Association of a Pathway-Specific Genetic Risk Score With Risk of Radiation-Associated Contralateral Breast Cancer.
ABSTRACT: Importance:Radiation therapy for breast cancer is associated with increased risk of a second primary contralateral breast cancer, but the genetic factors modifying this association are not well understood. Objective:To determine whether a genetic risk score comprising single nucleotide polymorphisms in the nonhomologous end-joining DNA repair pathway is associated with radiation-associated contralateral breast cancer. Design, Setting, and Participants:This case-control study included a case group of women with contralateral breast cancer that was diagnosed at least 1 year after a first primary breast cancer who were individually matched to a control group of women with unilateral breast cancer. Inclusion criteria were receiving a first invasive breast cancer diagnosis prior to age 55 years between 1985 and 2008. Women were recruited through 8 population-based cancer registries in the United States, Canada, and Denmark as part of the Women's Environment, Cancer, and Radiation Epidemiology Studies I (November 2000 to August 2004) and II (March 2010 to December 2012). Data analysis was conducted from July 2017 to August 2019. Exposures:Stray radiation dose to the contralateral breast during radiation therapy for the first breast cancer. A novel genetic risk score comprised of genetic variants in the nonhomologous end-joining DNA repair pathway was considered the potential effect modifier, dichotomized as high risk if the score was above the median of 74 and low risk if the score was at or below the median. Main Outcomes and Measures:The main outcome was risk of contralateral breast cancer associated with stray radiation dose stratified by genetic risk score, age, and latency. Results:A total of 5953 women were approached for study participation, and 3732 women (62.7%) agreed to participate. The median (range) age at first diagnosis was 46 (23-54) years. After 5 years of latency or more, among women who received the first diagnosis when they were younger than 40 years, exposure to 1.0 Gy (to convert to rad, multiply by 100) or more of stray radiation was associated with a 2-fold increased risk of contralateral breast cancer compared with women who were not exposed (rate ratio, 2.0 [95% CI, 1.1-3.6]). The risk was higher among women with a genetic risk score above the median (rate ratio, 3.0 [95% CI, 1.1-8.1]), and there was no association among women with a genetic risk score below the median (rate ratio, 1.3 [95% CI, 0.5-3.7]). Among younger women with a high genetic risk score, the attributable increased risk for contralateral breast cancer associated with stray radiation dose was 28%. Conclusions and Relevance:This study found an increased risk of contralateral breast cancer that was attributable to stray radiation exposure among women with a high genetic risk score and who received a first breast cancer diagnosis when they were younger than 40 years after 5 years or more of latency. This genetic risk score may help guide treatment and surveillance for women with breast cancer.
Project description:Ionizing radiation is a known mutagen and an established breast carcinogen. The ATM gene is a key regulator of cellular responses to the DNA damage induced by ionizing radiation. We investigated whether genetic variants in ATM play a clinically significant role in radiation-induced contralateral breast cancer in women.The Women's Environmental, Cancer, and Radiation Epidemiology Study is an international population-based case-control study nested within a cohort of 52,536 survivors of unilateral breast cancer diagnosed between 1985 and 2000. The 708 case subjects were women with contralateral breast cancer, and the 1397 control subjects were women with unilateral breast cancer matched to the case subjects on age, follow-up time, registry reporting region, and race and/or ethnicity. All women were interviewed and underwent full mutation screening of the entire ATM gene. Complete medical treatment history information was collected, and for all women who received radiotherapy, the radiation dose to the contralateral breast was reconstructed using radiotherapy records and radiation measurements. Rate ratios (RRs) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated by using multivariable conditional logistic regression. All P values are two-sided.Among women who carried a rare ATM missense variant (ie, one carried by <1% of the study participants) that was predicted to be deleterious, those who were exposed to radiation (mean radiation exposure = 1.2 Gy, SD = 0.7) had a statistically significantly higher risk of contralateral breast cancer compared with unexposed women who carried the wild-type genotype (0.01-0.99 Gy: RR = 2.8, 95% CI = 1.2 to 6.5; > or =1.0 Gy: RR = 3.3, 95% CI = 1.4 to 8.0) or compared with unexposed women who carried the same predicted deleterious missense variant (0.01-0.99 Gy: RR = 5.3, 95% CI = 1.6 to 17.3; > or =1.0 Gy: RR = 5.8, 95% CI = 1.8 to 19.0; P(trend) = .044).Women who carry rare deleterious ATM missense variants and who are treated with radiation may have an elevated risk of developing contralateral breast cancer. However, the rarity of these deleterious missense variants in human populations implies that ATM mutations could account for only a small portion of second primary breast cancers.
