Concurrent Use of Teneligliptin and Canagliflozin Improves Glycemic Control with Beneficial Effects on Plasma Glucagon and Glucagon-Like Peptide-1: A Single-Arm Study.
ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION:We investigated the mechanisms of the glucose-lowering effects of teneligliptin and canagliflozin, a sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 (SGLT2) inhibitor, by monitoring several gastrointestinal peptides using the most appropriate measuring methods during multiple meal tolerance tests (MTTs) and flash glucose monitoring. METHODS:Twelve Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes were enrolled in the 14-day study. Subjects were treated with teneligliptin 20 mg/day from day 4, followed by a combination tablet of teneligliptin 20 mg and canagliflozin 100 mg (T/C) per day from day 11. MTTs were conducted on days 3 (premedication; Pre), 10 (teneligliptin; T) and 13 (T/C) to evaluate plasma glucose, C-peptide, glucagon, active glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), active gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP), ghrelin and des-acyl ghrelin. RESULTS:Plasma glucose was significantly decreased with the progress of treatment intervention, and C-peptide was significantly decreased in T/C compared to the others. Plasma postprandial glucagon was increased for 90 min from fasting in Pre, but only for 30 min in T and T/C. Plasma postprandial active GLP-1 was significantly increased in T compared to Pre, and that of T/C was significantly higher than T. Plasma postprandial active GIP was increased in T and T/C compared to Pre. Plasma ghrelin and des-acyl ghrelin levels did not change during the treatment. CONCLUSION:Teneligliptin increased incretin hormones and suppressed postprandial glucagon secretion as expected. Concurrent use of canagliflozin and teneligliptin improved glycemic control without increasing postprandial glucagon secretion, and increased postprandial GLP-1 secretion and decreased the required amount of postprandial insulin secretion. The underlying mechanisms may involve canagliflozin's inhibitory activity against not only SGLT2 but also SGLT1. TRIAL REGISTRATION:UMIN identifier, UMIN000030043. FUNDING:Mitsubishi Tanabe Pharma Corporation and a Grant for Clinical Research from Miyazaki University Hospital.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:To investigate canagliflozin-induced changes in postprandial total glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) levels in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). METHODS:Forty-five patients with T2DM who had inadequate glycemic control (glycated hemoglobin???6.5%) with diet and exercise alone (n?=?15, drug naïve) and in combination with either a stable dose of the ?-glucosidase inhibitor acarbose (n?=?15) or metformin (n?=?15) received canagliflozin, a sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitor, at 100 mg once daily for 12 weeks. The primary endpoint was the change from baseline to week 12 in postprandial glucose and plasma levels of total GLP-1 and GIP during a meal tolerance test (MTT). RESULTS:Canagliflozin significantly reduced postprandial blood glucose (mean difference -?40.2 mg/mL at 60 min) and increased postprandial total GLP-1 (mean difference 1.8 pg/mL at 60 min) during an MTT. A transient reduction in the postprandial GIP level at only 30 min (mean difference -?80.3 pg/mL) during an MTT was observed. No changes in postprandial GLP-1 or GIP levels were seen after canagliflozin treatment as an add-on to acarbose in patients with T2DM. Acarbose treatment significantly decreased postprandial total GIP levels (P?<?0.05) and tended to increase postprandial total GLP-1 levels (P?=?0.07) compared to the other two treatments prior to canagliflozin. CONCLUSION:Canagliflozin 100 mg increased postprandial total GLP-1 levels in the absence of acarbose, suggesting that it may upregulate GLP-1 secretion through delayed glucose absorption in the upper intestine, as with the ?-glucosidase inhibitor. TRIAL REGISTRATION:University Hospital Medical Information Network, UMIN000018345. FUNDING:Mitsubishi Tanabe Pharma Corporation.
