Reorganization of paclitaxel-stabilized microtubule arrays at mitotic entry: roles of depolymerizing kinesins and severing proteins.
ABSTRACT: Paclitaxel is a widely used anti-cancer treatment that disrupts cell cycle progression by blocking cells in mitosis. The block at mitosis, with spindles assembled from short microtubules, is surprising given paclitaxel's microtubule stabilizing activity and the need to depolymerize long interphase microtubules prior to spindle formation. Cells must antagonize paclitaxel's microtubule stabilizing activity during a brief window of time at the transition from interphase to mitosis, allowing microtubule reorganization into a mitotic spindle, although the mechanism underlying microtubule depolymerization in the presence of paclitaxel has not been examined. Here we test the hypothesis that microtubule severing and/or depolymerizing proteins active at mitotic entry are necessary to clear the interphase array in paclitaxel-treated cells and allow subsequent formation of mitotic spindles formed of short microtubules. A549 and LLC-PK1 cells treated with 30nM paclitaxel approximately 4 h prior to mitotic entry successfully progress through the G2/M transition by clearing the interphase microtubule array from the cell interior outward to the cell periphery, a spatial pattern of reorganization that differs from that of cells possessing dynamic microtubules. Depletion of kinesin-8s, KIF18A and/or KIF18B obstructed interphase microtubule clearing at mitotic entry in paclitaxel-treated cells, with KIF18B making the larger contribution. Of the severing proteins, depletion of spastin, but not katanin, reduced microtubule loss as cells entered mitosis in the presence of paclitaxel. These results support a model in which KIF18A, KIF18B, and spastin promote interphase microtubule array disassembly at mitotic entry and can overcome paclitaxel-induced microtubule stability specifically at the G2/M transition.
Project description:Microtubule length control is essential for the assembly and function of the mitotic spindle. Kinesin-like motor proteins that directly attenuate microtubule dynamics make key contributions to this control, but the specificity of these motors for different subpopulations of spindle microtubules is not understood. Kif18A (kinesin-8) localizes to the plus ends of the relatively slowly growing kinetochore fibers (K-fibers) and attenuates their dynamics, whereas Kif4A (kinesin-4) localizes to mitotic chromatin and suppresses the growth of highly dynamic, nonkinetochore microtubules. Although Kif18A and Kif4A similarly suppress microtubule growth in vitro, it remains unclear whether microtubule-attenuating motors control the lengths of K-fibers and nonkinetochore microtubules through a common mechanism. To address this question, we engineered chimeric kinesins that contain the Kif4A, Kif18B (kinesin-8), or Kif5B (kinesin-1) motor domain fused to the C-terminal tail of Kif18A. Each of these chimeric kinesins localizes to K-fibers; however, K-fiber length control requires an activity specific to kinesin-8s. Mutational studies of Kif18A indicate that this control depends on both its C-terminus and a unique, positively charged surface loop, called loop2, within the motor domain. These data support a model in which microtubule-attenuating kinesins are molecularly "tuned" to control the dynamics of specific subsets of spindle microtubules.
Project description:Mitotic spindle positioning specifies the plane of cell division during anaphase. Spindle orientation and positioning are therefore critical to ensure symmetric division in mitosis and asymmetric division during development. The control of astral microtubule length plays an essential role in positioning the spindle. In this study, using gene knockout, we show that the kinesin-8 Kif18b controls microtubule length to center the mitotic spindle at metaphase. Using in vitro reconstitution, we reveal that Kif18b is a highly processive plus end-directed motor that uses a C-terminal nonmotor microtubule-binding region to accumulate at growing microtubule plus ends. This region is regulated by phosphorylation to spatially control Kif18b accumulation at plus ends and is essential for Kif18b-dependent spindle positioning and regulation of microtubule length. Finally, we demonstrate that Kif18b shortens microtubules by increasing the catastrophe rate of dynamic microtubules. Overall, our work reveals that Kif18b uses its motile properties to reach microtubule ends, where it regulates astral microtubule length to ensure spindle centering.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Entry into mitosis triggers profound changes in cell shape and cytoskeletal organisation. Here, by studying microtubule remodelling in human flat mitotic cells, we identify a two-step process of interphase microtubule disassembly.<h4>Results</h4>First, a microtubule-stabilising protein, Ensconsin/MAP7, is inactivated in prophase as a consequence of its phosphorylation downstream of Cdk1/cyclin B. This leads to a reduction in interphase microtubule stability that may help to fuel the growth of centrosomally nucleated microtubules. The peripheral interphase microtubules that remain are then rapidly lost as the concentration of tubulin heterodimers falls following dissolution of the nuclear compartment boundary. Finally, we show that a failure to destabilise microtubules in prophase leads to the formation of microtubule clumps, which interfere with spindle assembly.<h4>Conclusions</h4>This analysis highlights the importance of the step-wise remodelling of the microtubule cytoskeleton and the significance of permeabilisation of the nuclear envelope in coordinating the changes in cellular organisation and biochemistry that accompany mitotic entry.