Project description:Women with a history of breast cancer among family members are at increased risk for breast cancer. However, it is unknown whether a familial breast cancer history (FBCH) also increases individual susceptibility to breast cancer from radiation exposure. In this cohort study, 17,200 female Swedish hemangioma patients with 1,079 breast cancer cases diagnosed between 1958 and 2013, exposed to ionizing radiation in infancy, were linked to their first-degree relatives. The association between FBCH and radiation-induced breast cancer risk was assessed. Further, the relevance for breast cancer radiotherapy and mammography screening was evaluated. On average, the radiation-induced excess relative risk and excess absolute risk of breast cancer at age 50 years were 0.51 Gy-1 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.33, 0.71) and 10.8 cases/10,000 person-years/Gy (95% CI: 7.0, 14.6), respectively. Radiation risk was higher by a factor of 2.7 (95% CI: 1.0, 4.8; P = 0.05) if 1 first-degree relative was affected by breast cancer. For whole-breast standard radiotherapy at age 40 years with a contralateral breast dose of 0.72 Gy, the 20-year radiation-related excess risk of contralateral breast cancer was estimated to increase from 0.6% for women without FBCH to 1.7% for women with FBCH. In a biennial mammography screening program at ages 40-74 years, radiation risk up to age 80 years would increase from 0.11% for women without FBCH to 0.29% for women with FBCH.
Project description:The purpose of this study was to identify germline single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that optimally predict radiation-associated contralateral breast cancer (RCBC) and to provide new biological insights into the carcinogenic process. Fifty-two women with contralateral breast cancer and 153 women with unilateral breast cancer were identified within the Women's Environmental Cancer and Radiation Epidemiology (WECARE) Study who were at increased risk of RCBC because they were ? 40 years of age at first diagnosis of breast cancer and received a scatter radiation dose > 1 Gy to the contralateral breast. A previously reported algorithm, preconditioned random forest regression, was applied to predict the risk of developing RCBC. The resulting model produced an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.62 (p = 0.04) on hold-out validation data. The biological analysis identified the cyclic AMP-mediated signaling and Ephrin-A as significant biological correlates, which were previously shown to influence cell survival after radiation in an ATM-dependent manner. The key connected genes and proteins that are identified in this analysis were previously identified as relevant to breast cancer, radiation response, or both. In summary, machine learning/bioinformatics methods applied to genome-wide genotyping data have great potential to reveal plausible biological correlates associated with the risk of RCBC.
Project description:Genome-wide association studies, focusing primarily on unilateral breast cancer, have identified single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in a number of genomic regions that have alleles associated with a significantly increased risk of breast cancer. In the current study we evaluate the contributions of these previously identified regions to the risk of developing contralateral breast cancer. The most strongly disease-associated SNPs from prior studies were tested for association with contralateral breast cancer. A subset of these SNPs, selected upon their main effects on contralateral breast cancer risk was further evaluated for interaction with treatment modalities and estrogen receptor (ER) status.We genotyped 21 SNPs in 708 women with contralateral breast cancer and 1394 women with unilateral breast cancer who serve as the cases and controls in the Women's Environment, Cancer and Radiation Epidemiology (WECARE) Study. Records of treatment and ER status were available for most of WECARE Study participants. Associations of SNP genotypes and risk for contralateral breast cancer were calculated with multivariable adjusted conditional logistic regression methods.Multiple SNPs in the FGFR2 locus were significantly associated with contralateral breast cancer, including rs1219648 (per allele rate ratio (RR) = 1.25, 95%CI = 1.08-1.45). Statistically significant associations with contralateral breast cancer were also observed at rs7313833, near the PTHLH gene (per allele RR = 1.26, 95%CI = 1.08-1.47), rs13387042 (2q35) (per allele RR = 1.19, 95%CI = 1.02-1.37), rs13281615 (8q24) (per allele RR = 1.21, 95%CI = 1.04-1.40), and rs11235127 near TMEM135 (per allele RR = 1.26, 95%CI = 1.04-1.53). The A allele of rs13387042 (2q35) was significantly associated with contralateral breast cancer in ER negative first tumors while the A allele of rs11235127 (near TMEM135) was significantly associated with contralateral breast cancer in ER positive first tumors. Although some SNP genotypes appeared to modify contralateral breast cancer risk with respect to tamoxifen treatment or particular radiation doses, trend tests for such effects were not significant.Our results indicate that some common risk variants associated with primary breast cancer also increase risk for contralateral breast cancer, and that these risks vary with the ER status of the first tumor.
