Characterization of Streptomyces sporangiiformans sp. nov., a Novel Soil Actinomycete with Antibacterial Activity against Ralstonia solanacearum.
ABSTRACT: Ralstonia solanacearum is a major phytopathogenic bacterium that attacks many crops and other plants around the world. In this study, a novel actinomycete, designated strain NEAU-SSA 1T, which exhibited antibacterial activity against Ralstonia solanacearum, was isolated from soil collected from Mount Song and characterized using a polyphasic approach. Morphological and chemotaxonomic characteristics of the strain coincided with those of the genus Streptomyces. The 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showed that the isolate was most closely related to Streptomyces aureoverticillatus JCM 4347T (97.9%). Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that the strain formed a cluster with Streptomyces vastus JCM4524T (97.4%), S. cinereus DSM43033T (97.2%), S. xiangluensis NEAU-LA29T (97.1%) and S. flaveus JCM3035T (97.1%). The cell wall contained LL-diaminopimelic acid and the whole-cell hydrolysates were ribose, mannose and galactose. The polar lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol (DPG), phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), hydroxy-phosphatidylethanolamine (OH-PE), phosphatidylinositol (PI), two phosphatidylinositol mannosides (PIMs) and an unidentified phospholipid (PL). The menaquinones were MK-9(H4), MK-9(H6), and MK-9(H8). The major fatty acids were iso-C17:0, C16:0 and C17:1 ?9c. The DNA G+C content was 69.9 mol %. However, multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) based on five other house-keeping genes (atpD, gyrB, recA, rpoB, and trpB), DNA-DNA relatedness, and physiological and biochemical data showed that the strain could be distinguished from its closest relatives. Therefore, it is proposed that strain NEAU-SSA 1T should be classified as representatives of a novel species of the genus Streptomyces, for which the name Streptomyces sporangiiformans sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is NEAU-SSA 1T (=CCTCC AA 2017028T = DSM 105692T).
Project description:Ralstonia solanacearum is an important soil-borne bacterial plant pathogen. In this study, an actinomycete strain named NEAU-HV9 that showed strong antibacterial activity against Ralstonia solanacearum was isolated from soil using an in vitro screening technique. Based on physiological and morphological characteristics and 98.90% of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity with Streptomyces panaciradicis 1MR-8T, the strain was identified as a member of the genus Streptomyces. Tomato seedling and pot culture experiments showed that after pre-inoculation with the strain NEAU-HV9, the disease occurrence of tomato seedlings was effectively prevented for R. solanacearum. Then, a bioactivity-guided approach was employed to isolate and determine the chemical identity of bioactive constituents with antibacterial activity from strain NEAU-HV9. The structure of the antibacterial metabolite was determined as actinomycin D on the basis of extensive spectroscopic analysis. To our knowledge, this is the first report that actinomycin D has strong antibacterial activity against R. solanacearum with a MIC (minimum inhibitory concentration) of 0.6 mg L-1 (0.48 ?mol L-1). The in vivo antibacterial activity experiment showed that actinomycin D possessed significant preventive efficacy against R. solanacearum in tomato seedlings. Thus, strain NEAU-HV9 could be used as BCA (biological control agent) against R. solanacearum, and actinomycin D might be a promising candidate for a new antibacterial agent against R. solanacearum.
Project description:A novel Gram staining positive, aerobic bacterium NEAU-HV1T that exhibits antifungal activity against Exserohilum turcicum was isolated from a soil collected from Gama, Hadjer lamis, Chad. It was grown at 10-45 °C (optimum 30 °C), pH 5-10 (optimum pH 8), and 0-4% (w/v) NaCl (optimum 1%). Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain NEAU-HV1T was closely related to Sinomonas susongensis A31T (99.24% sequence similarity), Sinomonas humi MUSC 117T (98.76%), and Sinomonas albida LC13T (98.68%). The average nucleotide identity values between NEAU-HV1T and its most closely related species were 79.34-85.49%. The digital DNA-DNA hybridization values between NEAU-HV1T and S. susongensis A31T, S. albida LC13T, and S. humi MUSC 117T were 23.20, 23.50, and 22.80%, respectively, again indicating that they belonged to different taxa. The genomic DNA G+C content was 67.64 mol%. The whole cell sugars contained galactose, mannose, and rhamnose. The polar lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylinositol, and four glycolipids. The respiratory quinone system comprised MK-9(H2), MK-10(H2), and MK-8(H2). The major cellular fatty acids (>5%) were anteiso-C15:0, anteiso-C17:0, C16:0, and iso-C15:0. Based on the polyphasic analysis, it is suggested that the strain NEAU-HV1T represents a novel species of the genus Sinomonas, for which the name Sinomonas gamaensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is NEAU-HV1T (= DSM 104514T = CCTCC M 2017246T).
