Effect of pimobendan on physical fitness, lactate and echocardiographic parameters in dogs with preclinical mitral valve disease without cardiomegaly.
ABSTRACT: Pimobendan has gained enormous importance in the treatment of mitral valve disease in dogs. The current consensus statement of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine (ACVIM) recommends a treatment for dogs with symptomatic disease and dogs with asymptomatic disease with radiographic and echocardiographic signs of cardiomegaly. To investigate whether these dogs also benefit from a therapy with pimobendan, 21 dogs with mitral valve disease ACVIM B1 underwent a standardized submaximal exercise test on a treadmill. In this double-blinded and randomized study, the animals were divided into two groups, one receiving pimobendan and the other a placebo. At the first visit and at every follow-up appointment (at days 90 and 180), heart rate during the complete exercise test and lactate before and after running were measured. In addition to this, a questionnaire was completed by the dogs' owners and all dogs were given an echocardiographic examination to detect any changes and to observe if the disease had progressed. Due to the diagnosis of leishmaniosis, one dog in the pimobendan group was retrospectively removed from the study so that 20 dogs were included for statistical analysis. No differences were observed at any time between the pimobendan-group and the placebo-group regarding heart rate. At day 180, the increase in lactate after exercise was significantly lower than in the placebo-group. The increase in the pimobendan-group at day 180 was lower than at day 90. Most of the dog owners from the pimobendan-group declared that their dogs were more active at day 90 (6/10) and at day 180 (8/10), while most dog owners from the placebo-group observed no changes regarding activity at day 90 (8/10) and day 180 (6/10). It can be concluded that the results of this study indicate that some dogs with mitral valve disease ACVIM B1 might benefit from a therapy with pimobendan.
Project description:Changes in clinical variables associated with the administration of pimobendan to dogs with preclinical myxomatous mitral valve disease (MMVD) and cardiomegaly have not been described.To investigate the effect of pimobendan on clinical variables and the relationship between a change in heart size and the time to congestive heart failure (CHF) or cardiac-related death (CRD) in dogs with MMVD and cardiomegaly. To determine whether pimobendan-treated dogs differ from dogs receiving placebo at onset of CHF.Three hundred and fifty-four dogs with MMVD and cardiomegaly.Prospective, blinded study with dogs randomized (ratio 1:1) to pimobendan (0.4-0.6 mg/kg/d) or placebo. Clinical, laboratory, and heart-size variables in both groups were measured and compared at different time points (day 35 and onset of CHF) and over the study duration. Relationships between short-term changes in echocardiographic variables and time to CHF or CRD were explored.At day 35, heart size had reduced in the pimobendan group: median change in (?) LVIDDN -0.06 (IQR: -0.15 to +0.02), P < 0.0001, and LA:Ao -0.08 (IQR: -0.23 to +0.03), P < 0.0001. Reduction in heart size was associated with increased time to CHF or CRD. Hazard ratio for a 0.1 increase in ?LVIDDN was 1.26, P = 0.0003. Hazard ratio for a 0.1 increase in ?LA:Ao was 1.14, P = 0.0002. At onset of CHF, groups were similar.Pimobendan treatment reduces heart size. Reduced heart size is associated with improved outcome. At the onset of CHF, dogs treated with pimobendan were indistinguishable from those receiving placebo.
Project description:Pimobendan is effective in treatment of dogs with congestive heart failure (CHF) secondary to myxomatous mitral valve disease (MMVD). Its effect on dogs before the onset of CHF is unknown.Administration of pimobendan (0.4-0.6 mg/kg/d in divided doses) to dogs with increased heart size secondary to preclinical MMVD, not receiving other cardiovascular medications, will delay the onset of signs of CHF, cardiac-related death, or euthanasia.360 client-owned dogs with MMVD with left atrial-to-aortic ratio ?1.6, normalized left ventricular internal diameter in diastole ?1.7, and vertebral heart sum >10.5.Prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled, blinded, multicenter clinical trial. Primary outcome variable was time to a composite of the onset of CHF, cardiac-related death, or euthanasia.Median time to primary endpoint was 1228 days (95% CI: 856-NA) in the pimobendan group and 766 days (95% CI: 667-875) in the placebo group (P = .0038). Hazard ratio for the pimobendan group was 0.64 (95% CI: 0.47-0.87) compared with the placebo group. The benefit persisted after adjustment for other variables. Adverse events were not different between treatment groups. Dogs in the pimobendan group lived longer (median survival time was 1059 days (95% CI: 952-NA) in the pimobendan group and 902 days (95% CI: 747-1061) in the placebo group) (P = .012).Administration of pimobendan to dogs with MMVD and echocardiographic and radiographic evidence of cardiomegaly results in prolongation of preclinical period and is safe and well tolerated. Prolongation of preclinical period by approximately 15 months represents substantial clinical benefit.
