Novel Hierarchical Fe(III)-Doped Cu-MOFs With Enhanced Adsorption of Benzene Vapor.
ABSTRACT: New hierarchical Fe(III)-doped Cu-MOFs (Fe-HK) were developed via introduction of Fe3+ ions during HKUST-1 synthesis. The obtained products were characterized by N2 adsorption, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, FTIR spectroscopy, and thermal analysis. The adsorption isotherms and kinetics of benzene vapor were measured and consecutive adsorption-desorption cycles were performed. It was found that the hierarchical-pore Fe-HK-2 exhibited optimal textural properties with high BET surface area of 1,707 m2/g and total pore volume of 0.93 cm3/g, which were higher than those of the unmodified HKUST-1. Significantly, the hierarchical-pore Fe-HK-2 possessed outstanding benzene adsorption capacity, which was 1.5 times greater than the value on HKUST-1. Benzene diffusivity of Fe-HK-2 was 1.7 times faster than that of parent HKUST-1. Furthermore, the benzene adsorption on Fe-HK-2 was highly reversible. The hierarchical-pore Fe-HK-2 with high porosity, outstanding adsorption capacity, enhanced diffusion rate, and excellent reversibility might be an attractive candidate for VOCs adsorption. This may offer a simple and effective strategy to synthesize hierarchical-pore MOFs by doping with other metal ions.
Project description:Introducing hierarchical pore structure to microporous materials such as metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) can be beneficial for reactions where the rate of reaction is limited by low rates of diffusion or high pressure drop. This advantageous pore structure can be obtained by defect formation, mostly via post-synthetic acid etching, which has been studied extensively on water-stable MOFs. Here we show that a water-unstable HKUST-1 MOF can also be modified in a corresponding manner by using phosphoric acid as a size-selective etching agent and a mixture of dimethyl sulfoxide and methanol as a dilute solvent. Interestingly, we demonstrate that the etching process which is time- and acidity- dependent, can result in formation of defective HKUST-1 with extra interconnected hexagonal macropores without compromising on the bulk crystallinity. These findings suggest an intelligent scalable synthetic method for formation of hierarchical porosity in MOFs that are prone to hydrolysis, for improved molecular accessibility and diffusion for catalysis.
Project description:A major goal of metal-organic framework (MOF) research is the expansion of pore size and volume. Although many approaches have been attempted to increase the pore size of MOF materials, it is still a challenge to construct MOFs with precisely customized pore apertures for specific applications. Herein, we present a new method, namely linker labilization, to increase the MOF porosity and pore size, giving rise to hierarchical-pore architectures. Microporous MOFs with robust metal nodes and pro-labile linkers were initially synthesized. The mesopores were subsequently created as crystal defects through the splitting of a pro-labile-linker and the removal of the linker fragments by acid treatment. We demonstrate that linker labilization method can create controllable hierarchical porous structures in stable MOFs, which facilitates the diffusion and adsorption process of guest molecules to improve the performances of MOFs in adsorption and catalysis.
Project description:Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) in their free powder form have exhibited superior capacities for many gases when compared to other materials, due to their tailorable functionality and high surface areas. Specifically, the MOF HKUST-1 binds small Lewis bases, such as ammonia, with its coordinatively unsaturated copper sites. We describe here the use of HKUST-1 in mixed-matrix membranes (MMMs) prepared from polyvinylidene difluoride (PVDF) for the removal of ammonia gas. These MMMs exhibit ammonia capacities similar to their hypothetical capacities based on the weight percent of HKUST-1 in each MMM. HKUST-1 in its powder form is unstable toward humid conditions; however, upon exposure to humid environments for prolonged periods of time, the HKUST-1 MMMs exhibit outstanding structural stability, and maintain their ammonia capacity. Overall, this study has achieved all of the critical and combined elements for real-world applications of MOFs: high MOF loadings, fully accessible MOF surfaces, enhanced MOF stabilization, recyclability, mechanical stability, and processability. This study is a critical step in advancing MOFs to a stable, usable, and enabling technology.
Project description:To date, metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) have been recognized as promising solid phases in high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). This research aimed to elucidate the role of the physico-chemical characteristics of the microporous HKUST-1 metal-organic framework in its operation as a selective adsorbent in HPLC. For this, the HKUST-1 samples were prepared by microwave-assisted synthesis and a solvothermal procedure. According to the chromatographic examinations, the HKUST-1 material synthesized in the microwave fields shows an efficient performance in the selective adsorption of aromatic compounds with different functionalities. This study revealed a significant impact of the preparation procedure on the mechanism of the liquid-phase adsorption on the HKUST adsorbents under conditions of the HPLC. An effect of the elution solvent with the different coordination ability to the Cu2+ sites in the HKUST-1 structure on the adsorption selectivity was observed.
Project description:Composite metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) tend to possess complex interfaces that prevent facile and rational design. Here we present a joint computational/experimental workflow that screens thousands of MOFs and identifies the optimal MOF pairs that can seamlessly connect to one another by taking advantage of the fact that the metal nodes of one MOF can form coordination bonds with the linkers of the second MOF. Six MOF pairs (HKUST-1@MOF-5, HKUST-1@IRMOF-18, UiO-67@HKUST-1, PCN-68@MOF-5, UiO-66@MIL-88B(Fe) and UiO-67@MIL-88C(Fe)) yielded from our theoretical predictions were successfully synthesized, leading to clean single crystalline MOF@MOF, demonstrating the power of our joint workflow. Our work can serve as a starting point to accelerate the discovery of novel MOF composites that can potentially be used for many different applications.