Project description:A borrelidin-producing actinomycete, designated strain NEAU-W2(T), was isolated from the root surface of soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr] and characterized using a polyphasic approach. The organism was found to have morphological and chemotaxonomic characteristics typical of streptomycetes. The G+C content of the DNA was 66.12 mol%. Analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence of strain NEAU-W2(T) revealed that the strain formed a distinct clade within the 16S rRNA gene sequence phylogenetic tree and showed highest similarity (99.61 %) to Streptomyces neyagawaensis ATCC 27449(T). However, the DNA-DNA relatedness between strain NEAU-W2(T) and S. neyagawaensis ATCC 27449(T) was 58.51 %. Strain NEAU-W2(T) could also be differentiated from S. neyagawaensis ATCC 27449(T) and other Streptomyces species showing high 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity (98-99 %), as well as other borrelidin-producing strains, based on morphological and physiological characteristics. On the basis of its physiological and molecular properties, it is proposed that strain NEAU-W2(T) represents a novel Streptomyces species, Streptomyces heilongjiangensis sp. nov. The type strain is NEAU-W2(T) ( = CGMCC 4.7004(T) = ATCC BAA-2424(T) = DSM 42073(T)).
Project description:The rhizosphere, an important battleground between beneficial microbes and pathogens, is usually considered to be a good source for isolation of antagonistic microorganisms. In this study, a novel actinobacteria with broad-spectrum antifungal activity, designated strain NEAU-H2T, was isolated from the rhizosphere soil of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity studies showed that strain NEAU-H2T belonged to the genus Streptomyces, with high sequence similarities to Streptomyces rhizosphaerihabitans NBRC 109807T (98.8%), Streptomyces populi A249T (98.6%), and Streptomyces siamensis NBRC 108799T (98.6%). Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA, atpD, gyrB, recA, rpoB, and trpB gene sequences showed that the strain formed a stable clade with S. populi A249T. Morphological and chemotaxonomic characteristics of the strain coincided with members of the genus Streptomyces. A combination of DNA-DNA hybridization results and phenotypic properties indicated that the strain could be distinguished from the abovementioned strains. Thus, strain NEAU-H2T belongs to a novel species in the genus Streptomyces, for which the name Streptomyces triticiradicis sp. nov. is proposed. In addition, the metabolites isolated from cultures of strain NEAU-H2T were characterized by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and mass spectrometry (MS) analyses. One new compound and three known congeners were isolated. Further, genome analysis revealed that the strain harbored diverse biosynthetic potential, and one cluster showing 63% similarity to natamycin biosynthetic gene cluster may contribute to the antifungal activity. The type strain is NEAU-H2T (= CCTCC AA 2018031T = DSM 109825T).
Project description:Actinomycetes isolated from marine sediments along the southeast coast of Bay of Bengal were investigated for amylolytic activity. Marine actinomycete BTSS 1001 producing an alkaline amylase was identified from marine sediment of Diviseema coast, Bay of Bengal. The isolate produced alkaline amylase with maximum amylolytic activity at pH 9.5 at 50°C. The organism produced white to pale grey substrate mycelium and grayish aerial mycelium with pinkish brown pigmentation. A comprehensive study of morphological, physiological parameters, cultural characteristics, and biochemical studies was performed. The presence of iso-C15 : 0, anteiso-C15 : 0, iso-C16 : 0, and anteiso-C17 : 0 as the major cellular fatty acids, LL-diaminopimelic acid as the characteristic cell wall component, and menaquinones MK-9H(6) and MK-9H(8) as the major isoprenoid quinones is attributed to the strain BTSS 1001 belonging to the genus Streptomyces. Comparison of 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain BTSS 1001 exhibited the highest similarities to the type strains of Streptomyces rochei (99%), Streptomyces plicatus (99%), and Streptomyces enissocaesilis (99%). Using the polyphasic taxonomical approach and phenotypic characteristic studies, the isolate BTSS 1001 was characterized as marine actinomycete Streptomyces rochei.