Project description:PURPOSE:Neurofibromatosis 1 (NF1) is an autosomal dominant condition caused by pathogenic variants of the NF1 gene. A markedly increased risk of breast cancer is associated with NF1. We have determined the breast cancer survival and risk of contralateral breast cancer in NF1. METHODS:We included 142 women with NF1 and breast cancer from five cohorts in Europe and 335 women without NF1 screened for other familial breast cancers. Risk of contralateral breast cancer and death were assessed by Kaplan-Meier analysis with delayed entry. RESULTS:One hundred forty-two women with NF1 were diagnosed for breast cancer at a median age of 46.9 years (range 27.0-84.3 years) and then followed up for 1235 person-years (mean?=?8.70 years). Twelve women had contralateral breast cancer with a rate of 10.5 per 1000 years. Cumulative risk for contralateral breast cancer was 26.5% in 20 years. Five and 10-year all-cause survival was 64.9% (95% confidence interval [CI]?=?54.8-76.8) and 49.8% (95%CI?=?39.3-63.0). Breast cancer-specific 10-year survival was 64.2% (95% CI?=?53.5-77.0%) compared with 91.2% (95% CI?=?87.3-95.2%) in the non-NF1 age-matched population at increased risk of breast cancer. CONCLUSION:Women with NF1 have a substantial contralateral breast cancer incidence and poor survival. Early start of breast cancer screening may be a way to improve the survival.
Project description:Tamoxifen has been shown to greatly reduce risk of recurrence and contralateral breast cancer (CBC). Still, second primary contralateral breast cancer is the most common malignancy to follow a first primary breast cancer. Genetic variants in CYP2D6 and other drug-metabolizing enzymes that alter the metabolism of tamoxifen may be associated with CBC risk in women who receive the drug. This is the first study to investigate the impact of this variation on risk of CBC in women who receive tamoxifen. From the population-based Women's Environment Cancer and Radiation Epidemiology (WECARE) Study, we included 624 Caucasian women with CBC (cases) and 1,199 women with unilateral breast cancer (controls) with complete information on tumor characteristics and treatment. Conditional logistic regression was used to assess the risk of CBC associated with 112 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 8 genes involved in the metabolism of tamoxifen among tamoxifen users and non-users. After adjustment for multiple testing, no significant association was observed between any of the genotyped variants and CBC risk in either tamoxifen users or non-users. These results suggest that when using a tagSNP approach, common variants in selected genes involved in the metabolism of tamoxifen are not associated with risk of CBC among women treated with the drug.
Project description:Recent studies suggest trends toward more mastectomies for primary breast cancer treatment. We assessed survival after mastectomy and breast-conserving surgery (BCS) with radiation for early-stage breast cancer among non-selected populations of women and among women similar to those in clinical trials. Using population-based data from Surveillance Epidemiology, and End Results cancer registries linked with Medicare administrative data from 1992 to 2005, we conducted propensity score analysis of survival following primary therapy for early-stage breast cancer, including BCS with radiation, BCS without radiation, mastectomy with radiation, and mastectomy without radiation. Adjusted survival was greatest among women who had BCS with radiation (median survival = 10.98 years). Compared with this group, mortality was higher among women who had mastectomy without radiation (median survival 10.04 years, adjusted hazard ratio (HR) = 1.19, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.14-1.23), mastectomy with radiation (median survival 10.02 years, HR = 1.20, 95% CI = 1.14-1.27), and BCS without radiation (median survival 7.63 years, HR = 1.81, 95% CI = 1.70-1.92). Among women representative of those eligible for clinical trials (age ?70 years, Charlson comorbidity score = 0/1, and stage 1 tumors), there were no differences in survival for women who underwent BCS with radiation or mastectomy. In conclusion, after careful adjustment for differences in patient, physician, and hospital characteristics, we found better survival for BCS with radiation versus mastectomy among older early-stage breast cancer patients, with no difference in survival for BCS with radiation versus mastectomy among women representative of those in clinical trials. These findings are reassuring in light of recent trends towards more aggressive primary breast cancer therapy.
