A tri-ionic anchor mechanism drives Ube2N-specific recruitment and K63-chain ubiquitination in TRIM ligases.
ABSTRACT: The cytosolic antibody receptor TRIM21 possesses unique ubiquitination activity that drives broad-spectrum anti-pathogen targeting and underpins the protein depletion technology Trim-Away. This activity is dependent on formation of self-anchored, K63-linked ubiquitin chains by the heterodimeric E2 enzyme Ube2N/Ube2V2. Here we reveal how TRIM21 facilitates ubiquitin transfer and differentiates this E2 from other closely related enzymes. A tri-ionic motif provides optimally distributed anchor points that allow TRIM21 to wrap an Ube2N~Ub complex around its RING domain, locking the closed conformation and promoting ubiquitin discharge. Mutation of these anchor points inhibits ubiquitination with Ube2N/Ube2V2, viral neutralization and immune signalling. We show that the same mechanism is employed by the anti-HIV restriction factor TRIM5 and identify spatially conserved ionic anchor points in other Ube2N-recruiting RING E3s. The tri-ionic motif is exclusively required for Ube2N but not Ube2D1 activity and provides a generic E2-specific catalysis mechanism for RING E3s.
Project description:Many receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs, such as EGFR, MET) are negatively regulated by ubiquitination and degradation mediated by Cbl proteins, a family of RING finger (RF) ubiquitin ligases (E3s). Loss of Cbl protein function is associated with malignant transformation driven by increased RTK activity. RF E3s, such as the Cbl proteins, interact with a ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme (E2) to confer specificity to the ubiquitination process and direct the transfer of ubiquitin from the E2 to one or more lysines on the target proteins. Using in vitro E3 assays and yeast two-hybrid screens, we found that Ube2d, Ube2e families, Ube2n/2v1, and Ube2w catalyze autoubiquitination of the Cbl protein and Ube2d2, Ube2e1, and Ube 2n/2v1 catalyze Cbl-mediated substrate ubiquitination of the EGFR and SYK. Phosphorylation of the Cbl protein by by Src resulted in increased E3 activity compared to unphosphorylated cbl or Cbl containing a phosphomimetic Y371E mutation. Ubiquitin chain formation depended on the E2 tested with Cbl with Ube2d2 forming both K48 and K63 linked chains, Ube2n/2v1 forming only K63 linked chains, and Ube2w inducing monoubiquitination. In cells, the Ube2d family, Ube2e family, and Ube2n/2v1 contributed to EGFR ubiquitination. Our data suggest that multiple E2s can interact with Cbl and modulate its E3 activity in vitro and in cells.
Project description:RING (Really Interesting New Gene) domains in ubiquitin RING E3 ligases exclusively engage ubiquitin (Ub)-loaded E2s to facilitate ubiquitination of their substrates. Despite such specificity, all RINGs characterized till date bind unloaded E2s with dissociation constants (Kds) in the micromolar to the sub-millimolar range. Here, we show that the RING domain of E3 ligase ZNRF1, an essential E3 ligase implicated in diverse cellular pathways, binds Ube2N with a Kd of ∼50 nM. This high-affinity interaction is exclusive for Ube2N as ZNRF1 interacts with Ube2D2 with a Kd of ∼1 µM, alike few other E3s. The crystal structure of ZNRF1 C-terminal domain in complex with Ube2N coupled with mutational analyses reveals the molecular basis of this unusual affinity. We further demonstrate that the ubiquitination efficiency of ZNRF1 : E2 pairs correlates with their affinity. Intriguingly, as a consequence of its high E2 affinity, an excess of ZNRF1 inhibits Ube2N-mediated ubiquitination at concentrations ≥500 nM instead of showing enhanced ubiquitination. This suggests a novel mode of activity regulation of E3 ligases and emphasizes the importance of E3-E2 balance for the optimum activity. Based on our results, we propose that overexpression-based functional analyses on E3 ligases such as ZNRF1 must be approached with caution as enhanced cellular levels might result in aberrant modification activity.
