitate tumorigenesis. This study expands the non-anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome function of Cdh1 in regulating the NEDD4 family E3 ligases, and further suggested that enhancing Cdh1 to inhibit the E3 ligase activity of WWP2 could be a promising strategy for treating human cancers.
Project description:Poly-ubiquitination-mediated RUNX2 degradation is an important cause of age- and inflammation-related bone loss. NEDD4 family E3 ubiquitin protein ligases are thought to be the major regulators of RUNX2 poly-ubiquitination. However, we observed a mono-ubiquitination of RUNX2 that was catalyzed by WWP2, a member of the NEDD4 family of E3 ubiquitin ligases. WWP2 has been reported to catalyze the mono-ubiquitination of Goosecoid in chondrocytes, facilitating craniofacial skeleton development. In this study, we found that osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells promoted WWP2 expression and nuclear accumulation. Knockdown of <i>Wwp2</i> in mesenchymal stem cells and osteoblasts led to significant deficiencies of osteogenesis, including decreased mineral deposition and down-regulation of osteogenic marker genes. Co-immunoprecipitation experiments showed the interaction of WWP2 with RUNX2 <i>in vitro</i> and <i>in vivo</i> Mono-ubiquitination by WWP2 leads to RUNX2 transactivation, as evidenced by the wild type of WWP2, but not its ubiquitin ligase-dead mutant, augmenting RUNX2-reponsive reporter activity. Moreover, deletion of WWP2-dependent mono-ubiquitination resulted in striking defects of RUNX2 osteoblastic activity. In addition, ectopic expression of the constitutively active type 1A bone morphogenetic protein receptor enhanced WWP2-dependent RUNX2 ubiquitination and transactivation, demonstrating a regulatory role of bone morphogenetic protein signaling in the WWP2-RUNX2 axis. Taken together, our results provide evidence that WWP2 serves as a positive regulator of osteogenesis by augmenting RUNX2 transactivation in a non-proteolytic mono-ubiquitination manner.
Project description:Hypoxic stress and hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs) play important roles in a wide range of tumors. We demonstrate that SPOP, which encodes an E3 ubiquitin ligase component, is a direct transcriptional target of HIFs in clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC). Furthermore, hypoxia results in cytoplasmic accumulation of SPOP, which is sufficient to induce tumorigenesis. This tumorigenic activity occurs through the ubiquitination and degradation of multiple regulators of cellular proliferation and apoptosis, including the tumor suppressor PTEN, ERK phosphatases, the proapoptotic molecule Daxx, and the Hedgehog pathway transcription factor Gli2. Knockdown of SPOP specifically kills ccRCC cells, indicating that it may be a promising therapeutic target. Collectively, our results indicate that SPOP serves as a regulatory hub to promote ccRCC tumorigenesis.
Project description:Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNA) play an important role in carcinogenesis; knowledge on lncRNA expression in renal cell carcinoma is rudimental. As a basis for biomarker development, we aimed to explore the lncRNA expression profile in clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) tissue.Microarray experiments were performed to determine the expression of 32,183 lncRNA transcripts belonging to 17,512 lncRNAs in 15 corresponding normal and malignant renal tissues. Validation was performed using quantitative real-time PCR in 55 ccRCC and 52 normal renal specimens. Computational analysis was performed to determine lncRNA-microRNA (MiRTarget2) and lncRNA-protein (catRAPID omics) interactions. We identified 1,308 dysregulated transcripts (expression change >2-fold; upregulated: 568, downregulated: 740) in ccRCC tissue. Among these, aberrant expression was validated using PCR: lnc-BMP2-2 (mean expression change: 37-fold), lnc-CPN2-1 (13-fold), lnc-FZD1-2 (9-fold), lnc-ITPR2-3 (15-fold), lnc-SLC30A4-1 (15-fold), and lnc-SPAM1-6 (10-fold) were highly overexpressed in ccRCC, whereas lnc-ACACA-1 (135-fold), lnc-FOXG1-2 (19-fold), lnc-LCP2-2 (2-fold), lnc-RP3-368B9 (19-fold), and lnc-TTC34-3 (314-fold) were downregulated. There was no correlation between lncRNA expression with clinical-pathological parameters. Computational analyses revealed that these lncRNAs are involved in RNA-protein networks related to splicing, binding, transport, localization, and processing of RNA. Small interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated knockdown of lnc-BMP2-2 and lnc-CPN2-1 did not influence cell proliferation.We identified many novel lncRNA transcripts dysregulated in ccRCC which may be useful for novel diagnostic biomarkers.
Project description:PTEN, a lipid phosphatase, is one of the most frequently mutated tumour suppressors in human cancer. Several recent studies have highlighted the importance of ubiquitylation in regulating PTEN tumour-suppressor function, but the enzymatic machinery required for PTEN ubiquitylation is not clear. In this study, by using a tandem affinity-purification approach, we have identified WWP2 (also known as atrophin-1-interacting protein 2, AIP-2) as a PTEN-interacting protein. WWP2 is an E3 ubiquitin ligase that belongs to the NEDD4-like protein family, which is involved in regulating transcription, embryonic stem-cell fate, cellular transport and T-cell activation processes. We show that WWP2 physically interacts with PTEN and mediates its degradation through a ubiquitylation-dependent pathway. Functionally, we show that WWP2 controls cellular apoptosis and is required for tumorigenicity of cells. Collectively, our results reveal a functional E3 ubiquitin ligase for PTEN that plays a vital role in tumour-cell survival.