Project description:Background:Women with unilateral breast cancer (UBC) are at risk of developing a subsequent contralateral breast cancer (CBC). Common variants are associated with breast cancer risk. Whether these influence CBC risk is unknown. Methods:Participants were breast cancer cases from the population-based Women's Environmental Cancer and Radiation Epidemiology (WECARE) Study. Sixty-seven established breast cancer risk loci were genotyped directly or by imputation in 1459 case subjects with CBC and 2126 UBC control subjects. An unweighted polygenic risk score (PRS) was created by summing the number of risk alleles for each directly genotyped single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), or for imputed loci, the imputed dosage. A weighted PRS was calculated similarly, but where each SNP's contribution was weighted by the published per-allele log odds ratio. Unweighted and weighted polygenic risk scores and CBC risk were modeled using conditional logistic regression. Cumulative CBC risk was estimated and benchmarked using Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results population incidence rates. Results:Both unweighted and weighted PRS were statistically significantly associated with CBC risk. The adjusted risk ratio of CBC in women in the upper quartile of unweighted PRS compared with the lowest quartile was 1.63 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.33 to 2.00). The estimated 10-year cumulative risk for women in the upper quartile of the unweighted PRS was 7.4% (95% CI = 6.0% to 9.1%). For women in the upper quartile of the weighted PRS, the risk ratio for CBC was 1.75 (95% CI = 1.41 to 2.18) compared with women in the lowest quartile. There was no statistically significant heterogeneity by age, treatment (radiation therapy dose, tamoxifen, chemotherapy), estrogen receptor status of the first primary, histology of the first primary, length of at-risk period for CBC, or breast cancer family history. Conclusions:Common genomic variants associated with the development of first primary breast cancer are also associated with the development of CBC; the risk is strongest among those who carry more risk alleles.
Project description:Chinese translationRates of contralateral prophylactic mastectomy (CPM) have increased dramatically, particularly among younger women with breast cancer, but little is known about how women approach the decision to have CPM.To examine preferences, knowledge, decision making, and experiences of young women with breast cancer who choose CPM.Cross-sectional survey.8 academic and community medical centers that enrolled 550 women diagnosed with breast cancer at age 40 years or younger between November 2006 and November 2010.123 women without known bilateral breast cancer who reported having bilateral mastectomy.A 1-time, 23-item survey that included items related to decision making, knowledge, risk perception, and breast cancer worry.Most women indicated that desires to decrease their risk for contralateral breast cancer (98%) and improve survival (94%) were extremely or very important factors in their decision to have CPM. However, only 18% indicated that women with breast cancer who undergo CPM live longer than those who do not. BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation carriers more accurately perceived their risk for contralateral breast cancer, whereas women without a known mutation substantially overestimated this risk.The survey, which was administered a median of 2 years after surgery, was not validated, and some questions might have been misinterpreted by respondents or subject to recall bias. Generalizability of the findings might be limited.Despite knowing that CPM does not clearly improve survival, women who have the procedure do so, in part, to extend their lives. Many women overestimate their actual risk for cancer in the unaffected breast. Interventions aimed at improving risk communication in an effort to promote evidence-based decision making are warranted.Susan G. Komen for the Cure.
Project description:The contralateral unaffected breast of women with unilateral breast cancer (cases) is a good model for defining subtype-specific risk since women with ER-negative index primaries are at high risk for subsequent ER-negative primary cancers. We performed random fine needle aspiration (rFNA) of the unaffected breasts of cases; samples from 30 subjects (15 ER-positive and 15 ER-negative cases matched for age, race and menopausal status), were used for Illumina expression array analysis. In this study, we have examined gene expression profiles in random fine needle aspirate (rFNA) samples from the contralateral breasts of women with new unilateral breast cancer (cases) to seek candidate panels of ER-specific risk biomarkers. On a discovery set of 30 women, we have identified gene expression differences in the contralateral breast that associate with ER+ or ER- index primary tumors.