Project description:INTRODUCTION: Both dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors and ?-glucosidase inhibitors (?-GI) have been reported to change the incretin and insulin secretion. To examine the effects of acarbose, miglitol, and sitagliptin on glucose metabolism and secretion of gut peptides, we conducted a crossover study in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). METHODS: Eleven Japanese patients with T2DM underwent four meal tolerance tests with single administration of acarbose, miglitol, sitagliptin, or nothing. Fasting and postprandial plasma levels of glucose, insulin, glucagon, active glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), ghrelin, and des-acyl ghrelin were measured. RESULTS: Early-phase insulin secretion was reduced following acarbose and miglitol, and the areas under the curve (AUC) of insulin at 180 min following acarbose and miglitol were significantly lower than sitagliptin. AUC of plasma glucose at 180 min after acarbose, miglitol, and sitagliptin tended to be lower than in controls, and plasma glucose levels at 30-60 min following miglitol were significantly lower than in controls. Plasma glucagon, ghrelin, and des-acyl ghrelin levels did not differ among the four conditions. Postprandial plasma active GLP-1 levels and AUC of GLP-1 increased significantly in both the sitagliptin and miglitol groups compared to control. Postprandial plasma total GIP levels increased following sitagliptin but decreased after acarbose and miglitol. Changes in incretin levels tended to be greater with miglitol than acarbose. CONCLUSION: These results showed that sitagliptin and ?-GIs, miglitol more so than acarbose, improved hyperglycemia in patients with T2DM after single administration, and had different effects on insulin and incretin secretion. TRIAL REGISTRATION: UMIN-CTR number, UMIN000009981.
Project description:To investigate efficacy and safety of the sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitor canagliflozin administered as add-on therapy to the dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitor teneligliptin in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM).We conducted a multicentre, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 3 clinical trial in Japanese patients with T2DM who had inadequate glycaemic control with teneligliptin. Patients were randomized to receive teneligliptin 20 mg plus either canagliflozin 100 mg (T + C, n = 70) or placebo (T + P, n = 68) once daily. The primary endpoint was the change in glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) from baseline to week 24. Other endpoints included changes in fasting plasma glucose, body weight, proinsulin/C-peptide ratio, homeostatic model assessment 2-%B and adverse events. Patients also underwent mixed-meal tolerance tests.The difference between the T + C and T + P groups for HbA1c change from baseline to week 24 was -0.88% (least-squares mean, P < .001). Fasting plasma glucose, body weight and the proinsulin/C-peptide ratio were significantly lower in the T + C group than in the T + P group. Homeostatic model assessment 2-%B improved with T + C compared with T + P. The T + C group exhibited a decrease in the 2-hour postprandial plasma glucose and plasma glucose area under the curve (AUC)0-2h in a mixed-meal tolerance test. No significant between-group differences were observed for C-peptide AUC0-2h or glucagon AUC0-2h after meals. Incidences of adverse events were 60.0% and 47.1% in the T + C and T + P groups, respectively. No hypoglycaemia was observed.Canagliflozin administered as add-on therapy to teneligliptin was effective and well tolerated in Japanese T2DM patients.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Appetite and gastrointestinal hormones (GIHs) participate in energy homeostasis, feeding behavior and regulation of body weight. We demonstrated previously the superior effect of a hypocaloric diet regimen with lower meal frequency (B2) on body weight, hepatic fat content, insulin sensitivity and feelings of hunger compared to the same diet divided into six smaller meals a day (A6). Studies with isoenergetic diet regimens indicate that lower meal frequency should also have an effect on fasting and postprandial responses of GIHs. The aim of this secondary analysis was to explore the effect of two hypocaloric diet regimens on fasting levels of appetite and GIHs and on their postprandial responses after a standard meal. It was hypothesized that lower meal frequency in a reduced-energy regimen leading to greater body weight reduction and reduced hunger would be associated with decreased plasma concentrations of GIHs: gastric inhibitory peptide (GIP), glucagon-like peptide-1(GLP-1), peptide YY(PYY), pancreatic polypeptide (PP) and leptin and increased plasma concentration of ghrelin. The postprandial response of satiety hormones (GLP-1, PYY and PP) and postprandial suppression of ghrelin will be improved. METHODS:In a randomized crossover study, 54 patients suffering from type 2 diabetes (T2D) underwent both regimens. The concentrations of GLP-1, GIP, PP, PYY, amylin, leptin and ghrelin were determined using multiplex immunoanalyses. RESULTS:Fasting leptin and GIP decreased in response to both regimens with no difference between the treatments (p = 0.37 and p = 0.83, respectively). Fasting ghrelin decreased in A6 and increased in B2 (with difference between regimens p = 0.023). Fasting PP increased in B2with no significant difference between regimens (p = 0.17). Neither GLP-1 nor PYY did change in either regimen. The decrease in body weight correlated negatively with changes in fasting ghrelin (r = -0.4, p<0.043) and the postprandial reduction of ghrelin correlated positively with its fasting level (r = 0.9, p<0.001). The postprandial responses of GIHs and appetite hormones were similar after both diet regimens. CONCLUSIONS:Both hypocaloric diet regimens reduced fasting leptin and GIP and postprandial response of GIP comparably. The postprandial responses of GIHs and appetite hormones were similar after both diet regimens. Eating only breakfast and lunch increased fasting plasma ghrelin more than the same caloric restriction split into six meals. The changes in fasting ghrelin correlated negatively with the decrease in body weight. These results suggest that for type 2 diabetic patients on a hypocaloric diet, eating larger breakfast and lunch may be more efficient than six smaller meals during the day.