Project description:Symmetric dimethylarginine (SDMA) is a serum biomarker of renal damage in dogs. Moreover, SDMA concentration is an independent predictor of development of severe heart failure (HF) in humans with cardiac disease. This study evaluates whether the serum concentration of SDMA in dogs with myxomatous mitral valve disease (MMVD) is influenced by the severity of heart disease, pulmonary hypertension (PH) and treatment of HF. A total of 99 client-owned dogs were included in this retrospective case-control study; 78 dogs were affected by MMVD and classified according to the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine (ACVIM) guidelines, and 21 were healthy controls. For each dog, history, physical examination, complete blood count, biochemical profile, thoracic radiography, 6-lead standard electrocardiogram and trans-thoracic echocardiography were available. Comparisons were performed between groups of dogs belonging to different ACVIM stages and between dogs with and without PH. The median SDMA concentration was neither significantly different among groups of dogs in different disease stages (overall P = 0.010), nor among dogs with MMVD, nor between those with [14.5 ?g/dl (10.5-18.8)] and without PH [13 ?g/dl (9-17.2)] (P = 0.295). The concentration of SDMA did not differ between dogs when considering the combined effect of the ACVIM group and cardiac treatment (overall P = 0.486). Furthermore, no correlation was found between SDMA concentration and radiographic and echocardiographic parameters associated with increased MMVD severity. In conclusion, this study failed to demonstrate the presence of renal impairment in dogs with MMVD, and the increase in renal parameters in some dogs in the more advanced stage of MMVD could be attributed to pre-renal azotemia.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The Evaluation of pimobendan in dogs with cardiomegaly caused by preclinical myxomatous mitral valve disease (EPIC) study monitored dogs with myxomatous mitral valve disease (MMVD) as they developed congestive heart failure (CHF). OBJECTIVES:To describe the changes in clinical and radiographic variables occurring as dogs with MMVD and cardiomegaly develop CHF, compared to similar dogs that do not develop CHF. ANIMALS:One hundred and thirty-five, and 73 dogs that did or did not develop CHF, respectively. MATERIALS AND METHODS:The following variables were evaluated in 2 groups of dogs (dogs that did or did not develop CHF): Heart rate (HR), clinic respiratory rate (RR), home-measured resting respiratory rate (RRR), rectal temperature (RT), body weight (BW), and vertebral heart sum (VHS). Absolute value and rate of change of each variable were calculated for each day a dog was in study. Daily means were calculated and plotted against time. The onset of CHF or last visit before leaving the study were set as reference time points. RESULTS:The most extreme values and rate of change occurred in variables immediately before onset of CHF. Vertebral heart sum increased earliest. Heart rate, RR, and RRR also increased. Rectal temperature and BW decreased. Increases in RR and RRR were most extreme and occurred immediately before CHF. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL IMPORTANCE:Dogs with MMVD and cardiomegaly experience increases in HR, RR, RRR, and VHS, and decreases in BW and RT as they develop CHF. The variables with highest absolute change and rate of change were RR and RRR. These findings reinforce the value of RR and RRR as indicators of impending or incipient CHF.
