A Prospective Assessment of the Diagnostic Value of Contrast-Enhanced Ultrasound, Dynamic Computed Tomography and Magnetic Resonance Imaging for Patients with Small Liver Tumors.
ABSTRACT: AIM:This prospective study assessed the diagnostic value of contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) using long Kupffer phase enhancement for adults with liver tumor size of less than 3 cm. Performance comparisons were also conducted with dynamic computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). BACKGROUND:CEUS has emerged as a reliable image modality, since the development of second-generation contrast medium with long Kupffer phase enhancement. Nonetheless, dynamic CT and MRI are currently the standard imaging tools for the diagnosis of liver cancers, and the diagnostic value of CEUS for liver cancer has yet to be universally accepted. METHODS:Sixty-six adult patients suspected of having liver tumors smaller than 3 cm underwent CEUS, dynamic CT, and MRI examinations independently. Subsequent tumor biopsies were used to verify the diagnostic performance of the three imaging modalities. RESULTS:The diagnostic odds ratio (DOR, 95% CI) for hepatocellular carcinoma were as follows: CEUS (52.8, 11.4-243), CT (29.29, 7.36-116), and MRI (19.43, 5.44-69.4); for metastasis: CEUS (200, 19.1-2095), CT (24, 5.05-114), and MRI (32, 6.56-156); and all liver malignancy: CEUS (260, 12.7-5310), CT (2.57, 0.55-12.1), and MRI (5.22, 1.25-21.8). CEUS achieved the best differentiation performance. CONCLUSIONS:CEUS outperformed dynamic CT and MRI in terms of diagnostic performance when dealing with small liver tumors (<3 cm).
Project description:Liver computed tomography and dynamic magnetic resonance imaging play an important role in the early detection of hepatocellular carcinoma. However, the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases (AASLD) recommend the use of applied imaging studies for HCC diagnosis only in cirrhotic patients. This study aimed to comprehensively compare liver CT and dynamic MRI for HCC diagnosis before surgical resection over years in clinical practice, and also to compare the diagnostic differences between liver CT and dynamic MRI in HCCs with varying degrees of fibrosis.841 patients with liver tumor who had liver CT or dynamic MRI examinations followed by surgical resection were included in the study. We defined typical HCC imaging characteristics as early enhancement in the artery phase and early washout in the venous phase. The tumor size was recorded based on pathological examination after surgery. The pathologic fibrosis score was verified by the METAVIR scoring classification.Among the 841 patients, 756 underwent liver CT and 204 underwent dynamic liver MRI before surgery. The etiologies of chronic liver disease included hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus, hepatitis B and C virus, and non-hepatitis B or C virus. The sensitivity and accuracy of liver CT or MRI for HCC diagnosis was approximately 80%~90%. Liver CT had a diagnostic accuracy for HCC similar to that of dynamic MRI, and liver fibrosis stage did not influence their diagnostic efficacies.The application of 4-phase dynamic CT and MRI exhibit similar diagnostic accuracy for hepatocellular carcinoma, in tumors of sizes 1 to 2 cm and >2 cm. Liver fibrosis status did not affect the diagnostic accuracy of liver CT or MRI for HCC. The AASLD and EASL restrictions of dynamic imaging studies for HCC diagnosis to cirrhotic patients alone are unnecessary.