Project description:Covalent attachment of ubiquitin to substrates is crucial to protein degradation, transcription regulation and cell signalling. Highly specific interactions between ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes (E2) and ubiquitin protein E3 ligases fulfil essential roles in this process. We performed a global yeast-two hybrid screen to study the specificity of interactions between catalytic domains of the 35 human E2s with 250 RING-type E3s. Our analysis showed over 300 high-quality interactions, uncovering a large fraction of new E2-E3 pairs. Both within the E2 and the E3 cohorts, several members were identified that are more versatile in their interaction behaviour than others. We also found that the physical interactions of our screen compare well with reported functional E2-E3 pairs in in vitro ubiquitination experiments. For validation we confirmed the interaction of several versatile E2s with E3s in in vitro protein interaction assays and we used mutagenesis to alter the E3 interactions of the E2 specific for K63 linkages, UBE2N(Ubc13), towards the K48-specific UBE2D2(UbcH5B). Our data provide a detailed, genome-wide overview of binary E2-E3 interactions of the human ubiquitination system.
Project description:TRIM5? is an antiviral, cytoplasmic, E3 ubiquitin (Ub) ligase that assembles on incoming retroviral capsids and induces their premature dissociation. It inhibits reverse transcription of the viral genome and can also synthesize unanchored polyubiquitin (polyUb) chains to stimulate innate immune responses. Here, we show that TRIM5? employs the E2 Ub-conjugating enzyme Ube2W to anchor the Lys63-linked polyUb chains in a process of TRIM5? auto-ubiquitination. Chain anchoring is initiated, in cells and in vitro, through Ube2W-catalyzed monoubiquitination of TRIM5?. This modification serves as a substrate for the elongation of anchored Lys63-linked polyUb chains, catalyzed by the heterodimeric E2 enzyme Ube2N/Ube2V2. Ube2W targets multiple TRIM5? internal lysines with Ub especially lysines 45 and 50, rather than modifying the N-terminal amino group, which is instead ?N-acetylated in cells. E2 depletion or Ub mutation inhibits TRIM5? ubiquitination in cells and restores restricted viral reverse transcription, but not infection. Our data indicate that the stepwise formation of anchored Lys63-linked polyUb is a critical early step in the TRIM5? restriction mechanism and identify the E2 Ub-conjugating cofactors involved.
Project description:RING E3 ligase-catalyzed formation of K63-linked ubiquitin chains by the Ube2V2-Ubc13 E2 complex is required in many important biological processes. Here we report the structure of the RING-domain dimer of rat RNF4 in complex with a human Ubc13?Ub conjugate and Ube2V2. The structure has captured Ube2V2 bound to the acceptor (priming) ubiquitin with K63 in a position favorable for attack on the linkage between Ubc13 and the donor (second) ubiquitin held in the active 'folded back' conformation by the RING domain of RNF4. We verified the interfaces identified in the structure by in vitro ubiquitination assays of site-directed mutants. To our knowledge, this represents the first view of synthesis of K63-linked ubiquitin chains in which both substrate ubiquitin and ubiquitin-loaded E2 are juxtaposed to allow E3 ligase-mediated catalysis.
Project description:Post-translational modifications such as ubiquitination are important for orchestrating the cellular transformations that occur as the Leishmania parasite differentiates between its main morphological forms, the promastigote and amastigote. 2 E1 ubiquitin-activating (E1), 13 E2 ubiquitin-conjugating (E2), 79 E3 ubiquitin ligase (E3) and 20 deubiquitinating cysteine peptidase (DUB) genes can be identified in the Leishmania mexicana genome but, currently, little is known about the role of E1, E2 and E3 enzymes in this parasite. Bar-seq analysis of 23 E1, E2 and HECT/RBR E3 null mutants generated in promastigotes using CRISPR-Cas9 revealed numerous loss-of-fitness phenotypes in promastigote to amastigote differentiation and mammalian infection. The E2s UBC1/CDC34, UBC2 and UEV1 and the HECT E3 ligase HECT2 are required for the successful transformation from promastigote to amastigote and UBA1b, UBC9, UBC14, HECT7 and HECT11 are required for normal proliferation during mouse infection. Of all ubiquitination enzyme null mutants examined in the screen, ?ubc2 and ?uev1 exhibited the most extreme loss-of-fitness during differentiation. Null mutants could not be generated for the E1 UBA1a or the E2s UBC3, UBC7, UBC12 and UBC13, suggesting these genes are essential in promastigotes. X-ray crystal structure analysis of UBC2 and UEV1, orthologues of human UBE2N and UBE2V1/UBE2V2 respectively, reveal a heterodimer with a highly conserved structure and interface. Furthermore, recombinant L. mexicana UBA1a can load ubiquitin onto UBC2, allowing UBC2-UEV1 to form K63-linked di-ubiquitin chains in vitro. Notably, UBC2 can cooperate in vitro with human E3s RNF8 and BIRC2 to form non-K63-linked polyubiquitin chains, showing that UBC2 can facilitate ubiquitination independent of UEV1, but association of UBC2 with UEV1 inhibits this ability. Our study demonstrates the dual essentiality of UBC2 and UEV1 in the differentiation and intracellular survival of L. mexicana and shows that the interaction between these two proteins is crucial for regulation of their ubiquitination activity and function.