Project description:PURPOSE:This study evaluated dog and cat allergies and their association with allergen avoidance measures in Korean adults. METHODS:The study population consisted of 537 adults who currently kept dogs or cats and participated in a pet exhibition in Korea. The subjects were asked to complete questionnaires regarding pet ownership, allergen avoidance, and allergy symptoms, and underwent skin prick tests. They were considered to have a dog or cat allergy if they suffered from one or more of allergy symptoms during contact with their pets. RESULTS:In total, 103 of 407 dog owners (25.3%) and 45 of 130 cat owners (34.6%) had a dog or cat allergy, respectively. Dog owners kept 1.3±1.5 dogs; this number did not differ according to the presence of dog allergy. Dog owners with a dog allergy had owned their dogs longer than those without (88.0±72.0 vs 67.5±72.7 months, P<0.05). Cat owners kept 2.1±3.6 cats; this number did not differ according to the presence of cat allergy, nor did the duration of cat ownership. Cat owners with a cat allergy had facial contact and slept with their cats less frequently (8.6±11.9 vs 18.3±27.0 times/day, P<0.01; 71.1% vs 81.2%, P<0.05); however, they had their cats shaved and beds cleaned less frequently than those without (1.8±3.3 vs 3.2±4.4 times/year, P<0.05; 1.5±1.5 vs 3.9±6.0 times/month, P<0.01). CONCLUSIONS:Cat owners with a cat allergy tried to minimize contact with their cats, but efforts to avoid indoor cat allergens were lower than those without. In comparison, dog owners with a dog allergy had kept their dogs for longer time than those without; however, current contact with their dogs and allergen avoidance measures did not differ between the 2 groups.
Project description:Periodontal disease is one of the most common diseases affecting dogs, with a reported prevalence of at least 80% in dogs over 3 years of age. However, there is a lack of studies regarding dog owners' assessment of their dog's dental health, and whether they perceive clinical signs often associated with periodontal disease, i.e., dental calculus, halitosis or mobile or lost teeth. A validated questionnaire survey was distributed to all Swedish dog owners with email addresses in the national registry (n = 209,263). The response rate was 32%. The survey questions concerned opinions and practices regarding canine dental health, including assessment of dental health parameters and dog owners' ability to examine their dog's mouth. A construct (? = 0.76) was used to investigate dog owners' assessed symptoms of their dog's dental health in relation to background factors. Half of the respondents rated their dog's dental health as very good. However, one in four dog owners experienced difficulties when inspecting the dog's teeth. The most common reason for this difficulty was stated to be an uncooperative dog. Almost half of the dog owners reported halitosis to some degree in their dog, and almost four in ten owners reported dental calculus. One in eight dogs had been previously anesthetized for dental cleaning, and one in 12 dogs had experienced problems with gum disease, according to the owners. Owners' assessment varied significantly with the dog's age, weight, breed, breed group, sex, and concurrent disease. Owner-related factors that influenced the assessment of the dog's dental health were age, gender, education, county (urban/rural), and whether they were breeders or not. Dog owners with smaller dogs, older dogs and certain breeds predisposed to periodontal disease assessed their dog's dental health as worse than their counterparts, which is in agreement with previously reported higher prevalence of dental disease in these groups. This indicates that dog owners are able to perform relative assessment of their dog's dental health status. Our results also highlight the need for routine professional assessment of periodontal health, as well as education of dog owners and training of dogs to accept dental care procedures.
Project description:A dog's aggressive behavior is influenced by external and internal factors, including its psychological profile. In this study, dogs' and owners' personalities and the owners' attachment style to their dogs were identified and associated with owner-reported dog aggression towards humans and animals. Forty Slovenian owners participated with their dogs, of different breeds and aggression history, sorted into three groups (non-aggressive dogs, dogs aggressive towards humans, and dogs aggressive towards animals). The owners filled out three separate questionnaires that assessed dog aggression history towards different targets, owner's personality and degree of insecure attachment styles to dogs; namely anxious and avoidant attachment. Dog personality was characterized using a standardized dog mentality assessment test, during which the dog was exposed to nine tasks, performed outside, and dogs were scored based on behaviors they exhibited. The results indicated that dogs which were aggressive towards humans were less sociable than non-aggressive dogs and this was associated with the higher neuroticism scores of their owners. We also found that dogs which were aggressive towards strangers had owners with lower scores for anxious attachment and that dogs which were aggressive towards owners had owners with higher scores for avoidant attachment. These results imply that the psychological profiles of both a dog and its owner influence dog aggression towards humans.