Project description:MIL-100(Fe, Cr) and MIL-101(Cr) were synthesized by the hydrothermal method and applied to the adsorptions of five aromatic amines from aqueous solutions. These three metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) were well characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and surface area analysis. The adsorption mechanism of three MOFs and the effects of the structures of MOFs on the adsorption of aromatic amines were discussed. The results show that the cavity system and suitable hydrogen bond acceptor were important factors for the adsorption for five aromatic amines of aniline, 1-naphthalamine, o-toluidine, 2-amino-4-nitrotoluene and 2-nitroaniline: (a) the saturated adsorption capacity of aniline, 1-naphthylamine and o-toluidine on MIL-100(Fe) were 52.0, 53.4 and 49.6 mg/g, respectively, which can be attributed to the intermolecular hydrogen bond interaction and cavity system diffusion. (b) The adsorption capacity of 2-nitroaniline and 2-amino-4-nitrotoluene on MIL-101(Cr) were 54.3 and 25.0 mg/g, respectively, which can be attributed to the more suitable pore size of MIL-101(Cr) than that of MIL-100(Fe, Cr). The MOFs of MIL-100(Fe) and MIL-101(Cr) can be potential materials for removing aromatic amines from aqueous solutions.
Project description:Benchmarks have been established for the performance of six metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) and isoreticular MOFs (IRMOFs, which have the same underlying topology as MOF-5), MOF-5, IRMOF-3, MOF-74, MOF-177, MOF-199, and IRMOF-62, as selective adsorbents for eight harmful gases: sulfur dioxide, ammonia, chlorine, tetrahydrothiophene, benzene, dichloromethane, ethylene oxide, and carbon monoxide. Kinetic breakthrough measurements are used to determine the calculated dynamic adsorption capacity of each "benchmark" MOF for each gas. The capacity of each MOF is compared to that of a sample of Calgon BPL activated carbon. We find that pore functionality plays a dominant role in determining the dynamic adsorption performance of MOFs. MOFs featuring reactive functionality outperform BPL carbon in all but one case and exhibit high dynamic adsorption capacities up to 35% by weight.
Project description:Synthesis of a new HKUST-1 composite based on single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) was successfully achieved (SWCNT@HKUST-1). SWCNTs were used as templates to grow rod-like HKUST-1 crystals over the surface of the nanotubes. N2 adsorption properties showed an increment on the surface area and pore volume for the SWCNT@HKUST-1 composite. Furthermore, the CO2 capture increased, from 7.92 to 8.75 mmol g-1 at 196 K up to 100 kPa, for the SWCNT@HKUST-1 composite. This enhancement was directly associated with the increase of the surface area of the composite. Additionally, an increase in the CO2 heat of adsorption was estimated, from 30 to 39.1 kJ mol-1 for the SWCNT@HKUST-1 composite. In situ Raman experiments corroborated the favored CO2 adsorption for the composite and provided an insight into the augmented hydrophobicity of the SWCNT@HKUST-1. Ethanol adsorption isotherms corroborated an increase in the hydrophobicity of the material upon the incorporation of carbon nanotubes.
Project description:To develop promising adsorbent candidates for adsorptive denitrogenation, we screened the adsorption of NO, NO?, and NH? in 19 M-HKUST-1 (M = Be, Fe, Ni, Cr, Co, Cu, V, Zn, Mo, Mn, W, Sn, Ti, Cd, Mg, Sc, Ca, Sr, and Ba) systematically using first-principle calculations. Of these, four variants of M-HKUST-1 (M = Ni, Co, V, and Sc) yield more negative adsorption Gibbs free energy ?Gads than the original Cu-HKUST-1 for three adsorbates, suggesting stronger adsorbate binding. Ti-HKUST-1, Sc-HKUST-1, and Be-HKUST-1 are predicted to have the largest NO, NO?, and NH? adsorption energies within the screened M-HKUST-1 series, respectively. With the one exception of NO? dissociation on V-HKUST-1, dissociative adsorption of NO, NO?, and NH? molecules on the other considered M-HKUST-1 is energetically less favorable than molecular adsorption thermodynamically. The barrier calculations show that the dissociation is difficult to occur on Cu-HKUST-1 kinetically due to the very large dissociation barrier. Electronic analysis is provided to explain the bond nature between the adsorbates and M-HKUST-1. Note that the isostructural substitution of Cu to the other metals is a major simplification of the system, representing the ideal situation; however, the present study provides interesting targets for experimental synthesis and testing.
Project description:Three-dimensional carbon-based porous materials have proven to be quite useful for tailoring material properties in the energy conservation and environmental protection applications. In view of the three-dimensional and well-defined structure of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs), a novel carbon-based magnetic porous material (HKUST-Fe3O4) has been designed and constructed by MOF-guest interactions of high-temperature pyrolysis. The obtained HKUST-Fe3O4 exhibited the unique features of superparamagnetism, a macro/mesoporous structure, environmental protection (inexistence of toxic heavy metal ions), and physicochemical stability and has shown high adsorption capacity and rapid adsorption for carcinogenic organic pollutants (for example, rhodamine B) with an environmentally friendly character and excellent reusability. We demonstrate that the unique/superior advantages of HKUST-Fe3O4 could meet the requirements of environment cleaning, especially for removing the targeted organic pollutant from water. Moreover, the specific HKUST-Fe3O4 and organic pollutant interaction mechanism has been analyzed in detail via parameter-free calculations. This study proposes a promising strategy for constructing novel carbon-based magnetic nanomaterials for various applications, not limitated to pollutant removal.