Project description:Purpose:The purpose of our study was to evaluate the role of contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography (CT) in the pathological diagnosis of pancreatic cystic neoplasms (PCNs). Methods:A total of 90 patients (66 women, 24 men) aged 18-71 years were studied prospectively. CEUS was performed in all patients, whereas MRI was performed in 85 patients and CT in 69 patients. We analyzed the sensitivity and accuracy of these three imaging modalities to diagnose the PCNs. Neoplasm size, location, shape, intralesional mural nodules, septa and duct dilatation were also assessed by different radiologists. Results:There were no significant differences in sensitivity for discriminating PCNs from pancreatic cystic lesions between CEUS and MRI (p=0.614) or between CEUS and CT (p=0.479). The diagnostic accuracy of CEUS for classifying PCNs was 64.4% (58/90), which was higher than that of CT (53.6%, 37/69, P=0.017), and lower than that of MRI (70.6%, 60/85, p=0.791). Regarding tumor size for lesions larger than 3 cm, CEUS was superior to CT in differentiating the specific type of PCN (p=0.041), and CEUS had the same value as MRI (p=0.774). Furthermore, CEUS is valuable for precisely characterizing internal structures, for instance, septa (p=0.003, compared with CT; p=0.443, compared with MRI) and nodules (p= 0.018, compared with CT; p=0.033, compared with MRI). The number of septa (p=0.033) and cyst morphology (p=0.016) were meaningful indicators in differentiating serous and mucinous adenoma. There was no significant difference in evaluating size and detecting duct dilatation among the three imaging methods. Conclusion:CEUS compares favorably with MRI in displaying the inner structure of PCNs and offers advantages over CT. CEUS can contribute in an important way to the diagnosis of pancreatic cystic neoplasms.
Project description:Background: Contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) is a safe and noninvasive imaging technique that can characterize and evaluate liver lesions, and has been approved for this use in the Unites States since 2016. CEUS has been shown to be similar in accuracy to computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for noninvasive diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and offers several advantages in certain patient populations who have contraindications for CT or MRI. However, CEUS has inherent limitations and has not been widely employed for evaluation of HCC. Methods: We present three retrospective cases of liver lesions in patients with cirrhosis, who underwent screening for HCC using concurrent, well-timed CT and CEUS. Results: In these cases, the liver lesions were better visualized and then diagnosed as malignancy via CEUS, whereas the lesions were best appreciated on CT only in retrospect. Conclusions: In some cirrhotic patients, a focal lesion may be more easily identifiable via CEUS than on CT and thus accurately characterized, suggesting an important and complementary role of CEUS with CT or MRI. Further studies are indicated to support the use of CEUS for the diagnosis and characterization of liver lesions in screening patients at risk for developing HCC.
Project description:Indeterminate cystic kidney lesions found incidentally are an increasingly prevalent diagnostic challenge. Standard workup includes Bosniak classification with contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). However, these tests are costly and not without risks. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) is a relatively new technique with lower risk of adverse events than iodine-containing contrast or gadolinium. In our review of the evidence for characterization of cystic kidney lesions with CEUS, CEUS displayed sensitivity (89%-100%) and negative predictive value (86%-100%) comparable to contrast-enhanced CT or MRI, with no decrease in specificity compared with CT and only a slight decrease compared with MRI.
Project description:Contrast-enhanced sonography (CEUS) has become a routine part of diagnostic imaging of the liver. Its possibilities, limitations, and indications have been defined in adequately large clinical series and in guidelines and recommendations. We prospectively evaluated physicians' orders for hepatic CEUS received in the radiology department of a large oncology center in Naples, Italy from May 2009 to April 2010. Radiologists performing the CEUS examinations filled out a form that included patient demography, source and type of patient referral, and clinical indications for the examination. During the study period, 564 patients aged 17-86 years (mean, 58 years) were referred to our department for CEUS liver studies (total: 644; 491 outpatient studies, 153 inpatient studies). This included 4 examinations that were ordered by the patient's physician but not performed by our staff. The majority of the CEUS examinations (n = 583; 90.5%) were regularly scheduled procedures ordered by clinical specialists from our center (77.3%) or other centers (11.8%); by general practitioners (on their own initiative) (0.8%); or by other figures (0.6%). The remaining 61 examinations (9.5%) were unscheduled procedures done on the initiative of a radiologist following conventional sonography (US). Fewer than half (47.8%) of the examinations were requested as first-line assessments. The others were ordered to clarify inconclusive findings generated by conventional US (30%) or by a more sophisticated imaging study (CT, MRI, PET) (16.1%) or to resolve discrepancies between CT, MRI, and/or PET findings (6%). CEUS is a relatively noninvasive, low-cost imaging study that is simple to perform and requires no particular patient preparation. This may explain its increasing use to clarify doubts raised by conventional US and other more sophisticated imaging studies.