Up regulation of Rho-associated coiled-coil containing kinase1 (ROCK1) is associated with genetic instability and poor prognosis in prostate cancer.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES:Overexpression of the cytoskeleton-modulating kinase ROCK1 has been associated with unfavorable outcome in many cancers, but its impact in prostate cancer is largely unknown. RESULTS:A weak ROCK1 staining was found in >90% of normal, and cancerous prostate tissues, but was generally stronger in cancer cells as compared to adjacent normal glands. In cancer, ROCK1 staining was considered weak, moderate, and strong in 22%, 53%, and 18% of cases respectively. Higher ROCK1 expression levels were associated with tumor stage, and Gleason grade, positive nodal stage, positive surgical margin, accelerated cell proliferation and early PSA recurrence in multivariable analysis. ROCK1 up regulation was associated with androgen receptor (AR) expression, TMPRSS2:ERG fusion, genomic deletions of the PTEN tumor suppressor, as well as recurrent deletions at chromosomes 3p, 5q, 6q. Strong ROCK1 staining was found in 3% of AR-negative, but in 27% of strongly AR positive cancers, in 13% of ERG-negative but in 25% of ERG positive cancers, and in 12% of PTEN normal but in 26% of PTEN deleted cancers. CONCLUSIONS:This study identifies ROCK1 expression associated with prognosis in prostate cancer. METHODS:We tested ROCK1 expression in 12 427 prostate cancer specimens and followed PSA recurrence after prostatectomy.
Project description:HOXB13 is a prostate cancer susceptibility gene which shows a cancer predisposing (G84E) mutation in 0.1-0.6% of males. We analyzed the prognostic impact of HOXB13 expression by immunohistochemistry on a tissue microarray containing more than 12,400 prostate cancers. Results were compared to tumor phenotype, biochemical recurrence, androgen receptor (AR) and prostate specific antigen (PSA) as well as molecular subtypes defined by ERG status and genomic deletions of 3p, 5q, 6q, and PTEN. HOXB13 immunostaining was detectable in 51.7% of 10,216 interpretable cancers and considered strong in 9.6%, moderate in 19.7% and weak in 22.3% of cases. HOXB13 expression was linked to advanced pT stage, high Gleason grade, positive lymph node status (p < 0.0001 each), high pre-operative PSA levels (p = 0.01), TMPRSS2:ERG fusion, PTEN deletions, AR expression, cell proliferation, reduced PSA expression and early PSA recurrence (p < 0.0001 each). The prognostic value of HOXB13 was independent from established parameters including Gleason, stage, nodal stage and PSA. Co-expression analysis identified a subset of tumors with high HOXB13 and AR but low PSA expression that had a particularly poor prognosis. HOXB13 appears to be a promising candidate for clinical routine tests either alone or in combination with other markers, including AR and PSA.
Project description:Lysophosphatidylcholine acyltransferase 1 (LPCAT1) has been suggested to play a role in cancer. To assess its role in prostate cancer, LPCAT1 expression was analyzed on a tissue microarray containing samples from 11,152 prostate cancer patients. In benign prostate glands, LPCAT1 immunostaining was absent or weak. In prostate cancer, LPCAT1 positivity was found in 73.8% of 8786 interpretable tumors including 29.2% with strong expression. Increased LPCAT1 expression was associated with advanced tumor stage (pT3b/T4) (p < 0.0001), high Gleason score (?4 + 4) (p < 0.0001), positive nodal involvement (p = 0.0002), positive surgical margin (p = 0.0005), and early PSA recurrence (p < 0.0001). High LPCAT1 expression was strongly linked to ERG-fusion type prostate cancer. Strong LPCAT1 staining was detected in 45.3% of ERG positive but in only 16.7% of ERG negative tumors (p < 0.0001). Within ERG negative cancers, LPCAT1 staining was strongly increased within the subgroup of PTEN deleted cancers (p < 0.0001). Further subgroup analyses revealed that associations of high LPCAT1 expression with PSA recurrence and unfavorable tumor phenotype were largely driven by ERG negative cancers (p < 0.0001) while these effects were substantially mitigated in ERG positive cancers (p = 0.0073). The prognostic impact of LPCAT1 expression was independent of histological and clinical parameters. It is concluded, that LPCAT1 measurement, either alone or in combination, may be utilized for better clinical decision-making. These data also highlight the potentially important role of lipid metabolism in prostate cancer biology.
