Delayed rectifier currents in rat globus pallidus neurons are attributable to Kv2.1 and Kv3.1/3.2 K(+) channels.
ABSTRACT: The symptoms of Parkinson disease are thought to result in part from increased burst activity in globus pallidus neurons. To gain a better understanding of the factors governing this activity, we studied delayed rectifier K(+) conductances in acutely isolated rat globus pallidus (GP) neurons, using whole-cell voltage-clamp and single-cell RT-PCR techniques. From a holding potential of -40 mV, depolarizing voltage steps in identified GP neurons evoked slowly inactivating K(+) currents. Analysis of the tail currents revealed rapidly and slowly deactivating currents of similar amplitude. The fast component of the current deactivated with a time constant of 11. 1 +/- 0.8 msec at -40 mV and was blocked by micromolar concentrations of 4-AP and TEA (K(D) approximately 140 microM). The slow component of the current deactivated with a time constant of 89 +/- 10 microseconds at -40 mV and was less sensitive to TEA (K(D) = 0.8 mM) and 4-AP (K(D) approximately 6 mM). Organic antagonists of Kv1 family channels had little or no effect on somatic currents. These properties are consistent with the hypothesis that the rapidly deactivating current is attributable to Kv3.1/3.2 channels and the slowly deactivating current to Kv2.1-containing channels. Semiquantitative single-cell RT-PCR analysis of Kv3 and Kv2 family mRNAs supported this conclusion. An alteration in the balance of these two channel types could underlie the emergence of burst firing after dopamine-depleting lesions.
Project description:1. The effects of I(Ks) block by chromanol 293B and L-735,821 on rabbit QT-interval, action potential duration (APD), and membrane current were compared to those of E-4031, a recognized I(Kr) blocker. Measurements were made in rabbit Langendorff-perfused whole hearts, isolated papillary muscle, and single isolated ventricular myocytes. 2. Neither chromanol 293B (10 microM) nor L-735,821 (100 nM) had a significant effect on QTc interval in Langendorff-perfused hearts. E-4031 (100 nM), on the other hand, significantly increased QTc interval (35.6+/-3.9%, n=8, P<0.05). 3. Similarly both chromanol 293B (10 microM) and L-735,821 (100 nM) produced little increase in papillary muscle APD (less than 7%) while pacing at cycle lengths between 300 and 5000 ms. In contrast, E-4031 (100 nM) markedly increased (30 - 60%) APD in a reverse frequency-dependent manner. 4. In ventricular myocytes, the same concentrations of chromanol 293B (10 microM), L-735,821 (100 nM) and E-4031 (1 microM) markedly or totally blocked I(Ks) and I(Kr), respectively. 5. I(Ks) tail currents activated slowly (at +30 mV, tau=888.1+/-48.2 ms, n=21) and deactivated rapidly (at -40 mV, tau=157.1+/-4.7 ms, n=22), while I(Kr) tail currents activated rapidly (at +30 mV, tau=35.5+/-3.1 ms, n=26) and deactivated slowly (at -40 mV, tau(1)=641.5+/-29.0 ms, tau(2)=6531+/-343, n=35). I(Kr) was estimated to contribute substantially more to total current density during normal ventricular muscle action potentials (i.e., after a 150 ms square pulse to +30 mV) than does I(Ks). 6. These findings indicate that block of I(Ks) is not likely to provide antiarrhythmic benefit by lengthening normal ventricular muscle QTc, APD, and refractoriness over a wide range of frequencies.
Project description:Members of the eukaryotic PIEZO family (the human orthologs are noted hPIEZO1 and hPIEZO2) form cation-selective mechanically-gated channels. We characterized the selectivity of human PIEZO1 (hPIEZO1) for alkali ions: K+, Na+, Cs+ and Li+; organic cations: TMA and TEA, and divalents: Ba2+, Ca2+, Mg2+ and Mn2+. All monovalent ions permeated the channel. At a membrane potential of -100 mV, Cs+, Na+ and K+ had chord conductances in the range of 35-55 pS with the exception of Li+, which had a significantly lower conductance of ~ 23 pS. The divalents decreased the single-channel permeability of K+, presumably because the divalents permeated slowly and occupied the open channel for a significant fraction of the time. In cell-attached mode, 90 mM extracellular divalents had a conductance for inward currents carried by the divalents of: 25 pS for Ba2+ and 15 pS for Ca2+ at -80 mV and 10 pS for Mg2+ at -50 mV. The organic cations, TMA and TEA, permeated slowly and attenuated K+ currents much like the divalents. As expected, the channel K+ conductance increased with K+ concentration saturating at ~ 45 pS and the KD of K+ for the channel was 32 mM. Pure divalent ion currents were of lower amplitude than those with alkali ions and the channel opening rate was lower in the presence of divalents than in the presence of monovalents. Exposing cells to the actin disrupting reagent cytochalasin D increased the frequency of openings in cell-attached patches probably by reducing mechanoprotection.