Project description:It is known that the macronutrient content of a meal has different impacts on the postprandial satiety and appetite hormonal responses. Whether obesity interacts with such nutrient-dependent responses is not well characterized. We examined the postprandial appetite and satiety hormonal responses after a high-protein (HP), high-carbohydrate (HC), or high-fat (HF) mixed meal. This was a randomized cross-over study of 9 lean insulin-sensitive (mean±SEM HOMA-IR 0.83±0.10) and 9 obese insulin-resistant (HOMA-IR 4.34±0.41) young (age 21-40 years), normoglycaemic Chinese men. We measured fasting and postprandial plasma concentration of glucose, insulin, active glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), total peptide-YY (PYY), and acyl-ghrelin in response to HP, HF, or HC meals. Overall postprandial plasma insulin response was more robust in the lean compared to obese subjects. The postprandial GLP-1 response after HF or HP meal was higher than HC meal in both lean and obese subjects. In obese subjects, HF meal induced higher response in postprandial PYY compared to HC meal. HP and HF meals also suppressed ghrelin greater compared to HC meal in the obese than lean subjects. In conclusion, a high-protein or high-fat meal induces a more favorable postprandial satiety and appetite hormonal response than a high-carbohydrate meal in obese insulin-resistant subjects.
Project description:To investigate the effect of exogenous as well as endogenous glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) on postprandial glucose excursions and to characterize the secretion of incretin hormones in type 1 diabetic patients with and without residual ?-cell function.Eight type 1 diabetic patients with (T1D+), eight without (T1D-) residual ?-cell function, and eight healthy matched control subjects were studied during a mixed meal with concomitant infusion of GLP-1 (1.2 pmol/kg/min), saline, or exendin 9-39 (300 pmol/kg/min). Before the meal, half dose of usual fast-acting insulin was injected. Plasma glucose (PG), glucagon, C-peptide, total GLP-1, intact glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), free fatty acids, triglycerides, and gastric emptying rate (GE) by plasma acetaminophen were measured.Incretin responses did not differ between patients and control subjects. Infusion of GLP-1 decreased peak PG by 45% in both groups of type 1 diabetic patients. In T1D+ patients, postprandial PG decreased below fasting levels and was indistinguishable from control subjects infused with saline. In T1D- patients, postprandial PG remained at fasting levels. GLP-1 infusion reduced GE and glucagon levels in all groups and increased fasting C-peptide in T1D+ patients and control subjects. Blocking endogenous GLP-1 receptor action increased endogenous GLP-1 secretion in all groups and increased postprandial glucose, glucagon, and GE in T1D+ and T1D- patients. The insulinogenic index (the ratio of insulin to glucose) decreased in T1D+ patients during blockade of endogenous GLP-1 receptor action.Type 1 diabetic patients have normal incretin responses to meals. In type 1 diabetic patients, exogenous GLP-1 decreases peak postprandial glucose by 45% regardless of residual ?-cell function. Endogenous GLP-1 regulates postprandial glucose excursions by modulating glucagon levels, GE, and ?-cell responsiveness to glucose. Long-term effects of GLP-1 in type 1 diabetic patients should be investigated in future clinical trials.
Project description:Emerging evidence supports the importance of ghrelin to defend against starvation-induced hypoglycemia. This effect may be mediated by inhibition of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion as well as reduced insulin sensitivity. However, administration of ghrelin during meal consumption also stimulates the release of glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1), an incretin important in nutrient disposition. The objective of this study was to evaluate the interaction between ghrelin and GLP-1 on parameters of glucose tolerance following a mixed-nutrient meal. Fifteen healthy men and women completed the study. Each consumed a standard meal on four separate occasions with a superimposed infusion of 1) saline, 2) ghrelin, 3) the GLP-1 receptor antagonist exendin(9-39) (Ex9), or 4) combined ghrelin and Ex9. Similar to previous studies, infusion of ghrelin caused glucose intolerance, whereas Ex9 had a minimal effect. However, combined ghrelin and Ex9 resulted in greater postprandial glycemia than either alone, and this effect was associated with impaired ?-cell function and decreased glucose clearance. These findings suggest that in the fed state, stimulation of GLP-1 mitigates some of the effect of ghrelin on glucose tolerance. This novel interaction between gastrointestinal hormones suggests a system that balances insulin secretion and glucose disposal in the fed and fasting states.