Project description:Ralstonia solanacearum strain FQY_4 was isolated from a bacterial wilt nursery, which is used for breeding crops for Ralstonia resistance in China. Here, we report the complete genome sequence of FQY_4 and its comparison with other published R. solanacearum genomes, especially with the strains GMI1000 and Y45 in the same group.
Project description:Cancer is a serious threat to human health. With the increasing resistance to known drugs, it is still urgent to find new drugs or pro-drugs with anti-tumor effects. Natural products produced by microorganisms have played an important role in the history of drug discovery, particularly in the anticancer and anti-infective areas. The plant rhizosphere ecosystem is a rich resource for the discovery of actinomycetes with potential applications in pharmaceutical science, especially Streptomyces. We screened Streptomyces-like strains from the rhizosphere soil of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) in Hebei province, China, and thirty-nine strains were obtained. Among them, the extracts of 14 isolates inhibited the growth of colon tumor cell line HCT-116. Strain NEAU-wh-3-1 exhibited better inhibitory activity, and its active ingredients were further studied. Then, 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity studies showed that strain NEAU-wh3-1 with high sequence similarities to Embleya scabrispora DSM 41855T (99.65%), Embleya hyalina MB891-A1T (99.45%), and Streptomyces lasii 5H-CA11T (98.62%). Moreover, multilocus sequence analysis based on the five other house-keeping genes (atpD, gyrB, rpoB, recA, and trpB) and polyphasic taxonomic approach comprising chemotaxonomic, phylogenetic, morphological, and physiological characterization indicated that the isolate should be assigned to the genus Embleya and was different from its closely related strains, therefore, it is proposed that strain NEAU-wh3-1 may be classified as representatives of a novel species of the genus Embleya. Furthermore, active substances in the fermentation broth of strain NEAU-wh-3-1 were isolated by bioassay-guided analysis and identified by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and mass spectrometry (MS) analyses. Consequently, one new Zincophorin analogue together with seven known compounds was detected. The new compound showed highest antitumor activity against three human cell lines with the 50% inhibition (IC50) values of 8.8-11.6 ?g/mL and good antibacterial activity against four pathogenic bacteria, the other known compounds also exhibit certain biological activity.
Project description:Ralstonia solanacearum strain Po82, a phylotype IIB/sequevar 4 strain, was found to be pathogenic to both solanaceous plants and banana. Here, we report the complete genome sequence of Po82 and its comparison with seven published R. solanacearum genomes.
Project description:An avirulent strain of Ralstonia solanacearum FJAT-1458 was isolated from a living tomato. Here, we report the complete R. solanacearum FJAT-1458 genome sequence of 6,059,899 bp and 5,241 genes. This bacterial strain is a potential candidate as a biocontrol agent in the form of a plant vaccine for bacterial wilt.
Project description:The first Ralstonia-infecting bacteriophage from soil of the United States, designated RsoM1USA, was isolated from a tomato field in Florida. Electron microscopy revealed that phage RsoM1USA is member of the genus P2virus in the family Myoviridae with an icosahedral head of about 66 nm in diameter, a contractile tail of about 152 nm in length, and a long "neck." Phage RsoM1USA infected 12 of the 30 tested R. solanacearum species complex strains collected worldwide in each of the three Ralstonia species: R. solanacearum, R. pseudosolanacearum, and R. syzygii. The phage completed its infection cycle 180 min post infection with a burst size of about 56 particles per cell. Phage RsoM1USA has a genome of 39,309 nucleotides containing 58 open reading frames (ORFs) and is closely related to Ralstonia phage RSA1 of the species Ralstonia virus RSA1. The genomic organization of phage RsoM1USA is also similar to that of phage RSA1, but their integrases share no sequence homology. In addition, we determined that the integration of phage RsoM1USA into its susceptible R. solanacearum strain K60 is mediated by the 3' 45-base portion of the threonine tRNA (TGT), not arginine tRNA (CCG) as reported for phage RSA1, confirming that the two phages use different mechanism for integration. Our proteomic analysis of the purified virions supported the annotation of the main structural proteins. Infection of a susceptible R. solanacearum strain RUN302 by phage RsoM1USA resulted in significantly reduced growth of the infected bacterium in vitro, but not virulence in tomato plants, as compared to its uninfected RUN302 strain. Due to its differences from phage RSA1, phage RsoM1USA should be considered the type member of a new species with a proposed species name of Ralstonia virus RsoM1USA.