Project description:The mammalian voltage-dependent KCNQ channels are responsible for distinct types of native potassium currents and are associated with several human diseases. We cloned a novel Drosophila KCNQ channel (dKCNQ) based on its sequence homology to the mammalian genes. When expressed in Chinese hamster ovary cells, dKCNQ gives rise to a slowly activating and slowly deactivating current that activates in the subthreshold voltage range. Like the M-current produced by mammalian KCNQ channels, dKCNQ current is sensitive to the KCNQ-specific blocker linopirdine and is suppressed by activation of a muscarinic receptor. dKCNQ is also similar to the mammalian channels in that it binds calmodulin (CaM), and CaM binding is necessary to produce functional currents. In situ hybridization analysis demonstrates that dKCNQ mRNA is present in brain cortical neurons, the cardia (proventriculus), and the nurse cells and oocytes of the ovary. We generated mutant flies with deletions in the genomic sequence of dKCNQ. Embryos produced by homozygous deletion females exhibit disorganized nuclei and fail to hatch, suggesting strongly that a maternal contribution of dKCNQ protein and/or mRNA is essential for early embryonic development.
Project description:Tannic acid presents in varying concentrations in plant foods, and in relatively high concentrations in green teas and red wines. Human ether-à-go-go-related gene (hERG) channels expressed in multiple tissues (e.g. heart, neurons, smooth muscle and cancer cells), and play important roles in modulating cardiac action potential repolarization and tumor cell biology. The present study investigated the effects of tannic acid, green teas and red wines on hERG currents. The effects of tannic acid, teas and red wines on hERG currents stably transfected in HEK293 cells were studied with a perforated patch clamp technique. In this study, we demonstrated that tannic acid inhibited hERG currents with an IC50 of 3.4 ?M and ~100% inhibition at higher concentrations, and significantly shifted the voltage dependent activation to more positive potentials (?23.2 mV). Remarkably, a 100-fold dilution of multiple types of tea (green tea, oolong tea and black tea) or red wine inhibited hERG currents by ~90%, and significantly shifted the voltage dependent activation to more positive potentials (?30.8 mV and ?26.0 mV, respectively). Green tea Lung Ching and red wine inhibited hERG currents, with IC50 of 0.04% and 0.19%, respectively. The effects of tannic acid, teas and red wine on hERG currents were irreversible. These results suggest tannic acid is a novel hERG channel blocker and consequently provide a new mechanistic evidence for understanding the effects of tannic acid. They also revealed the potential pharmacological basis of tea- and red wine-induced biology activities.
Project description:The globus pallidus occupies a critical position in the indirect pathway of the basal ganglia motor control system. Hyperpolarization-activated cyclic-nucleotide gated (HCN) channels play an important role in the modulation of neuronal excitability. <i>In vivo</i> extracellular single unit recording, behavioral test and immunohistochemistry were performed to explore the possible modulation of endogenous HCN channels in the globus pallidus under parkinsonian states. In MPTP parkinsonian mice, micro-pressure application of the selective HCN channel antagonist, ZD7288, decreased the firing rate in 10 out of the 28 pallidal neurons, while increased the firing rate in another 15 out of the 28 neurons. In 6-OHDA parkinsonian rats, ZD7288 also bidirectionally regulated the spontaneous firing activity of the globus pallidus neurons. The proportion of pallidal neurons with ZD7288-induced slowing of firing rate tended to reduce in both parkinsonian animals. Morphological studies revealed a weaker staining of HCN channels in the globus pallidus under parkinsonian state. Finally, behavioral study demonstrated that intrapallidal microinjection of ZD7288 alleviated locomotor deficits in MPTP parkinsonian mice. These results suggest that endogenous HCN channels modulate the activities of pallidal neurons under parkinsonian states.