Project description:Dog ownership has been suggested to encourage physical activity in older adults and may enhance resilience to poor environmental conditions. This study investigates the role of dog ownership and walking as a means of supporting the maintenance of physical activity in older adults during periods of inclement weather.The analysis used data from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition Norfolk cohort. Daily physical activity (counts per minute) and minutes of sedentary behaviour were measured using accelerometers over 7 days. Three types of environmental conditions, day length, precipitation and maximum temperature, were date matched with daily physical activity. A multilevel first-order autoregressive time-series model quantified the moderating effect of self-reported dog ownership and walking on the association between physical activity and weather factors.Among the 3123 participants, 18% reported having a dog in their households and two-thirds of dog owners walked their dogs at least once a day. Regular dog walkers were more active and less sedentary on days with the poorest conditions than non-dog owners were on the days with the best conditions. In days with the worst conditions, those who walked their dogs had 20% higher activity levels than non-dog owners and spent 30 min/day less sedentary.Those who walked dogs were consistently more physically active than those who did not regardless of environmental conditions. These large differences suggest that dog walking, where appropriate, can be a component of interventions to support physical activity in older adults.
Project description:MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs that have shown promise as noninvasive biomarkers in cardiac disease. This study was undertaken to investigate the miRNA expression profile in dogs with myxomatous mitral valve disease (MMVD). 277 miRNAs were quantified using RT-qPCR from six normal dogs (American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine Stage A), six dogs with MMVD mild to moderate cardiac enlargement (ACVIM Stage B1/B2) and six dogs with MMVD and congestive heart failure (ACVIM Stage C/D). Eleven miRNAs were differentially expressed (False Discovery Rate < 0.05). Dogs in Stage B1/B2 or C/D had four upregulated miRNAs, including three cfa-let-7/cfa-miR-98 family members, while seven others were downregulated, compared to Stage A. Expression of six of the 11 miRNAs also were significantly different between dogs in Stage C/D and those in Stage B1/B2. The expression changes were greater as disease severity increased. These miRNAs may be candidates for novel biomarkers and may provide insights into genetic regulatory pathways in canine MMVD.
Project description:Anxiety related behaviors have been reported in humans diagnosed with idiopathic epilepsy (IE) and such traits may be altered depending on seizure phase. The purpose of this study was to determine the presence and severity of anxiety related behaviors in dogs with IE compared to other medical populations, and to determine if behavioral changes were associated with seizure control. In this retrospective cross-sectional study, the owners of 102 dogs presenting for wellness examination (37), epilepsy (38), and intervertebral disc disease (27) were surveyed utilizing a questionnaire developed based on the shortened Canine Behavioral Assessment and Research Questionnaire (mini-CBARQ), previously validated for its ability to analyze canine behavior. Veterinarians of participating dogs completed a questionnaire to verify diagnoses. Dogs with IE and IVDD had a higher likelihood of being fearful/anxious when approached by an unfamiliar dog compared to the wellness group. Dogs with IE receiving polytherapy had decreased excitement before a walk (P = 0.0007) or car trip (P = 0.027), increased fear/anxiety when groomed (P = 0.0197), and increased shaking, shivering, or trembling when left alone (P = 0.0004) compared to dogs receiving monotherapy. Polytherapy dogs had increased agitation when their owner/others showed affection toward other people/dogs during preictal (Pperson = 0.005, Panimal = 0.0083), postictal (Pperson = 0.001, Panimal = 0.0068), and interictal (Pperson = 0.0083, Panimal = 0.02) period compared to monotherapy dogs. Seizure frequency and severity was not correlated with anxiety related behavior in dogs with IE. While seizure phase was associated with behavior changes in 38% (14/37) of our epileptic population, one specific seizure phase was not more likely to produce behavior changes than another. Behavioral changes noted in dogs with IE raises further questions about how this disease affects QoL. Research was presented in abstract form at the ACVIM Forum, Denver, CO, USA, June 2016.