Project description:AIM:To evaluate the long-term safety and efficacy of canagliflozin as add-on therapy in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) who had inadequate glycaemic control with teneligliptin monotherapy. METHODS:This open-label 52-week study was conducted in Japan. Patients received canagliflozin 100?mg added to teneligliptin 20?mg orally once daily for 52?weeks. The safety endpoint was the incidence of adverse events (AEs). The efficacy endpoints included changes in glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c), fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and body weight from baseline to week 52 (with last observation carried forward). RESULTS:Overall, 153 patients entered the treatment period and 142 completed the study. The overall incidence rates of AEs and drug-related AEs were 69.9% and 22.9%, respectively. Most AEs and drug-related AEs were mild or moderate in severity. There were no previously undescribed safety signals. The mean changes in HbA1c, FPG and body weight were -0.99% (95% confidence interval [CI] -1.12 to -0.85), -38.6?mg/dL (95% CI -43.4 to -33.9) and -3.92% (95% CI -4.53 to -3.31), respectively. These effects were maintained for 52?weeks without attenuation. HbA1c and body weight were both decreased in 82.24% of patients at the end of the treatment period. Reductions in postprandial glucose were observed at weeks 24 and 52. CONCLUSIONS:No new safety risks with this combination were identified, and sustained improvements in HbA1c, FPG and body weight were observed. The findings suggest that long-term co-administration of canagliflozin with teneligliptin is well tolerated and effective in Japanese patients with T2DM who have inadequate glycaemic control on teneligliptin alone.
Project description:Dietary fiber improves hyperglycemia in patients with type 2 diabetes through its physicochemical properties and possible modulation of gut hormone secretion, such as glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1). We assessed the effect of dietary fiber-enriched cereal flakes (DC) on postprandial hyperglycemia and gut hormone secretion in patients with type 2 diabetes. Thirteen participants ate isocaloric meals based on either DC or conventional cereal flakes (CC) in a crossover design. DC or CC was provided for dinner, night snack on day 1 and breakfast on day 2, followed by a high-fat lunch. On day 2, the levels of plasma glucose, GLP-1, glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), and insulin were measured. Compared to CC, DC intake exhibited a lower post-breakfast 2-hours glucose level (198.5±12.8 vs. 245.9±15.2 mg/dL, P<0.05) and a lower incremental peak of glucose from baseline (101.8±9.1 vs. 140.3±14.3 mg/dL, P<0.001). The incremental area under the curve (iAUC) of glucose after breakfast was lower with DC than with CC (P<0.001). However, there were no differences in the plasma insulin, glucagon, GLP-1, and GIP levels. In conclusion, acute administration of DC attenuates postprandial hyperglycemia without any significant change in the representative glucose-regulating hormones in patients with type 2 diabetes (ClinicalTrials.gov. NCT 01997281).
Project description:This multicentre, prospective, randomized, open-label, blinded-endpoint, parallel-group, short-term (4-5?weeks) controlled trial was conducted to investigate the superiority of the effect of reducing mean amplitude of glycaemic excursions (MAGE) during meal tolerance tests (MTTs) for the combination of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitor and sodium-glucose co-transporter-2 (SGLT2) inhibitor compared with SGLT2 inhibitor monotherapy. Ninety-nine patients with type 2 diabetes who were taking teneligliptin (20 mg/d) were randomized to one of the following two groups: those who switched to 100 mg/d of canagliflozin (SWITCH group) or those who added 100 mg/d of canagliflozin (COMB group). MAGE in the COMB group was significantly decreased compared with that in the SWITCH group (COMB 117.5?±?39.8 to 92.2?±?28.0?mg/dL vs SWITCH 110.7?±?29.8 to 104.2?±?27.6 mg/dL; P<0.01). Mean blood glucose decreased significantly during MTTs in both groups, although the extent of the reduction was significantly greater in the COMB group (COMB 142.3?±?28.7 to 119.5?±?25.1?mg/dL vs SWITCH 146.4?±?25.5 to 135.5?±?22.4 mg/dL; P <?0.01). SGLT2 inhibitor combined with DPP-4 inhibitor therapy strongly reduced glycaemic fluctuation compared with SGLT2 inhibitor monotherapy.