Project description:Breast cancer anti-estrogen resistance 1 (BCAR1/p130cas) is a hub for diverse oncogenic signaling cascades and promotes tumor development and progression.To understand the effect of BCAR1 in prostate cancer, we analyzed its expression on more than 11,000 prostate cancer samples. BCAR1 expression levels were compared with clinical characteristics, PSA recurrence, molecular subtype defined by ERG status and 3p, 5q, 6q and PTEN deletion.BCAR1 staining was barely detectable in normal prostate glands but seen in 77.6% of 9472 interpretable cancers, including strong expression in 38.5%, moderate in 23.2% and weak in 15.9% of cases. BCAR1 up regulation was associated with positive ERG status (p?<?0.0001), high Gleason score (p?<?0.0001), advanced pathological tumor stage (p?=?0.0082), lower preoperative PSA level (p?<?0.0001), increased cell proliferation (p?<?0.0001), early PSA recurrence (p?=?0.0008), and predicted prognosis independently from clinico-pathological parameters available at the time of the initial biopsy. However, subset analyses revealed that the prognostic impact of BCAR1 expression was limited to ERG-negative cancer. That BCAR1 up regulation was linked to almost all analyzed deletions (p?<?0.0001 each for PTEN, 5q, 6q deletion) may suggest a functional link to genomic instability.The results of our study identify BCAR1 as a prognostic biomarker with potential clinical value for risk stratification of ERG-negative prostate cancer.
Project description:The transcription factor SOX9 plays a crucial role in normal prostate development and has been suggested to drive prostate carcinogenesis in concert with PTEN inactivation. To evaluate the clinical impact of SOX9 and its relationship with key genomic alterations in prostate cancer, SOX9 expression was analyzed by immunohistochemistry on a tissue microarray containing 11,152 prostate cancers. Data on ERG status and deletions of PTEN, 3p13, 5q21 and 6q15 were available from earlier studies. SOX9 expression levels were comparable in luminal cells of normal prostate glands (50% SOX9 positive) and 3,671 cancers lacking TMPRSS2:ERG fusion (55% SOX9 positive), but was markedly increased in 3,116 ERG-fusion positive cancers (81% SOX9 positive, p<0.0001). While no unequivocal changes in the SOX9 expression levels were found in different stages of ERG-negative cancers, a gradual decrease of SOX9 paralleled progression to advanced stage, high Gleason grade, metastatic growth, and presence of PTEN deletions in ERG-positive cancers (p<0.0001 each). SOX9 levels were unrelated to deletions of 3p, 5q, and 6q. Down-regulation of SOX9 expression was particularly strongly associated with PSA recurrence in ERG-positive tumors harboring PTEN deletions (p=0.001), but had no significant effect in ERG-negative cancers or in tumors with normal PTEN copy numbers. In summary, the results of our study argue against a tumor-promoting role of SOX9 in prostate cancer, but demonstrate that loss of SOX9 expression characterizes a particularly aggressive subset of ERG positive cancers harboring PTEN deletions.