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:Portal vein thrombosis (PVT) is a common complication of liver cirrhosis. However, differentiation of thrombosis and tumor-in-vein (TIV) may be challenging. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) is an excellent method for detection of vascularization and could help in the distinction. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis for evaluating the diagnostic value of CEUS in differentiating between PVT and TIV in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients. METHODS:PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, and Web of Science were searched up to the 5th of May 2019. The study quality was assessed by QUADAS-2 tool. Pooled sensitivity and specificity were calculated by the bivariate random effect model and hierarchical summary receiver-operating characteristic (SROC) curve was plotted. RESULTS:Seven studies including 425 participants were analyzed after screening 986 articles searched from databases. The pooled sensitivity and specificity of CEUS in diagnosing TIV were 0.94 (95%CI, 0.89-0.97) and 0.99 (95%CI, 0.80-1.00), respectively. The area under the curve (AUC) of SROC curve was 0.97 (95%CI, 0.95-0.98). The pooled sensitivity and AUC were consistent across all the subgroups of different subject numbers, country, study design, CEUS contrast agents, and diagnostic criteria. CONCLUSIONS:CEUS is highly efficient in differentiating TIV from PVT and is an alternative or a substitute for CT and/or MRI. TRIAL REGISTRATION:PROSPERO registration number: CRD42019138847 KEY POINTS: • Characterization of portal vein thrombosis (PVT) vs tumor-in-vein (TIV) is critical for HCC staging. • CEUS has an excellent safety profile, provides a real-time analysis without any loss in accuracy compared with CT and MRI. • This meta-analysis demonstrates that contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) is a suitable method for the detection of PVT and distinction with TIV.
Project description:OBJECTIVE: Assessing the feasibility and efficiency of interventions using ultrasound (US) volume navigation (V Nav) with real time needle tracking and image fusion with contrast enhanced (ce) CT, MRI or US. METHODS: First an in vitro study on a liver phantom with CT data image fusion was performed, involving the puncture of a 10 mm lesion in a depth of 5 cm performed by 15 examiners with US guided freehand technique vs. V Nav for the purpose of time optimization. Then 23 patients underwent ultrasound-navigated biopsies or interventions using V Nav image fusion of live ultrasound with ceCT, ceMRI or CEUS, which were acquired before the intervention. A CEUS data set was acquired in all patients. Image fusion was established for CEUS and CT or CEUS and MRI using anatomical landmarks in the area of the targeted lesion. The definition of a virtual biopsy line with navigational axes targeting the lesion was achieved by the usage of sterile trocar with a magnetic sensor embedded in its distal tip employing a dedicated navigation software for real time needle tracking. RESULTS: The in vitro study showed significantly less time needed for the simulated interventions in all examiners when V Nav was used (p<0.05). In the study involving patients, in all 10 biopsies of suspect lesions of the liver a histological confirmation was achieved. We also used V Nav for a breast biopsy (intraductal carcinoma), for a biopsy of the abdominal wall (metastasis of ovarial carcinoma) and for radiofrequency ablations (4 ablations). In 8 cases of inflammatory abdominal lesions 9 percutaneous drainages were successfully inserted. CONCLUSION: Percutaneous biopsies and drainages, even of small lesions involving complex access pathways, can be accomplished with a high success rate by using 3D real time image fusion together with real time needle tracking.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:To compare the diagnostic accuracy of dynamic computed tomography (CT) and gadoxetate-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for characterization of hepatic lesions by using the Liver Imaging Reporting and Data System (LI-RADS) in a multicenter, off-site evaluation. MATERIALS AND METHODS:In this retrospective multicenter study, we evaluated 231 hepatic lesions (114 hepatocellular carcinomas [HCCs], 58 non-HCC malignancies, and 59 benign lesions) confirmed histologically in 217 patients with chronic liver disease who underwent both gadoxetate-enhanced MRI and dynamic CT at one of five tertiary hospitals. Four radiologists at different institutes independently reviewed all MR images first and the CT images 4 weeks later. They evaluated the major and ancillary imaging features and categorized each hepatic lesion according to the LI-RADS v2014. Diagnostic performance was calculated and compared using generalized estimating equations. RESULTS:MRI showed higher sensitivity and accuracy than CT for diagnosing hepatic malignancies; the pooled sensitivities, specificities, and accuracies for categorizing LR-5/5V/M were 59.0% vs. 72.4% (CT vs. MRI; p < 0.001), 83.5% vs. 83.9% (p = 0.906), and 65.3% vs. 75.3% (p < 0.001), respectively. CT and MRI showed comparable capabilities for differentiating between HCC and other malignancies, with pooled accuracies of 79.9% and 82.4% for categorizing LR-M, respectively (p = 0.139). CONCLUSION:Gadoxetate-enhanced MRI showed superior accuracy for categorizing LR-5/5V/M in hepatic malignancies in comparison with dynamic CT. Both modalities had comparable accuracies for distinguishing other malignancies from HCC.