Project description:Clozapine, a commonly used antipsychotic drug, can induce QT prolongation, which may lead to torsades de pointes and sudden death. To investigate the arrhythmogenic side effects of clozapine, we studied the impact of clozapine on human ether-a-go-go-related gene (HERG) channels expressed in Xenopus oocytes and HEK293 cells, and on the delayed rectifier K(+) currents of guinea-pig cardiomyocytes. Clozapine dose-dependently decreased the amplitudes of the currents at the end of voltage steps, and the tail currents of HERG. The IC(50) for the clozapine blockade of HERG currents in Xenopus oocytes progressively decreased relative to depolarization (39.9 microM at -40 mV, 28.3 microM at 0 mV and 22.9 microM at +40 mV), whereas the IC(50) for the clozapine-induced blockade of HERG currents in HEK293 cells at 36 degrees C was 2.5 microM at +20 mV. The clozapine-induced blockade of HERG currents was time dependent: the fractional current was 0.903 of the control at the beginning of the pulse, but declined to 0.412 after 4 s at a test potential of 0 mV. The clozapine-induced blockade of HERG currents was use-dependent, exhibiting more rapid onset and greater steady state blockade at higher frequencies of activation, with a partial relief of blockade observed when the frequency of activation was decreased. In guinea-pig ventricular myocytes held at 36 degrees C, treatment with 1 and 5 microM clozapine blocked the rapidly activating delayed rectifier K(+) current (I(Kr)) by 24.7 and 79.6%, respectively, but did not significantly block the slowly activating delayed rectifier K(+) current (I(Ks)). Our findings collectively suggest that blockade of HERG currents and I(Kr), but not I(Ks), may contribute to the arrhythmogenic side effects of clozapine.
Project description:1. N-formyl peptides (e.g. fMLP; N-formyl-L-methionyl-L-leucyl-phenylalanine) are potent mediators for inflammatory reactions. We report functional expression in Xenopus oocytes of human fMLP-R98 cDNA, without co-expression of the promiscuous G-protein subunit, Galpha-16. 2. Stimulation of voltage-clamped oocytes (-70 mV) with fMLP produced a dose-dependent biphasic inward current with fast and slow components. Analysis using GTP-gamma-S and cholera and pertussis toxins suggested these currents are mediated by an endogenous G-protein of the Gq family. 3. The fast current reversed at -25 mV and was blocked by SITS (4-acetamido-4'-isothiocyanatostilbene-2,2'-disulphonic acid), suggesting the current is carried by Cl(-). The slow current showed weak inward rectification, was Ca(2+)-dependent and blocked by Cd(2+), 4-AP (4-aminopyridine) and haloperidol, suggesting activation of a mixed population of cation channels. 4. Comparative experiments with human neutrophils using flow cytometric analysis showed that the proportion of neutrophils activated by fMLP was reduced in the presence of SITS, in the absence of external calcium and in the presence of Cd(2+), TEA (tetraethylammonium) and haloperidol but not 4-AP. In addition, the oxidative burst from activated neutrophils was reduced by SITS and by the absence of external calcium but not by Cd(2+), TEA, 4-AP or haloperidol. 5. We suggest that in human neutrophils activation by fMLP is dependent on store-operated calcium influx that appears to be regulated by Cl(-) channels and linked, in part, to non-selective cation channels.
Project description:We have cloned two splice variants of the human homolog of the alpha1A subunit of voltage-gated Ca2+ channels. The sequences of human alpha1A-1 and alpha1A-2 code for proteins of 2510 and 2662 amino acids, respectively. Human alpha1A-2alpha2bdeltabeta1b Ca2+ channels expressed in HEK293 cells activate rapidly (tau+10mV = 2.2 ms), deactivate rapidly (tau-90mV = 148 micros), inactivate slowly (tau+10mV = 690 ms), and have peak currents at a potential of +10 mV with 15 mM Ba2+ as charge carrier. In HEK293 cells transient expression of Ca2+ channels containing alpha1A/B(f), an alpha1A subunit containing a 112 amino acid segment of alpha1B-1 sequence in the IVS3-IVSS1 region, resulted in Ba2+ currents that were 30-fold larger compared to wild-type (wt) alpha1A-2-containing Ca2+ channels, and had inactivation kinetics similar to those of alpha1B-1-containing Ca2+ channels. Cells transiently transfected with alpha1A/B(f)alpha2bdeltabeta1b expressed higher levels of the alpha1, alpha2bdelta, and beta1b subunit polypeptides as detected by immunoblot analysis. By mutation analysis we identified two locations in domain IV within the extracellular loops S3-S4 (N1655P1656) and S5-SS1 (E1740) that influence the biophysical properties of alpha1A. alpha1AE1740R resulted in a threefold increase in current magnitude, a -10 mV shift in steady-state inactivation, and an altered Ba2+ current inactivation, but did not affect ion selectivity. The deletion mutant alpha1ADeltaNP shifted steady-state inactivation by -20 mV and increased the fast component of current inactivation twofold. The potency and rate of block by omega-Aga IVA was increased with alpha1ADeltaNP. These results demonstrate that the IVS3-S4 and IVS5-SS1 linkers play an essential role in determining multiple biophysical and pharmacological properties of alpha1A-containing Ca2+ channels.