Project description:Microtubules dramatically change their dynamics and organization at the entry into mitosis. Although this change is mediated by microtubule-associated proteins (MAPs), how MAPs themselves are regulated is not well understood. Here we used an integrated multi-level approach to establish the framework and biological significance of MAP regulation critical for the interphase/mitosis transition. Firstly, we applied quantitative proteomics to determine global cell cycle changes in the profiles of MAPs in human and Drosophila cells. This uncovered a wide range of cell cycle regulations of MAPs previously unidentified. Secondly, systematic studies of human kinesins highlighted an overlooked aspect of kinesins: most mitotic kinesins suppress their affinity to microtubules or reduce their protein levels in interphase in combination with nuclear localization. Thirdly, in-depth analysis of a novel Drosophila MAP (Mink) revealed that the suppression of the microtubule affinity of this mitotic MAP in combination with nuclear localization is essential for microtubule organization in interphase, and phosphorylation of Mink is needed for kinetochore-microtubule attachment in mitosis. Thus, this first comprehensive analysis of MAP regulation for the interphase/mitosis transition advances our understanding of kinesin biology and reveals the prevalence and importance of multi-layered MAP regulation.
Project description:Integrin-linked kinase (ILK) localizes to both focal adhesions and centrosomes in distinct multiprotein complexes. Its dual function as a kinase and scaffolding protein has been well characterized at focal adhesions, where it regulates integrin-mediated cell adhesion, spreading, migration and signaling. At the centrosomes, ILK regulates mitotic spindle organization and centrosome clustering. Our previous study showed various spindle defects after ILK knockdown or inhibition that suggested alteration in microtubule dynamics. Since ILK expression is frequently elevated in many cancer types, we investigated the effects of ILK overexpression on microtubule dynamics. We show here that overexpressing ILK in HeLa cells was associated with a shorter duration of mitosis and decreased sensitivity to paclitaxel, a chemotherapeutic agent that suppresses microtubule dynamics. Measurement of interphase microtubule dynamics revealed that ILK overexpression favored microtubule depolymerization, suggesting that microtubule destabilization could be the mechanism behind the decreased sensitivity to paclitaxel, which is known to stabilize microtubules. Conversely, the use of a small molecule inhibitor selective against ILK, QLT-0267, resulted in suppressed microtubule dynamics, demonstrating a new mechanism of action for this compound. We further show that treatment of HeLa cells with QLT-0267 resulted in higher inter-centromere tension in aligned chromosomes during mitosis, slower microtubule regrowth after cold depolymerization and the presence of a more stable population of spindle microtubules. These results demonstrate that ILK regulates microtubule dynamics in both interphase and mitotic cells.
Project description:KIF18A (kinesin-8) is required for mammalian mitotic chromosome alignment. KIF18A confines chromosome movement to the mitotic spindle equator by accumulating at the plus-ends of kinetochore microtubule bundles (K-fibers), where it functions to suppress K-fiber dynamics. It is not understood how the motor accumulates at K-fiber plus-ends, a difficult feat requiring the motor to navigate protein dense microtubule tracks. Our data indicate that KIF18A's relatively long neck linker is required for the motor's accumulation at K-fiber plus-ends. Shorter neck linker (sNL) variants of KIF18A display a deficiency in accumulation at the ends of K-fibers at the center of the spindle. Depletion of K-fiber-binding proteins reduces the KIF18A sNL localization defect, whereas their overexpression reduces wild-type KIF18A's ability to accumulate on this same K-fiber subset. Furthermore, single-molecule assays indicate that KIF18A sNL motors are less proficient in navigating microtubules coated with microtubule-associated proteins. Taken together, these results support a model in which KIF18A's neck linker length permits efficient navigation of obstacles to reach K-fiber ends during mitosis.