Project description:Contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS) is useful to distinguish benign and malignant focal liver lesions in dogs. Cholangiocellular adenoma is an extremely rare benign tumor in dogs and has not been examined using CEUS with Sonazoid. The aim of this study was to describe findings of CEUS with Sonazoid in three dogs with cholangiocellular adenoma. All three dogs showed contrast defects in the Kupffer phase and these findings mimicked malignant neoplasia during the Kupffer phase. Moreover, all dogs showed early washout and hypoechoic lesions relative to the surrounding normal liver parenchyma in the portal phase. To our knowledge, this is the first study to report that CEUS findings of cholangiocellular adenoma with Sonazoid mimicked malignancy in three dogs.
Project description:Background:Current practice guidelines recommend the use of ultrasound (US) as an initial surveillance tool for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in patients with liver cirrhosis. Patients with liver cirrhosis, however, frequently have coarse liver parenchyma, masking the presence of tiny nodules during B-mode US. Contrast-enhanced US (CEUS) with Sonazoid has a long-lasting, stable Kupffer phase, which makes it possible to scan the entire liver to depict small lesions. In addition, defect reperfusion imaging (reinjection imaging) enables to determine whether the detected nodule is HCC or not. This prospective, multicenter, randomized, controlled trial was conducted to demonstrate the usefulness of Kupffer phase surveillance in the detection of small HCC compared to B-mode US. Methods:A total of 23 institutions joined this study. In total, 656 patients with hepatitis B- or C-related liver cirrhosis were randomized either to the B-mode US surveillance group (n = 313) or the Kupffer phase CEUS with Sonazoid surveillance group (n = 309). The primary endpoint was the maximum size of HCC at the time of the first detection. Secondary endpoints included time to HCC detection, number of tumors, and Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer stage at the first detection, and sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of each method in the diagnosis, and the cumulative detection rate of HCC. Results:The mean HCC size at the first detection was significantly smaller in the CEUS (13.0 ± 4.1 mm; n = 28) than in the B-mode US group (16.7 ± 4.1 mm; n = 26) (p = 0.011). Of the 38 patients with HCV cirrhosis diagnosed with HCC by US alone, mean tumor size at the first detection was significantly smaller in the 20 patients diagnosed by CEUS alone than in the 18 diagnosed by B-mode US alone (12.7 ± 3.1 vs. 17.6 ± 7.0 mm, p = 0.012). In contrast, among the 16 patients with HBV cirrhosis diagnosed by US alone, mean tumor size at the first detection was similar in the 8 patients diagnosed by CEUS alone and the 8 diagnosed by B-mode US (13.6 ± 6.0 vs. 14.5 ± 2.7 mm, p = 0.715). Conclusion:Kupffer phase CEUS surveillance with Sonazoid is extremely useful for the early detection and confirmation of HCC using a reinjection technique. Kupffer phase CEUS with Sonazoid contrast combined with the reinjection technique is, therefore, recommended as first-line screening tool for HCC in patients with liver cirrhosis, especially those with very coarse liver parenchyma.