Project description:RING-between-RING (RBR) E3s contain RING1 domains that are structurally similar yet mechanistically distinct from canonical RING domains. Both types of E3 bind E2∼ubiquitin (E2∼Ub) via their RINGs but canonical RING E3s promote closed E2∼Ub conformations required for direct Ub transfer from the E2 to substrate, while RBR RING1s promote open E2∼Ub to favor Ub transfer to the E3 active site. This different RING/E2∼Ub conformation determines its direct target, which for canonical RING E3s is typically a substrate or substrate-linked Ub, but is the E3 active-site cysteine in the case of RBR-type E3s. Here we show that a short extension of HHARI RING1, namely Zn2+-loop II, not present in any RING E3s, acts as a steric wedge to disrupt closed E2∼Ub, providing a structural explanation for the distinctive RING1-dependent conformational restriction mechanism utilized by RBR E3s.
Project description:Polyubiquitination by E2 and E3 enzymes is a predominant mechanism regulating protein function. Some RING E3s, including anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC), catalyze polyubiquitination by sequential reactions with two different E2s. An initiating E2 ligates ubiquitin to an E3-bound substrate. Another E2 grows a polyubiquitin chain on the ubiquitin-primed substrate through poorly defined mechanisms. Here we show that human APC's RING domain is repurposed for dual functions in polyubiquitination. The canonical RING surface activates an initiating E2-ubiquitin intermediate for substrate modification. However, APC engages and activates its specialized ubiquitin chain-elongating E2 UBE2S in ways that differ from current paradigms. During chain assembly, a distinct APC11 RING surface helps deliver a substrate-linked ubiquitin to accept another ubiquitin from UBE2S. Our data define mechanisms of APC/UBE2S-mediated polyubiquitination, reveal diverse functions of RING E3s and E2s, and provide a framework for understanding distinctive RING E3 features specifying ubiquitin chain elongation.
Project description:Ubiquitin signaling pathways rely on E3 ligases for effecting the final transfer of ubiquitin from E2 ubiquitin conjugating enzymes to a protein target. Here we re-evaluate the hybrid RING/HECT mechanism used by the E3 family RING-between-RINGs (RBRs) to transfer ubiquitin to substrates. We place RBRs into the context of current knowledge of HECT and RING E3s. Although not as abundant as the other types of E3s (there are only slightly more than a dozen RBR E3s in the human genome), RBRs are conserved in all eukaryotes and play important roles in biology. Re-evaluation of RBR ligases as RING/HECT E3s provokes new questions and challenges the field.
Project description:Although the functional interaction between ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes (E2s) and ubiquitin ligases (E3s) is essential in ubiquitin (Ub) signalling, the criteria that define an active E2-E3 pair are not well established. The human E2 UBCH7 (also known as UBE2L3) shows broad specificity for HECT-type E3s, but often fails to function with RING E3s in vitro despite forming specific complexes. Structural comparisons of inactive UBCH7-RING complexes with active UBCH5-RING complexes reveal no defining differences, highlighting a gap in our understanding of Ub transfer. Here we show that, unlike many E2s that transfer Ub with RINGs, UBCH7 lacks intrinsic, E3-independent reactivity with lysine, explaining its preference for HECTs. Despite lacking lysine reactivity, UBCH7 exhibits activity with the RING-in-between-RING (RBR) family of E3s that includes parkin (also known as PARK2) and human homologue of ariadne (HHARI; also known as ARIH1). Found in all eukaryotes, RBRs regulate processes such as translation and immune signalling. RBRs contain a canonical C3HC4-type RING, followed by two conserved Cys/His-rich Zn(2+)-binding domains, in-between-RING (IBR) and RING2 domains, which together define this E3 family. We show that RBRs function like RING/HECT hybrids: they bind E2s via a RING domain, but transfer Ub through an obligate thioester-linked Ub (denoted ?Ub), requiring a conserved cysteine residue in RING2. Our results define the functional cadre of E3s for UBCH7, an E2 involved in cell proliferation and immune function, and indicate a novel mechanism for an entire class of E3s.