Project description:Agents that interfere with mitotic progression by perturbing microtubule dynamics are commonly used for cancer chemotherapy. Here, we identify nakiterpiosin as a novel antimitotic drug that targets microtubules. Nakiterpiosin induces mitotic arrest and triggers mitotic catastrophe in human cancer cells by impairing bipolar spindle assembly. At higher concentration, it alters the interphase microtubule network and suppresses microtubule dynamics. In the presence of nakiterpiosin, microtubules are no longer arranged in a centrosomal array and centrosome-mediated microtubule regrowth after cold depolymerization is inhibited. However, centrosome organization, the ultrastructure of Golgi stacks, and protein secretion are not affected, suggesting that the drug has minimal toxicity toward other cellular functions. Nakiterpiosin interacts directly with tubulin, inhibits microtubule polymerization in vitro, and decreases polymer mass in cells. Furthermore, it enhances tubulin acetylation and reduces viability of paclitaxel-resistant cancer cells. In conclusion, nakiterpiosin exerts antiproliferative activity by perturbing microtubule dynamics during mitosis that activates the spindle assembly checkpoint and triggers cell death. These findings suggest the potential use of nakiterpiosin as a chemotherapeutic agent.
Project description:Proper microtubule organization is essential for cellular processes such as organelle positioning during interphase and spindle formation during mitosis. The fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe presents a good model for understanding microtubule organization. We identify fission yeast ase1p, a member of the conserved ASE1/PRC1/MAP65 family of microtubule bundling proteins, which functions in organizing the spindle midzone during mitosis. Using fluorescence live cell imaging, we show that ase1p localizes to sites of microtubule overlaps associated with microtubule organizing centers at both interphase and mitosis. ase1Delta mutants fail to form overlapping antiparallel microtubule bundles, leading to interphase nuclear positioning defects, and premature mitotic spindle collapse. FRAP analysis revealed that interphase ase1p at overlapping microtubule minus ends is highly dynamic. In contrast, mitotic ase1p at microtubule plus ends at the spindle midzone is more stable. We propose that ase1p functions to organize microtubules into overlapping antiparallel bundles both in interphase and mitosis and that ase1p may be differentially regulated through the cell cycle.
Project description:We have identified a unique human microtubule-associated protein (MAP) named ASAP for ASter-Associated Protein. ASAP localizes to microtubules in interphase, associates with the mitotic spindle during mitosis, localizes to the central body during cytokinesis and directly binds to purified microtubules by its COOH-terminal domain. Overexpression of ASAP induces profound bundling of cytoplasmic microtubules in interphase cells and aberrant monopolar spindles in mitosis. Depletion of ASAP by RNA interference results in severe mitotic defects: it provokes aberrant mitotic spindle, delays mitotic progression, and leads to defective cytokinesis or cell death. These results suggest a crucial role for ASAP in the organization of the bipolar mitotic spindle, mitosis progression, and cytokinesis and define ASAP as a key factor for proper spindle assembly.
Project description:LLCPK-1 cells were transfected with a green fluorescent protein (GFP)-alpha tubulin construct and a cell line permanently expressing GFP-alpha tubulin was established (LLCPK-1alpha). The mitotic index and doubling time for LLCPK-1alpha were not significantly different from parental cells. Quantitative immunoblotting showed that 17% of the tubulin in LLCPK-1alpha cells was GFP-tubulin; the level of unlabeled tubulin was reduced to 82% of that in parental cells. The parameters of microtubule dynamic instability were compared for interphase LLCPK-1alpha and parental cells injected with rhodamine-labeled tubulin. Dynamic instability was very similar in the two cases, demonstrating that LLCPK-1alpha cells are a useful tool for analysis of microtubule dynamics throughout the cell cycle. Comparison of astral microtubule behavior in mitosis with microtubule behavior in interphase demonstrated that the frequency of catastrophe increased twofold and that the frequency of rescue decreased nearly fourfold in mitotic compared with interphase cells. The percentage of time that microtubules spent in an attenuated state, or pause, was also dramatically reduced, from 73.5% in interphase to 11.4% in mitosis. The rates of microtubule elongation and rapid shortening were not changed; overall dynamicity increased 3.6-fold in mitosis. Microtubule release from the centrosome and a subset of differentially stable astral microtubules were also observed. The results provide the first quantitative measurements of mitotic microtubule dynamics in mammalian cells.