Project description:Dysregulation of S100A8 is described in many different human tumor types, but its role in prostate cancer is unknown. To evaluate the clinical relevance of S100A8 expression in prostate cancer, a tissue microarray containing 13,665 tumors was analyzed by immunohistochemistry. Cytoplasmic S100A8 staining was compared to prostate cancer phenotype, patient prognosis and molecular features including TMPRSS2:ERG fusion status and deletions of PTEN, 3p, 5q and 6q. S100A8 immunostaining was typically seen in normal prostate tissue but lost in 60% of 9786 interpretable prostate cancers. In the remaining tumors, S100A8 was considered weak in 17.9%, moderate in 17.8% and strong in 5.4% of cases. Loss of S100A8 expression was linked to advanced tumor stage, high Gleason grade, positive nodal status, positive surgical margin and high preoperative PSA (P?<?.0001 each). In addition, loss of S100A8 expression was associated with TMPRSS2:ERG fusions (P?<?.0001), deletions of PTEN, 3p, and 6q (P?<?.005), and a high number of genomic deletions per tumor (P?=?.0009). Absence of S100A8 immunostaining was also linked to an elevated risk for early PSA recurrence (P?<?.0001). In a multivariate analysis limited to features that are preoperatively available, the prognostic impact of S100A8 expression (P?<?.0001) was independent of clinical stage, Gleason grade, and serum PSA level (P?<?.0001). Taken together, the results of our study demonstrate that complete loss of S100A8 expression is linked to adverse tumor features and predicts early biochemical recurrence in prostate cancer. S100A8 measurement, either alone or in combination might be of clinical utility in prostate cancers.
Project description:ERG rearrangements in localized prostate cancer can be detected with high sensitivity and specificity by immunohistochemistry (IHC). However, recent data suggest that ERG IHC may be less sensitive for ERG rearrangements in castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). Thus, we sought to examine ERG protein expression in a cohort of rapid autopsy patients with lethal metastatic CRPC (mCRPC).A tissue microarray (TMA) of tumor sites from these patients was evaluated for ERG, prostate-specific antigen (PSA), and androgen receptor (AR) expression by IHC and correlated with ERG rearrangement status by fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH). IHC was scored as the product of tumor cell staining intensity (0-3) and percentage of cells positive (0-100) (overall product score range?=?0-300).All 16 (100%) ERG rearrangement negative (ERG(neg) ) patients were also negative for ERG tumor cell expression (i.e., IHC product score?=?0). Of the 10 ERG rearrangement positive (ERG(pos) ) patients, two (20%) were completely negative for ERG tumor cell expression, while eight (80%) had weak ERG expression (median IHC product score?=?5-110). Of these eight ERG(pos) patients, five (63%) had at least one tumor site without any detectable ERG expression. For a given ERG(pos) patient, ERG expression varied both between and within tumor sites; AR and PSA expression also varied between tumor sites, and there was no significant correlation between ERG and AR or PSA expression.These data reveal frequent discordance between ERG IHC and ERG FISH in ERG(pos) patients from this unique cohort of heavily treated lethal mCRPC.
Project description:The A Disintegrin and Metalloproteinase (ADAM) family of endopeptidases plays a role in many solid cancers and includes promising targets for anticancer therapies. Deregulation of ADAM15 has been linked to tumor aggressiveness and cell line studies suggest that ADAM15 overexpression may also be implicated in prostate cancer. To evaluate the impact of ADAM15 expression and its relationship with key genomic alterations, a tissue microarray containing 12,427 prostate cancers was analyzed by immunohistochemistry. ADAM15 expression was compared to phenotype, prognosis and molecular features including TMPRSS2:ERG fusion and frequent deletions involving PTEN, 3p, 5q and 6q. Normal prostate epithelium did not show ADAM15 staining. In prostate cancers, negative, weak, moderate, and strong ADAM15 staining was found in 87.7%, 3.7%, 5.6%, and 3.0% of 9826 interpretable tumors. Strong ADAM15 staining was linked to high Gleason grade, advanced pathological tumor stage, positive nodal stage and resection margin. ADAM15 overexpression was also associated with TMPRSS2:ERG fusions and PTEN deletions (P<.0001) but unrelated to deletions of 3p, 5q and 6q. In univariate analysis, high ADAM15 expression was strongly linked to PSA recurrence (P<.0001). However, in multivariate analyses this association was only maintained if the analysis was limited to preoperatively available parameters in ERG-negative cancers. The results of our study demonstrate that ADAM15 is strongly up regulated in a small but highly aggressive fraction of prostate cancers. In these tumors, ADAM15 may represent a suitable drug target. In a preoperative scenario, ADAM15 expression measurement may assist prognosis assessment, either alone or in combination with other markers.