Project description:GABAB receptors are the G-protein coupled receptors for the main inhibitory neurotransmitter in the brain, GABA. GABAB receptors were shown to associate with homo-oligomers of auxiliary KCTD8, KCTD12, KCTD12b, and KCTD16 subunits (named after their T1 K+-channel tetramerization domain) that regulate G-protein signaling of the receptor. Here we provide evidence that GABAB receptors also associate with hetero-oligomers of KCTD subunits. Coimmunoprecipitation experiments indicate that two-thirds of the KCTD16 proteins in the hippocampus of adult mice associate with KCTD12. We show that the KCTD proteins hetero-oligomerize through self-interacting T1 and H1 homology domains. Bioluminescence resonance energy transfer measurements in live cells reveal that KCTD12/KCTD16 hetero-oligomers associate with both the receptor and the G-protein. Electrophysiological experiments demonstrate that KCTD12/KCTD16 hetero-oligomers impart unique kinetic properties on G-protein-activated Kir3 currents. During prolonged receptor activation (one min) KCTD12/KCTD16 hetero-oligomers produce moderately desensitizing fast deactivating K+ currents, whereas KCTD12 and KCTD16 homo-oligomers produce strongly desensitizing fast deactivating currents and nondesensitizing slowly deactivating currents, respectively. During short activation (2 s) KCTD12/KCTD16 hetero-oligomers produce nondesensitizing slowly deactivating currents. Electrophysiological recordings from hippocampal neurons of KCTD knock-out mice are consistent with these findings and indicate that KCTD12/KCTD16 hetero-oligomers increase the duration of slow IPSCs. In summary, our data demonstrate that simultaneous assembly of distinct KCTDs at the receptor increases the molecular and functional repertoire of native GABAB receptors and modulates physiologically induced K+ current responses in the hippocampus. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT:The KCTD proteins 8, 12, and 16 are auxiliary subunits of GABAB receptors that differentially regulate G-protein signaling of the receptor. The KCTD proteins are generally assumed to function as homo-oligomers. Here we show that the KCTD proteins also assemble hetero-oligomers in all possible dual combinations. Experiments in live cells demonstrate that KCTD hetero-oligomers form at least tetramers and that these tetramers directly interact with the receptor and the G-protein. KCTD12/KCTD16 hetero-oligomers impart unique kinetic properties to GABAB receptor-induced Kir3 currents in heterologous cells. KCTD12/KCTD16 hetero-oligomers are abundant in the hippocampus, where they prolong the duration of slow IPSCs in pyramidal cells. Our data therefore support that KCTD hetero-oligomers modulate physiologically induced K+ current responses in the brain.
Project description:The internal vestibule of large-conductance Ca(2+) voltage-activated K(+) (BK) channels contains a ring of eight negative charges not present in K(+) channels of lower conductance (Glu386 and Glu389 in hSlo) that modulates channel conductance through an electrostatic mechanism (Brelidze, T.I., X. Niu, and K.L. Magleby. 2003. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 100:9017-9022). In BK channels there are also two acidic amino acid residues in an extracellular loop (Asp326 and Glu329 in hSlo). To determine the electrostatic influence of these charges on channel conductance, we expressed wild-type BK channels and mutants E386N/E389N, D326N, E329Q, and D326N/E329Q channels on Xenopus laevis oocytes, and measured the expressed currents under patch clamp. Contribution of E329 to the conductance is negligible and single channel conductance of D326N/E329Q channels measured at 0 mV in symmetrical 110 mM K(+) was 18% lower than the control. Current-voltage curves displayed weak outward rectification for D326N and the double mutant. The conductance differences between the mutants and wild-type BK were caused by an electrostatic effect since they were enhanced at low K(+) (30 mM) and vanished at high K(+) (1 M K(+)). We determine the electrostatic potential change, Deltaphi, caused by the charge neutralization using TEA(+) block for the extracellular charges and Ba(2+) for intracellular charges. We measured 13 +/- 2 mV for Deltaphi at the TEA(+) site when turning off the extracellular charges, and 17 +/- 2 mV for the Deltaphi at the Ba(2+) site when the intracellular charges were turned off. To understand the electrostatic effect of charge neutralizations, we determined Deltaphi using a BK channel molecular model embedded in a lipid bilayer and solving the Poisson-Boltzmann equation. The model explains the experimental results adequately and, in particular, gives an economical explanation to the differential effect on the conductance of the neutralization of charges D326 and E329.