Project description:Identification of new molecular markers has led to the molecular classification of prostate cancer based on driving genetic lesions. The translation of these discoveries for clinical use necessitates the development of simple, reliable and rapid detection systems to screen patients for specific molecular aberrations. We developed two dual-color immunohistochemistry-based assays for the simultaneous assessment of ERG-PTEN and ERG-SPINK1 in prostate cancer. A total of 232 cases from 184 localized and 48 metastatic prostate cancers were evaluated for ERG-PTEN and 284 cases from 228 localized and 56 metastatic prostate cancers were evaluated for ERG-SPINK1. Of the 232 cases evaluated for ERG-PTEN, 81 (35%) ERG-positive and 77 (33%) PTEN-deleted cases were identified. Of the 81 ERG-positive cases, PTEN loss was confirmed in 35 (15%) cases by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). PTEN status was concordant in 203 cases (sensitivity 90% and specificity 87%; P<0.0001) by both immunohistochemisty and FISH; however, immunohistochemisty could not distinguish between heterozygous and homozygous deletion status of PTEN. Of the 284 cases evaluated for ERG-SPINK1, 111 (39%) cases were positive for ERG. In the remaining 173 ERG-negative cases, SPINK1 was positive in 26 (9%) cases. SPINK1 expression was found to be mutually exclusive with ERG expression; however, we identified two cases, of which one showed concomitant expression of ERG and SPINK1 in the same tumor foci, and in the second case ERG and SPINK1 were seen in two independent foci of the same tumor nodule. Unlike the homogenous ERG staining in cancer tissues, heterogeneous SPINK1 staining was observed in the majority of the cases. Further studies are required to understand the molecular heterogeneity of cases with concomitant ERG-SPINK1 expression. Automated dual ERG-PTEN and ERG-SPINK1 immunohistochemisty assays are simple, reliable and portable across study sites for the simultaneous assessment of these proteins in prostate cancer.
Project description:Loss of the putative tumor suppressor BAP1 is a candidate biomarker for adverse prognosis in many cancer types, but conversely for improved survival in others. Studies on the expression and prognostic role of BAP1 in prostate cancer are currently lacking. We used a tissue microarray of 17,747 individual prostate cancer samples linked with comprehensive pathological, clinical and molecular data and studied the immunohistochemical expression of BAP1. BAP1 expression was typically up regulated in cancers as compared to adjacent normal prostatic glands. In 15,857 cancers, BAP1 staining was weak in 3.3%, moderate in 41.6% and strong in 17.4%. Strong BAP1 staining was associated with advanced tumor stage (p<0.0001), high classical and quantitative Gleason grade (p<0.0001), lymph node metastasis (p<0.0001), a positive surgical margin (p=0.0019) and early biochemical recurrence (p<0.0001). BAP1 expression was linked to ERG-fusion type cancers, with strong BAP1 staining in 12% of ERG-negative, but 30% of ERG-positive cancers (p<0.0001). Subset analyses in 5,415 cancers with and 4,217 cancers without TMPRSS2:ERG fusion revealed that these associations with tumor phenotype and patient outcome were largely driven by the subset of ERG-negative tumors. Multivariate analysis revealed that the prognostic impact was independent of established prognostic features in ERG negative p<0.001) but not in ERG positive cancers. BAP1 expression was further linked to androgen receptor (AR) expression: Only 2% of AR-negative, but 33% of strongly AR expressing cancers had strong BAP1 expression (p<0.0001). In conclusion, this study shows that BAP1 up regulation is linked to prostate cancer progression and aggressiveness.